Lockheed Model 10 Electra
|Model 10 Electra|
|Amelia Earhart's modified Electra 10E|
|First flight||23 February 1934|
|Developed from||Lockheed Model 9 Orion|
|Developed into||Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior
Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra
The Lockheed Model 10 Electra is an American twin-engine, all-metal monoplane airliner developed by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in the 1930s to compete with the Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2. The type gained considerable fame as one was flown by Amelia Earhart on her ill-fated around-the-world expedition in 1937.
Design and development
Some of Lockheed's wooden designs, such as the Orion, had been built by Detroit Aircraft Corporation with metal fuselages. However, the Electra was Lockheed's first all-metal and twin-engine design by Lloyd Stearman and Hall Hibbard. The name Electra came from a star in the Pleiades. The prototype made its first flight on February 23, 1934 with Marshall Headle at the controls.
Wind tunnel work on the Electra was undertaken at the University of Michigan. Much of the work was performed by a student assistant, Clarence Johnson. He suggested two changes be made to the design: changing the single tail to double tails (later a Lockheed trademark), and deleting oversized wing fillets. Both of these suggestions were incorporated into production aircraft. Upon receiving his master's degree, Johnson joined Lockheed as a regular employee, ultimately leading the Skunk Works in developing advanced aircraft such as the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird.
The Lockheed Electra was one of the first commercial passenger aircraft to come equipped with mudguards as standard equipment. Before the Electra, only aircraft with fixed landing gear had mudguards.
After October 1934 when the US government banned single-engined aircraft for use in carrying passengers or in night flying, Lockheed was perfectly placed in the market with its new Model 10 Electra. In addition to deliveries to US based airlines, several European operators added Electras to their prewar fleets. In Latin America, the first airline to use Electras was Cubana de Aviación, starting in 1935, for its domestic routes.
Besides airline orders, a number of non-commercial civil operators also purchased the new Model 10. In May 1937, H.T. "Dick" Merrill and J.S. Lambie accomplished a round-trip crossing of the Atlantic Ocean. The feat was declared the first round-trip commercial crossing of that ocean by any aircraft. It won them the Harmon Trophy. On the eastbound trip, they carried newsreels of the crash of the Hindenburg, and on the return trip from the United Kingdom, they brought photographs of the coronation of King George VI. Bata Shoes operated the Model 10 to ferry its executives between their European factories.
Probably the most famous use of the Electra was the highly modified Model 10E flown by aviatrix Amelia Earhart. In July 1937, she disappeared in her Electra during an attempted round-the-world flight.
Many Electras and their design descendants (the Model 12 Electra Junior and Model 14 Super Electra) were pressed into military service during World War II, for instance the USAAF's C-36. By the end of the war, the Electra design was obsolete, although many smaller airlines and charter services continued to operate Electras into the 1970s.
The Electra was produced in several variants, for both civilian and military customers. Lockheed built a total of 149 Electras.
- Electra 10-A
- Powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior SB, 450 hp (336 kW) each; 101 produced.
- Three built for the U.S. Army Air Corps as Y1C-36, redesignated as C-36 in 1938 and as UC-36 in 1943.
- Fifteen impressed by the U.S. Army Air Forces as C-36A, redesignated as UC-36A in 1943.
- One built as XR2O-1 for the U.S. Secretary of the Navy.
- One built as Y1C-37 for the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, redesignated as C-37 in 1938 and as UC-37 in 1943.
- Electra 10-B
- Powered by Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind, 440 hp (340 kW) each; 18 produced
- Electra 10-C
- Powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp SC1, 450 hp (336 kW) each; eight produced for Pan American Airways.
- Electra 10-D
- Proposed military transport version; none built.
- Electra 10-E
- Powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp S3H1, 600 hp (450 kW) each; 15 produced. The version used by Amelia Earhart.
- Five impressed by the U.S. Army Air Forces as C-36B, redesignated as UC-36B in 1943.
- Experimental pressurized research model powered by turbocharged Pratt & Whitney XR-1340-43, 550 hp (410 kW) each. The one production model was tested for the War Department by Lieutenant Benjamin S. Kelsey. For this work, the Army Air Corps was awarded the 1937 Collier Trophy.
- Lockheed KXL1
- A single Lockheed Model 10 Electra supplied to the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for evaluation.
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Canada is the home of two Model 10As. The first aircraft in the Air Canada (then called Trans-Canada Air Lines) fleet was an Electra 10A, "TCA." Two Electras were delivered to Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA) in 1937. They were based in Winnipeg and used for pilot training. Trans-Canada Air Lines ordered three more for transcontinental service; "CF-TCC" was one of those three. These former TCA machines and other 10As were acquired by the RCAF during Second World War, and later sold to private operators.
- TCA survived into the 1960s when Ann Pellegreno between June 7 and July 10, 1967 flew TCA on a round-the-world flight to commemorate Amelia Earhart's last flight in 1937. The Canada Aviation Museum acquired this aircraft after the commemorative flight. Manufactured in 1937, the museum example was the first new aircraft purchased by Trans-Canada Air Lines and served with the company until transferred to the RCAF in 1939. Sold in 1941 to a private operator, it was flown until 1967 by various owners. Air Canada restored the aircraft in 1968 and donated it to the museum.
- TCC was another former Trans-Canada Air Lines original. CF-TCC was found in Florida by a vacationing Air Canada employee in the early 1980s. Arrangements were made for it to be brought back to Winnipeg where it was restored. It was flown across Canada in 1987 to commemorate Air Canada's 50th Anniversary. Air Canada maintains the aircraft and uses it to promote the airline. The aircraft was placed on display at Expo 86 after recreating the original TCA cross-country flight in 1937 and continues to be displayed at air shows and conferences. In 2006, it was flown from Toronto to Washington DC for the annual Airliners International show. For most of the year, TCC resides at the Western Canada Aviation Museum where it is one of the feature aircraft displayed.
Two Model 10 Electras are also preserved in New Zealand's Museum of Transport and Technology at Auckland. Another Auckland-based Electra, owned by Kaipara Aviation Trust, is under restoration to flying condition.
A military version designated as UC-36A Electra (s/n 43-56638, civilian registration N4963C) is on display at the Pima Air and Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona. Another military version designated AC-35 Electra is on display at the Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum in Chantilly, Virginia.
Electra 10A, Serial no. 1037, built in 1935, is on display in London's Science Museum in the Making the Modern World gallery.
Electra 10A, serial no. 1052 is undergoing final restoration while on display at the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Although originally the U.S. Navy's XR2O-1 (BuNo 0267), it is painted in Northwest Airlines colors. At one point it was intended to use this machine for a recreation of the Earhart flight but it required too much work.
N38BB is on display at Oakland Aviation Museum in Oakland, CA and is scheduled for restoration in the near future. This aircraft was originally supposed to be restored and cast for a role in an Amelia Earhart movie but a deal could not be made with producers and a Lockheed 12 was used instead. N38BB was formerly N38PB operated by Provincetown-Boston Airlines.
Electra 10-A serial no. 1091, OK-CTB, was one of two owned by Bata Shoe Co. in Prague, Czechoslovakia before WWII. At the outbreak of WWII it was evacuated to England, and onward to Canada where it served with the RCAF. After a succession of US owners, it was eventually reacquired by Bata Shoe, and fully restored by Wichita Air Services in Newton, KS. Wearing its original colors and registration marks, it was ferried back to Prague in May 2015. It is in the private museum at Točná Airport owned by Ivo Lukačovič.
Electra 10-E Special serial no. 3501, the XC-35 is currently in storage in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum.
Electra 10-E "Muriel" was delivered to Atchison in August 2016 and will be placed on display by the Amelia Earhart Foundation.
Specifications (Electra 10A)
- Crew: two
- Capacity: ten passengers
- Length: 38 ft 7 in (11.8 m)
- Wingspan: 55 ft 0 in (16.8 m)
- Height: 10 ft 1 in (3.1 m)
- Wing area: 458 ft² (42.6 m²)
- Empty weight: 6,454 lb (2,930 kg)
- Loaded weight: 10,500 lb (4,760 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior SB, 450 hp (340 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 202 mph (325 km/h) 175 knots
- Cruise speed: 190 mph (306 km/h) 165 knots
- Range: 713 mi (1,150 km) 620 nm
- Service ceiling: 19,400 ft (5,910 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,000 ft/min (300 m/min)
- Wing loading: 22.9 lb/ft² (111.7 kg/m²)
- Power/mass: 11.7 lb/hp (142 W/kg)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Avro Anson
- Airspeed Oxford
- Barkley-Grow T8P-1
- Beechcraft Model 18
- Boeing 247
- Douglas DC-2
- Caudron C.440 Goéland
- SAI KZ IV
- Related lists
- List of aircraft of World War II
- List of aircraft of the Spanish Republican Air Force
- List of military aircraft of the United States
- List of military aircraft of the United States (naval)
- List of Lockheed aircraft
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (June 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- "Lloyd Stearman". National Aviation Hall of Fame. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Phillips, Edward H (2006). Stearman Aircraft: A Detailed History. Specialty PressPub & Wholesalers. p. 26.
- Gunston 1998, p. 8.
- "Mud Guards on Plane Wheels Protect Landing Gear." Popular Mechanics, April 1935, p. 523, (bottom-right).
- Winchester 2004, p. 188.
- Straits Times, 30 December 1937, Page 10.
- "New Plane Ready For Stratosphere Test Flights." Popular Mechanics, August 1937.
- "New Horizons." achorizons.ca. Retrieved: February 3, 2010.
- "New England Air Museum." www.neam.org. Retrieved: August 1, 2010.
- . Retrieved: May 26, 2015.
- "Last flying Electra 10 lands at Warplane Heritage for maintenance". The Hamilton Spectator. 2015-04-24. Retrieved 2016-07-31.
- Francillon, René J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Naval Institute Press, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-835-6.
- Garrison, Peter. "Head Skunk". Air & Space Magazine, March 2010.
- Gunston, Bill. Lockheed Aircraft: The History of Lockheed Martin (Aircraft Cutaways). Oxford, UK: Osprey, 1998. ISBN 978-1-85532-775-7.
- Winchester, Jim, ed. "Lockheed 10 Electra". Civil Aircraft (The Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-642-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lockheed Model 10 Electra.|
- XC-35 in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum
- XC-35 from National Museum of the United States Air Force
- "Luxurious Air Yacht Is a Home with Wings" Popular Mechanics, January 1936 Electra converted for business travel.
Lockheed Electra 10A Restoration project, New Zealand: