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Lloyd Axworthy

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The Honourable
Lloyd Axworthy
PC CC OM
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
January 25, 1996 – October 16, 2000
Prime Minister Jean Chrétien
Preceded by André Ouellet
Succeeded by John Manley
Minister of Employment and Immigration
In office
November 4, 1993 – January 24, 1996
Prime Minister Jean Chrétien
Preceded by Bernard Valcourt
Succeeded by Doug Young
In office
March 3, 1980 – August 11, 1983
Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau
Preceded by Ron Atkey
Succeeded by John Roberts
Minister of Labour
In office
November 4, 1993 – February 21, 1995
Prime Minister Jean Chrétien
Preceded by Bernard Valcourt
Succeeded by Lucienne Robillard
Minister of Transport
In office
August 12, 1983 – September 16, 1984
Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau
John Turner
Preceded by Jean-Luc Pépin
Succeeded by Don Mazankowski
Member of the House of Commons of Canada
In office
November 21, 1988 – November 27, 2000
Preceded by new constituency
Succeeded by Anita Neville
Constituency Winnipeg South Centre
In office
May 22, 1979 – November 21, 1988
Preceded by Sidney Spivak
Succeeded by constituency abolished
Constituency Winnipeg—Fort Garry
Member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
In office
June 28, 1973 – April 6, 1979
Preceded by Inez Trueman
Succeeded by June Westbury
Constituency Fort Rouge
President and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Winnipeg
In office
June 6, 2004 – June 27, 2014
Chancellor Sanford Riley
Bob Silver
Preceded by Patrick Deane (acting)
Succeeded by Annette Trimbee
Personal details
Born Lloyd Norman Axworthy
(1939-12-21) December 21, 1939 (age 76)
North Battleford, Saskatchewan
Political party Liberal
Other political
affiliations
New Democratic Party
Alma mater United College
Princeton University
Occupation Academic, author
Religion United Church of Canada

Lloyd Norman Axworthy, PC CC OM (born December 21, 1939) is a Canadian politician, statesman and academic. He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. Following his retirement from parliament, he served as president and vice-chancellor of the University of Winnipeg from 2004 to 2014 and as chancellor of St. Paul's University College (a constituent institution of the University of Waterloo).

Biography

Axworthy was born in North Battleford, Saskatchewan to parents Norman and Gwen Axworthy and into a family with strong United Church roots, and received his BA from United College, a Winnipeg-based Bible school, in 1961. He is the older brother of Tom Axworthy, Robert Axworthy (former Manitoba Liberal Party leadership candidate). He received his MA and PhD from Princeton University in 1963 and 1972 respectively, returning to Canada to teach at the University of Manitoba and the University of Winnipeg. At the latter, he also became the director of the Institute of Urban Affairs.[1][2] His approach to urban renewal has been described in architectural circles as Gentrification Modernism[3] or post-Dickensianism.[4]

Early political career

Axworthy became involved in politics during the 1950s, becoming a member of the Liberal Party after attending a speech by Lester B. Pearson. He briefly aligned himself with the New Democratic Party (NDP) in the 1960s when Pearson, as federal opposition leader, called for American Bomarc nuclear warheads to be allowed on Canadian soil. He soon returned to the Liberal fold, however, and worked as an executive assistant for John Turner;[citation needed] he supported Turner's bid to become party leader at the 1968 leadership convention.

Axworthy ran for the party in Winnipeg North Centre in the 1968 election, finishing second against veteran NDP Member of Parliament (MP) Stanley Knowles. He first ran for the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba in the 1966 election, placing second to Progressive Conservative Douglas Stanes in St. James. In the 1973 election, he was elected as a Manitoba Liberal in Fort Rouge, He was re-elected in the 1977 election, and was the only Liberal in the legislature from 1977 to 1979.

Federal government

He resigned from the Manitoba legislature on April 6, 1979 to run for the federal House of Commons, and in the 1979 election narrowly defeated former provincial PC leader Sidney Spivak in Winnipeg—Fort Garry. He was re-elected in the 1980 election, becoming the only Liberal MP west of Ontario. He was promoted to cabinet under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, serving as Minister of Employment and Immigration, and then as Minister of Transport.

In the Liberal defeat in the 1984 election, Axworthy was one of only two Liberals west of Ontario to be elected (the other being then Liberal leader John Turner). Axworthy played a role in opposition, supporting tough on crime policies, but also supporting fiscal conservatism by critiquing the fiscal taxation policy of Brian Mulroney. He was an especially vocal critic of the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement, and countenanced Canadian paternalism in international trade.

When the Liberals returned to power in 1993 under Jean Chrétien, Axworthy became a Cabinet minister. After the election, he was given responsibility for the Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), and launched changes in employment insurance. Although his main interest was urban renewal,in a 1996 cabinet shuffle, he became Minister of Foreign Affairs.

His inexperience in international affairs was reflected in a idealist focus which ignored the centrality of deterrence, led to conflicts with the US Clinton Administration, and gave short shrift to global instabilities and threats, particularly emerging Middle East terrorism. Instead, Axworthy invested in efforts in high-profile utopian projects, such as the NGO-led controversial Ottawa Treaty that seeks to ban anti-personnel land mines (a project opposed by the US on security grounds). (Human Rights Watch, a leader of the landmine treaty campaign, rewarded Axworthy by appointing him to their international board.)

In February 1999 and April 2000, Axworthy was President of the United Nations Security Council with Canada's Ambassador to the UN Robert Fowler. In April 2000, Axworthy supported the highly controversial effort to reduce the sanction against Iraq, under the regime of Saddam Hussein, citing a humanitarian explanation "to avoid making ordinary citizens pay for the actions of their leaders." Axworthy clashed with the US government on this issue, particularly over the lack of alternative options to deter the regime from additional aggression.[5]

Honours and awards

In 1997, Axworthy was nominated by United States Senator Patrick Leahy to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on banning land mines.[1]. He did not win, but was thanked by the recipients, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, as having been instrumental in their effort.[6] Critics, however, viewed Axworthy's land mine campaign and the involvement of political NGOs as counter-productive, since many key nations, including the US, Russia and China did not join.[7]

In 1998 he was one of the two winners of the North–South Prize.[8] In 2003, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada[9] and elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[10]

On October 15, 2012, Elder, Dr. Tobasonakwut Kinew and, Dr. Phil Fontaine, honoured Axworthy - Waapshki Pinaysee Inini, Free Range Frog Man, at a sacred Pipe Ceremony.[11] Axworthy was recognized for his commitment to creating an inclusive learning experience that reflects Indigenous cultures and traditions at UWinnipeg. The ceremony was led by Anishinaabe Elder Fred Kelly and musician and broadcaster Wab Kinew.[12]

Axworthy was presented with an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Environment of the University of Waterloo in October 2014.[13]

In December 30, 2015, Axworthy was promoted to Companion of the Order of Canada, the highest grade of the honour.[14]

After politics

In September 2000, Axworthy returned to academia, joining the Liu Institute for Global Issues at the University of British Columbia. He has published Navigating A New World, a book on the uses of "soft power".

In May 2004, he was appointed as president and vice-chancellor of the University of Winnipeg. He retired in June 2014.

Axworthy is Chair of the Advisory Committee for the Americas Division of Human Rights Watch, a highly controversial position resulting from this organisation's record of political bias, fundraising in Saudi Arabia, and lack of credibility.[2] He also serves on the advisory council of USC Center on Public Diplomacy and of Fair Vote Canada, and is an endorser of the Genocide Intervention Network and International Student Exchange, Ontario.

In 2006, Axworthy was elected to the Board of Directors of Hudbay Minerals, Inc.[15]

He currently serves as the President of the World Federalist Movement-Institute for Global Policy.[16]

Axworthy was installed as Chancellor of St. Paul's University College, a constituent institution of the University of Waterloo, in October 2014.[13]

Publications

  • Navigating a New World, Knopf Canada Publishing, 2004
  • Liberals at the Border, University of Toronto Press, 2004
  • The Axworthy Legacy, Edited by O. Hampson, N. Hillmer, M. Appel Molot, Oxford University Press, 2001
  • Boulevard of Broken Dreams: A 40 Year Journey through Portage Avenue - Displacement, Dislocation, and How Osmosis Can Resolve Community Blight', Rattray Canada Publishing, 2014 (In Press)

References

  1. ^ https://www.uwinnipeg.ca/index/foundation-capital-projects
  2. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/historic-roller-skating-rink-prepares-for-final-lap-1.690881
  3. ^ http://english.fju.edu.tw/lctd/asp/theory/theory_works/46/references.htm
  4. ^ http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1378&context=ulj
  5. ^ "MPs urge lifting sanctions to halt Iraq `tragedy': Toronto Star". www.dgp.toronto.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-02. 
  6. ^ The Norwegian Nobel Institute
  7. ^ Davenport, David (December 1, 2002). "The New Diplomacy". Policy Review. 
  8. ^ "The North South Prize of Lisbon". North-South Centre. Council of Europe. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved January 21, 2008. 
  9. ^ "Order of Canada Lloyd Axworthy". Office of the Governor General of Canada. Retrieved April 5, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 28, 2011. 
  11. ^ Video on YouTube
  12. ^ http://www.uwinnipeg.ca/index/uw-news-action/story.892/title.axworthy-honoured-at-sacred-pipe-ceremony
  13. ^ a b "Lloyd Axworthy to be installed as first chancellor of St. Paul's today". St. Paul's University College. 24 October 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  14. ^ "Order of Canada Appointments". The Governor General of Canada His Excellency the Right Honourable David Johnston. Governor General of Canada. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  15. ^ http://www.hudbayminerals.com/English/Media-Centre/News-Releases/News-Release-Details/2006/Dr-Lloyd-Axworthy-and-John-H-Bowles-Elected-to-Hudbay-Board-of-Directors/default.aspx
  16. ^ http://www.wfm-igp.org/content/president

External links

26th Ministry – Cabinet of Jean Chrétien
Cabinet Posts (4)
Predecessor Office Successor
André Ouellet Minister of Foreign Affairs
1996–2000
John Manley
Larry Schneider Minister of Western Economic Diversification
1993–1996
John Manley
Bernard Valcourt Minister of Employment and Immigration
1993–1996
styled as
Minister of Human Resources Development
Doug Young
Bernard Valcourt Minister of Labour
1993–1995
styled as
Minister of Human Resources Development
Lucienne Robillard
23rd Ministry – Cabinet of John Turner
Cabinet Post (1)
Predecessor Office Successor
cont'd from 22nd Min. Minister of Transport
1984
Don Mazankowski
22nd Ministry – Second cabinet of Pierre Trudeau
Cabinet Posts (2)
Predecessor Office Successor
Jean-Luc Pépin Minister of Transport
1983–1984
cont'd into 23rd Min.
Ron Atkey Minister of Employment and Immigration
1980–1983
John Roberts
Special Cabinet Responsibilities
Predecessor Title Successor
David MacDonald Minister responsible for the Status of Women
1980–1981
Judy Erola
Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
Preceded by
Inez Trueman
Member of the Legislative Assembly for Fort Rouge
1973–1979
Succeeded by
June Westbury
Parliament of Canada
Preceded by
Sidney Spivak
Member of Parliament for Winnipeg—Fort Garry
1979–1988
Succeeded by
This electoral district was abolished in 1987
Preceded by
This electoral district was created in 1987
Member of Parliament for Winnipeg South Centre
1988–2000
Succeeded by
Anita Neville
Academic offices
Preceded by
Patrick Deane (acting)
President of the University of Winnipeg
June 6, 2004 – June 27, 2014
Succeeded by
Annette Trimbee
New office Chancellor of St. Paul's University College
October 24, 2014
Incumbent