Localized surface plasmon

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A localized surface plasmon (LSP) is the result of the confinement of a surface plasmon in a nanoparticle of size comparable to or smaller than the wavelength of light used to excite the plasmon. The LSP has two important effects: electric fields near the particle’s surface are greatly enhanced and the particle’s optical absorption has a maximum at the plasmon resonant frequency. The enhancement falls off quickly with distance from the surface and, for noble metal nanoparticles, the resonance occurs at visible wavelengths.[1] For semiconductor nanoparticles, the maximum optical absorption is often in the near-infrared and mid-infrared region.[2][3]


The plasmon resonant frequency is highly sensitive to the refractive index of the environment; a change in refractive index results in a shift in the resonant frequency. As the resonant frequency is easy to measure, this allows LSP nanoparticles to be used for nanoscale sensing applications.[4] Nanostructures exhibiting LSP resonances are used to enhance signals in modern analytical techniques based on spectroscopy.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Rycenga, Matthew; Cobley, Claire M.; Zeng, Jie; Li, Weiyang; Moran, Christine H.; Zhang, Qiang; Qin, Dong; Xia, Younan (2011). "Controlling the Synthesis and Assembly of Silver Nanostructures for Plasmonic Applications". Chem. Rev. 111: 3669–3712. doi:10.1021/cr100275d. 
  2. ^ Liu, Xin; Swihart, Mark T. (2014). "Heavily-doped colloidal semiconductor and metal oxide nanocrystals: an emerging new class of plasmonic nanomaterials". Chem. Soc. Rev. 43: 3908–3920. doi:10.1039/c3cs60417a. 
  3. ^ Zhou, Shu; Pi, Xiaodong; Ni, Zhenyi; Ding, Yi; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Delerue, Christophe; Yang, Deren; Nozaki, Tomohiro (2015). "Comparative study on the localized surface plasmon resonance of boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals". ACS Nano. 9: 378–386. doi:10.1021/nn505416r. 
  4. ^ Mayer, Kathryn M.; Hafner, Jason H. (2011). "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors". Chemical Reviews. Plasmonics (111): 3828–3857. doi:10.1021/cr100313v.