Lo-fi (originally typeset as low-fi [from the term "low fidelity"] and alternately called DIY [from "do it yourself"]) is an aesthetic of recorded music in which the sound quality is lower than the usual contemporary standards, in which musicians record at home rather than a traditional studio space, or which highlights imperfections of the recording for artistic effect. Since the 1980s, it has been variously connoted with cassette culture, the DIY ethos of punk, indie rock, primitivism, outsider music, authenticity, slacker/Generation X stereotypes, and cultural nostalgia.
The term originally referred to a loosely related contingent of punk-rooted artists who recorded tracks at home with cheap equipment. Its usage was popularized in late 1986 by WFMU DJ William Berger, who dedicated a weekly half-hour segment of his program to home-recorded music under the name Low-Fi, although the term did not gain mainstream currency until the 1990s. In the late 2000s, lo-fi aesthetics served as the basis of the chillwave and hypnagogic pop music genres.
The definition of "lo-fi" evolved continuously between the 1970s and 2000s; the term was first included in the 1976 edition of the Oxford Dictionary under the definition "sound production less good in quality than 'hi-fi.'" It was usually spelled as "low-fi" before the 1990s. In 2003, the Oxford Dictionary added a second definition to "lo-fi": "a genre of rock music characterized by minimal production, giving a raw and unsophisticated sound," a reflection of the connotations "lo-fi" had received since the 1990s. A third was added five years later: "unpolished, amateurish, or technologically unsophisticated, esp. as a deliberate aesthetic choice."
Over the decades, there was an increasing tendency to group all home-recorded music under the umbrella of "lo-fi". After the 1990s, "DIY" (from "do it yourself") was often used interchangeably with "lo-fi". By the 2010s, journalists would indiscriminately apply the term "bedroom pop" for any music that sounded "fuzzy". In 2017, About.com's Anthony Carew argued that the term "lo-fi" was commonly misused, and that "if it sounds like it's recorded onto a broken answering-machine, it's lo-fi. If a band spent six weeks in a studio with a producer who used words like 'warm' and 'punchy,' it's not."
Origins and precursors
AllMusic writes: "Throughout rock & roll's history, recordings were made cheaply and quickly, often on substandard equipment. In that sense, the earliest rock & roll records, most of the garage rock of the '60s, and much of the punk rock of the late '70s could be tagged as Lo-Fi." The Beach Boys' albums Smiley Smile (1967), Wild Honey (1967), and Friends (1968) were a trilogy of lo-fi albums recorded mostly in Brian Wilson's makeshift home studio; the albums were later referred to as components of his "Bedroom Tapes". Pitchfork writer Mark Richardson credited Smiley Smile with "basically invent[ing] the kind of lo-fi bedroom pop that would later propel Sebadoh, Animal Collective, and other characters." In the early 1970s, there were a few major recording artists who released music recorded with portable multi-tracking equipment; examples included Paul McCartney (McCartney, 1970) and Todd Rundgren (Something/Anything?, 1972). Pitchfork's Sam Sodsky noted in his review of Rundgren's A Wizard, a True Star (1973) that the album's "fingerprints are evident on bedroom auteurs to this day ".
JW Farquhar's home-recorded 1973 album The Formal Female, according to critic Ned Raggett, was a "forerunner" to "any number of" independent lo-fi artists, including R. Stevie Moore and Jandek. Since 1968, Moore had been recording full-length albums on reel-to-reel tape in his parents' basement in Tennessee, but it was not until 1976's Phonography that any of his recordings were issued on an outside label. Matthew Ingram of The Wire wrote that "Moore might not have been the first rock musician to go entirely solo, recording every part from drums to guitar ... However, he was the first to explicitly aestheticize the home recording process itself. ... making him the great-grandfather of lo-fi." Asked if he supported the "DIY/lo-fi pioneer label", Moore answered: "I agree that I am or should be recognized as a pioneer, but that's mainly just happenstance, the fact that I was doing it so long ago, before it was such a popular modus operandi. ... I definitely had no 'plan' to rush and become known as the very first modern DIY pioneer."
1980s: Cassette culture
With the emergence of punk rock and new wave in the late 1970s, certain sectors of popular music began to espouse a then-novel "do-it-yourself" (DIY) ethos that heralded a wave of independent labels, distribution networks, fanzines, and recording studios. In 1979, Tascam introduced the Portastudio, the first portable multi-track recorder of its kind to incorporate an "all-in-one" approach to overdubbing, mixing, and bouncing. This technology allowed a broad range of musicians from underground circles to build fan bases through the dissemination of their cassette tapes. Music critic Richie Unterberger cited Moore as "one of the most famous" of the "few artists in cassetteland [that] established a reputation, if even a cult one."
From 1979 until the early 1980s, Moore was a staff member on the New Jersey-based independent radio station WFMU, where he hosted a weekly "Bedroom Radio" show. Whomever popularized the use of "lo-fi" cannot be determined definitively. Generally, the term's popularization is credited to William Berger's weekly half-hour radio show on WFMU, titled "Low-Fi", which ran from 1986 to 1987. The program contents were comprised entirely of contributions solicited via mail. Carew wrote that its dedication to "the disparate strands of underground cassette-culture" helped establish lo-fi as a "singular movement." As a result, lo-fi "became an extension of the punk-rock spirit, a liberating way of working for those who didn’t have the cash to sink into professional recordings. ... DIY at its best." Similar followings were cultivated among DIY cassette-trading hip-hop and hardcore punk acts.
Lo-fi musicians and fans were predominantly white, male and middle-class, and while most of the critical discourse interested in lo-fi was based in New York or London, the musicians themselves were largely from lesser metropolitan areas of the US. Throughout the 1980s, the indie rock spheres of the American underground (bands such as R.E.M.), along with some British post-punk, were the most prominent exports of lo-fi music. According to AllMusic, the stylistic variety of their tapes often "fluctuated from simple pop and rock songs to free-form song structures to pure noise and arty experimentalism." One of the most recognizable bands was Beat Happening (1984–1992) from K Records, an influential indie pop label. They were rarely known as a "lo-fi" group during their active years, and were only noted for their pioneering role in the movement after the term's definition evolved in the mid 1990s.
Coinciding with the above was WFMU DJ Irwin Chusid's invention of the "outsider music" category—much of it overlapping with lo-fi—which he championed in the 1980s. By the end of the decade, qualities such as "home-recorded," "technically primitive," and "inexpensive equipment" were commonly associated with the "lo-fi" label. Before the 1990s, there was virtually no appreciation for the imperfections of lo-fi music among critics, but this changed after the emergence of a romanticism for home-recording and DIY qualities. Academic Adam Harper credited Daniel Johnston and Jandek with "form[ing] a bridge between 1980s primitivism and the lo-fi indie rock of the 1990s. ... both musicians introduced the notion that lo-fi was not just acceptable but the special context of some extraordinary and brilliant musicians."
1990s: Indie rock
During the 1990s, the media's usage of the word "indie" evolved from music "produced away from the music industry's largest record labels" to a particular style of rock or pop music viewed in the US as the "alternative to 'alternative'". Following the success of Nirvana's Nevermind (1991), alternative rock became a cultural talking point, and subsequently, the concept of a lo-fi movement coalesced between 1992 and 1994. Centered on artists such as Guided by Voices, Sebadoh, Beck, and Pavement, most of the writing about alternative and lo-fi aligned it with Generation X and the "slacker" stereotype that originated from Douglas Coupland's novel Generation X and Richard Linklater's film Slacker (both released 1991). Some of the delineation between grunge and lo-fi came with respect to the music's "authenticity". Even though Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain was well known for being fond of Johnston, K Records, and the Shaggs, there was a faction of indie rock that viewed grunge as a sell-out genre, believing that the imperfections of lo-fi was what gave the music its authenticity.
In April 1993, the term "lo-fi" gained mainstream currency after it was featured as a headline in the New York Times. The most widely-read article was published by the same paper in August 1994 with the headline "Lo-Fi Rockers Opt for Raw Over Slick". In contrast to a similar story ran in the paper seven years earlier, which never deployed "lo-fi" in the context of an unprofessional recording, writer Matt Deihl conflated "lo-fi" with "DIY" and "a rough sound quality". The main focus in the piece was Beck and Guided by Voices, who recently become popular acts in the indie rock subculture. Beck, whose 1994 single "Loser" was recorded in a kitchen and reached the Billboard top 10, ultimately became the most recognizable artist associated with the "lo-fi" tag. As a response to the "lo-fi" label, Guided by Voices bandleader Robert Pollard denied having any association to its supposed movement. He said that although the band was being "championed as the pioneers of the lo-fi movement," he was not familiar with the term, and explained that "[a] lot of people were picking up [Tascam] machines at the time ... Using a four-track became common enough that they had to find a category for it: DIY, lo-fi, whatever."
Writing in the book Hop on Pop (2003), Tony Grajeda said that by 1995, Rolling Stone magazine "managed to label every other band it featured in the first half [of the year] as somehow lo-fi." One journalist in Spin credited Sebadoh's Sebadoh III (1991) with "inventing" lo-fi, characterizing the genre as "the soft rock of punk". At the time, music critic Simon Reynolds interpreted the seeming-movement as a reaction against grunge music, "and a weak one, since lo-fi is just grunge with even grungier production values." In turn, he said, lo-fi inspired its own reaction in the form of "post-rock". A reaction against both grunge and lo-fi, according to AllMusic, was chamber pop, which drew heavily from the rich orchestrations of Brian Wilson, Burt Bacharach, and Lee Hazlewood. Grajeda noted a pattern where every time "lo-fi" was covered by the media, the article "never fails to point out the increasing attention lo-fi receives in the media, while simultaneously failing to acknowledge their own role in contributing to the development of that trend."
During the 1990s, several books were published that helped to "canonize" lo-fi acts, usually by comparing them favorably to older musicians. For example, Rolling Stone's Alt-Rock-a-Rama (1995) contained a chapter titled "The Lo-Fi Top 10", which mentioned Hasil Adkins, the Velvet Underground, Half Japanese, Billy Childish, Beat Happening, Royal Trux, Sebadoh, Liz Phair, Guided By Voices, Daniel Johnston, Beck and Pavement. Richie Unterberger's Unknown Legends of Rock 'n' Roll: Psychedelic Unknowns, Mad Geniuses, Punk Pioneers, Lo-Fi Mavericks & More and "the community of like-minded critics and fans surrounding him" were especially pivotal in establishing modern notions of the lo-fi aesthetic. According to Adam Harper: "In short, Unknown Legends bridges the interests of the [1980s] and the [Cassette Culture] Generation and those of [the 2000s], providing an early sketch, a portent – a 'leftfield blueprint', perhaps – of 00s movements like hauntology and hypnagogic pop". Elsewhere, the tag was extended to acts such as Daniel Johnston, the Mountain Goats, Nothing Painted Blue, Refrigerator, Chris Knox, Alastair Galbraith, and Lou Barlow. "Other significant artists often aligned with 1990s lo-fi," Harper wrote, "such as Ween, the Grifters, Silver Jews, Liz Phair, Smog, Superchunk, Portastatic and Royal Trux have been largely omitted owing either to the comparative paucity of their reception or to its lesser relevance to lo-fi aesthetics."
2000s–2010s: Hypnagogic pop and chillwave
From the late 1990s to 2000s, "lo-fi" was ingratiated into regular indie discourse, where it mostly lost its connotations as an indie rock subcategory evoking "the slacker generation", "looseness", or "self-consciousness". Pitchfork and The Wire became the leading publications on music, while blogs and smaller websites took on the role previously occupied by fanzines. Many of the prominent lo-fi acts of the 1990s adapted their sound to more professional standards and "bedroom" musicians began looking toward vintage equipment as a way to achieve an authentic lo-fi aesthetic, mirroring a similar trend in the 1990s concerning the revival of 1960s space age pop and analog synthesizers. Moore was also increasingly cited by emerging lo-fi acts as a primary influence. When a 2006 New York Times article referenced Moore as the progenitor of "bedroom pop", he responded that the notion was "hilarious to me. I guess ... because of my bitter struggle to make a living and get some notoriety, I scoff at it." Moore's most vocal advocate, Ariel Pink, had read Unknown Legends, and later recorded a cover version of one of the tracks included in a CD that came with the book ("Bright Lit Blue Skies").
At the time of Ariel Pink's 2004 label debut, he was viewed as a novelty act, as they were virtually no other contemporary indie acts with a similar retro lo-fi sound. Up until this point, lo-fi artists had rejected the influence of 1980s pop radio that informed most of his sound. Afterward, a type of music dubbed "hypnagogic pop" emerged among lo-fi and post-noise musicians who engaged with elements of cultural nostalgia, childhood memory, and outdated recording technology. The label was invented by journalist David Keenan in an August 2009 piece for The Wire, which included Pink among his examples. Simon Reynolds soon adopted the term and cited Pink, along with Spencer Clark and James Ferraro, as the "godparents of hypnagogic". Pink was also frequently referred to as the "godfather" of chillwave or glo-fi (both were then-interchangeable with "hypnagogic pop") as new acts that were associated with him (aesthetically, personally, geographically, or professionally) attracted notice from critics. Jeff Weiss of Pitchfork posited that his album The Doldrums "inspired chillwave and a lo-fi revival, as well as alter[ed] the perception of L.A. as an indie-rock backwater." Reflecting on the state of indie music in 2013, Adam Harper wrote that that there was a growing tendency among Reynolds and other critics to overestimate Pink's influence by failing to acknowledge significant lo-fi predecessors such as R. Stevie Moore and the Cleaners from Venus' Martin Newell.
- Harper, Adam (2014). Lo-Fi Aesthetics in Popular Music Discourse (PDF). Wadham College. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- Carew, Anthony (March 8, 2017). "Genre Profile - Lo-Fi". About.com Guide.
- Berger, William. "Shit From an Old Cardboard Box, incl. Uncle Wiggly Tour Diary". WFMU's Beware of the Blog. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
- Harper 2014, p. 11.
- Harper 2014, p. 7.
- Harper 2014, p. 47.
- Harper 2014, pp. 44, 117.
- Adams, Sean (January 22, 2015). "The DiS Class of 2015". Drowned in Sound.
- "Lo-Fi". AllMusic.
- Chidester, Brian (March 7, 2014). "Busy Doin' Somethin': Uncovering Brian Wilson's Lost Bedroom Tapes". Paste. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- "The 200 Best Albums of the 1960s". Pitchfork. August 22, 2017.
- Simons, Dace (September 15, 2006). "Tips from the Top: The Making of Todd Rundgren's 'Something/Anything?'".
- Sodomsky, Sam (January 20, 2018). "Todd Rundgren: A Wizard, a True Star". Pitchfork.
- Raggett, Ned. "JW Farquhar - The Formal Female". Allmusic. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- Ingram, Matthew (June 2012). "Here Comes the Flood". The Wire. No. 340.
- Stevens, Andrew (December 13, 2006). "extreme stylistic variety". 3:AM Magazine.
- Unterberger, Richie (1999). "Cassette Culture". AllMusic.
- Harper, Adam (April 23, 2014). "Essay: Shades of Ariel Pink". Dummy Mag.
- Mantie, Roger; Smith, Gareth Dylan, eds. (2017). The Oxford Handbook of Music Making and Leisure. Oxford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-19-024470-5.
- Harper 2014, p. 10.
- Harper 2014, pp. 33–34.
- Harper 2014, p. 246.
- Harper 2014, p. 48.
- Harper 2014, pp. 3–4, 10.
- Harper 2014, p. 180.
- Harper 2014, p. 44.
- Harper 2014, pp. 36–39.
- Harper 2014, pp. 273–274, 294.
- Harper 2014, p. 307.
- Jenkins III, Henry; Shattuc, Jane; McPherson, Tara, eds. (2003). Hop on Pop: The Politics and Pleasures of Popular Culture. Duke University Press. pp. 357–367. ISBN 0-8223-8350-0.
- Harper 2014, p. 273.
- Harper 2014, pp. 276, 283.
- Woodworth, Marc (2006). Guided By Voices' Bee Thousand. A&C Black. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-8264-1748-0.
- Harper 2014, p. 295.
- "Chamber pop". AllMusic.
- Harper 2014, p. 46.
- Harper 2014, p. 316.
- Harper 2014, p. 318.
- Noisey Staff (August 18, 2016). "Bedroom Cassette Masters Want That Lo-Fi Electronica Your Uncle Graham Recorded Back in 1984". Vice.
- Mason, Stewart (n.d.). "R. Stevie Moore". AllMusic.
- LaGorce, Tammy (May 21, 2006). "In Their Rooms, Shrinking Violets Sing". The New York Times.
- Reynolds, Simon (June 6, 2010). "Ariel Pink". The Los Angeles Times.
- Keenan, Dave (August 2009). "Childhood's End". The Wire (306).
- Reynolds, Simon (2011). Retromania: Pop Culture's Addiction to Its Own Past. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 348–349. ISBN 978-1-4299-6858-4.
- Harper 2014, pp. 334, 338.
- Weiss, Jeff (November 18, 2014). "Pom Pom". Pitchfork.
- Spencer, Amy (2005). DIY: The Rise of Lo-fi Culture. Marion Boyars. ISBN 978-0-7145-3105-2.
- Taylor, Steve (2006). The A to X of Alternative Music. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-8264-8217-4.
- Unterberger, Richie (1998). Unknown Legends of Rock 'n' Roll: Psychedelic Unknowns, Mad Geniuses, Punk Pioneers, Lo-Fi Mavericks & More. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-1-61774-469-3.