Lobelia inflata, also known as Indian tobacco or puke weed, is a species of Lobelia native to eastern North America, from southeastern Canada (Nova Scotia to southeast Ontario) south through the eastern United States to Alabama and west to Kansas.
Lobelia inflata is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant growing to 15–100 cm (5.9–39.4 in) tall, with stems covered in tiny hairs. Its leaves are usually about 8 cm (3.1 in) long, and are ovate and toothed. They are alternately arranged. It has violet flowers that are tinted yellow on the inside, and usually appear in mid-summer and continue to bloom into fall. The seedcases are small, brown, dehiscent, and papery.
Propagation is usually accomplished by cuttings or seed. Seeds are sown in containers in mid spring or mid fall. The seeds take about 2 weeks to germinate.
Traditional uses and adverse effects
Lobelia inflata has a long use as a medicinal plant as an entheogenic, emetic, and skin or respiratory aid. Native Americans used it for respiratory and muscle disorders, as a purgative, and as a ceremonial medicine. The leaves were chewed and smoked. The plant was used as a traditional medicinal plant by the Cherokee, Iroquois, Penobscot, and other indigenous peoples. The foliage was burned by the Cherokee as a natural insecticide, to smoke out gnats.
Although it may be used medicinally, consuming lobelia causes adverse effects, which may include sweating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, rapid heartbeat, mental confusion, convulsions, hypothermia, coma, or possibly death. The root is toxic and can be fatal if eaten.
Lobelia inflata contains multiple alkaloid compounds, including lobeline, norlobelanine, lobelanidine, and radicamine, among other compounds, such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkynes, and coumarins. Lobeline concentration is highest in the seeds.
- ^ Franz Eugen Köhler, 1897, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
- ^ "Lobelia inflata". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2009-04-09.
- ^ Caldecott, T. Western Materia Medica: Lobelia inflata (pdf file)[permanent dead link]
- ^ "Some Call Them Weeds". 2016-01-02.
- ^ a b c d e f "Lobelia". Drugs.com. 21 April 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- ^ a b c d University of Michigan at Dearborn: Native American Ethnobotany of Lobelia inflata
- ^ a b Niering, William A.; Olmstead, Nancy C. (1985) . The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Eastern Region. Knopf. p. 441. ISBN 0-394-50432-1.
- ^ "Lobelia". EBSCO Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Review Board. January 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- ^ "Lobelia". University of Maryland Medical Center. Archived from the original on 2017-06-29.
It can cause serious side effects, such as profuse sweating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, rapid heartbeat, mental confusion, convulsions, hypothermia, coma, and possibly even death.
- ^ Kursinszki, László; Szőke, Éva (2015). "HPLC-ESI-MS/MS of brain neurotransmitter modulator lobeline and related piperidine alkaloids in Lobelia inflataL". Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 50 (5): 727–33. Bibcode:2015JMSp...50..727K. doi:10.1002/jms.3581. PMID 26259655.
- ^ "Taxon: Lobelia inflata L." National Plant Germplasm System.
- Flora of Eastern Canada
- Flora of the Northeastern United States
- Flora of the North-Central United States
- Flora of the Southeastern United States
- Flora of the Appalachian Mountains
- Flora of the Great Lakes region (North America)
- Plants used in traditional Native American medicine
- Plants described in 1753
- Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus