Locomotion No. 1
Locomotion at Darlington Railway Centre and Museum
|Type and origin|
|Builder||Robert Stephenson and Company|
|Driver diameter||48 in (1.219 m)|
|Locomotive weight||6.5 long tons (7.3 short tons; 6.6 t)|
|Fuel capacity||2,200 lb or 1,000 kg or 1.00 t|
|Water capacity||400 imp gal or 480 US gal or 1,800 L|
|Boiler pressure||50 psi (0.34 MPa)|
|60 sq ft (5.57 m2)|
|Cylinder size||9.5 in × 24 in (241 mm × 610 mm)|
|Tractive effort||1,900 lbf (8.5 kN)|
|Operator(s)||Stockton and Darlington|
|First run||27 September 1825|
|Disposition||static display at the
Darlington Railway Centre and Museum
Locomotion No. 1 (originally named Active) is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway. Built by George and Robert Stephenson's company Robert Stephenson and Company in 1825. It was the first one to run on a passenger carrying line.
Locomotion used all the improvements that Stephenson had pioneered in the Killingworth locomotives. It used high-pressure steam from a centre-flue boiler, with a steam-blast in the chimney, to drive two vertical cylinders, enclosed within the boiler. A pair of yokes above them transmitted the power downwards, through pairs of connecting rods. It made use of a loose eccentric valve gear, and was one of the first locomotives to use coupling rods rather than chains or gears to link its 0-4-0 driving wheels together.
The locomotive is historically important as the first one to run on a passenger carrying line, rather than for the innovations in its design. It hauled the first train on the Stockton and Darlington Railway on 27 September 1825.
On 1 July 1828, the boiler exploded at Aycliffe Lane station, killing the driver. With advances in design such as those incorporated into Stephenson's Rocket, Locomotion became obsolete very quickly. It was rebuilt and remained in service until 1841 when it was turned into a stationary engine.
In 1857 it was preserved. Locomotion No. 1 was on display in Alfred Kitching's workshop near Hopetown Carriage Works from 1857 to the 1880s. From 1892 to 1975 it was on display along with Derwent on one of the platforms at Darlington's main station, Bank Top. The locomotive is now on display at the Darlington Railway Centre and Museum, located in the same building as Darlington's North Road station, on long-term loan from the National Railway Museum. It is now part of the National Collection.
- Locomotive No. 1 The first locomotive in New South Wales.
- Tom Thumb (first American steam locomotive)
- Ross, David (2004). British steam railways. Bath: Parragon. p. 15.
- Casserley, H.C. (1960). Historic locomotive pocket book. London: Batsford. p. 7.
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- Casserley, H.C. (1976). Preserved locomotives (4th ed.). London: Ian Allan. p. 16. ISBN 071100725X.
- Hewison, Christian H. (1983). Locomotive Boiler Explosions. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. p. 26. ISBN 0 7153 8305 1.
- Satow, F.; Satow, M.G.; Wilson, L.S. (1976). Locomotion — concept to creation: the story of the reproduction 1973-1975. Beamish: Locomotion Trust.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Locomotion No.1.|
- Darlington Railway Centre and Museum
- Photograph of Locomotion at the Darlington Railway Museum
- Postcard of Locomotion at the Darlington Bank Top station in 1959
- Photo (1975) of locomotive Locomotion No.1 on display at Darlington main station