Locomotives of the London and North Eastern Railway
The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) produced several classes of locomotive, mostly to the designs of Nigel Gresley, characterised by a three-cylinder layout with a parallel boiler and round-topped firebox. It produced the most iconic locomotive of its day, 4468 'Mallard', the holder of the world steam locomotive speed record. It also built the world-famous 4472 'Flying Scotsman'. However, its locomotive inheritance was much greater than just the 'A4 Class', it also produced highly successful mixed-traffic and freight designs.
- For an explanation of the classification and numbering systems used by the LNER and its constituent companies, see: LNER locomotive numbering and classification.
- 1 Locomotives of constituent companies
- 1.1 Great Central Railway
- 1.2 Great Eastern Railway
- 1.3 Great North of Scotland Railway
- 1.4 Great Northern Railway
- 1.5 Hull and Barnsley Railway
- 1.6 Metropolitan Railway
- 1.7 Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway
- 1.8 North British Railway
- 1.9 North Eastern Railway
- 2 Locomotives built by the LNER
- 3 Post-Nationalisation
- 4 Withdrawal
- 5 Preservation
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Locomotives of constituent companies
Including the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway
Richard Peacock (–1854)
W. G. Craig (1854–1859)
Charles Sacré (1859–1886)
|4||0-4-0ST||2||Manning Wardle||1883||Y2||Manning Wardle Class H|
|172||0-6-0||1||1861||(none)||aquired from the South Yorkshire & River Don Railway|
|15||2-4-0||4||1865||(none)||Built for the Sardinian Railway|
|12AM||2-4-0T||6||Gorton Works||1881||(none)||rebuild from 12AT|
|4||0-6-0ST||1||Manning Wardle||1873||J69/1||Acquired 1876|
|18||0-6-0||68||1869–73||(none)||Twenty rebuilt as tank engine 1902–05|
|18 Converted||0-6-0ST||20||1869–71||J58||Rebuilt from tender engines 1902–05|
Thomas Parker (1886–1893)
|2||4-4-0||25||Kitson & Co. (13)
Gorton Works (12)
|9B & 9E||0-6-0||31||Neilson & Co. (25)
|9C & 9F||0-6-2T||129||1891–1901||N5||Includes two acquired with Wrexham, Mold and Connah's Quay Railway|
|9D, 9H & 9M||0-6-0||124||1892–1902||J10|
Harry Pollitt (1893–1900)
|9G||2-4-2T||10||Beyer, Peacock & Co.||1896||F2|
|11A||4-4-0||33||Gorton Works (13)
Beyer, Peacock & Co. (20)
|15||2-6-0||20||Baldwin Locomotive Works||1899||(none)|
John G. Robinson (1900–22)
see John G. Robinson
|Quantity||Manufacturer||Date||LNER Class||1946 LNER nos.||Notes|
|8C||4-6-0||2||Beyer, Peacock & Co.||1903–04||B1||1479–80||later LNER Class B18|
|1||4-6-0||6||Gorton Works||1912–13||B2||1490–93||“Sir Sam Fay” class; later LNER Class B19|
|9P||4-6-0||6||Gorton Works||1917–20||B3||1494–99||“Lord Faringdon” class|
|8F||4-6-0||10||Beyer, Peacock & Co.||1906||B4||1481–89||“Immingham” class|
|8||4-6-0||14||Neilson & Co. (6)
Beyer, Peacock & Co. (8)
|9Q||4-6-0||38||Gorton Works (23)
Vulcan Foundry (10)
Beyer, Peacock & Co. (5)
|1A||4-6-0||11||Gorton Works||1913–15||B8||1349–59||“Glenalmond” class|
|8G||4-6-0||10||Beyer, Peacock & Co.||1906||B9||1469–78|
|8B/8J||4-4-2||27||Beyer, Peacock & Co. (7)
North British Loco. Co. (12)
Gorton Works (8)
|8D/8E||4-4-2||4||Gorton Works||1905–06||C5||2895–98|| Three-cylinder compounds|
|11B/11C/11D||4-4-0||40||Sharp, Stewart & Co. (30)
Vulcan Foundry (10)
|11E||4-4-0||10||Gorton Works||1913||D10||2650–59||“Director” class|
|11F||4-4-0||35||Armstrong Whitworth (12)
Gorton Works (11)
Kitson & Co. (12)
|1919–24||D11||2660–94||“Improved Director” class|
|9J||0-6-0||174||Neilson, Reid & Co. (49)
Beyer, Peacock & Co. (25)
Gorton Works (70)
Vulcan Foundry (15)
Yorkshire Engine Co. (15)
|8K||2-8-0||126||Gorton Works (56)
Kitson & Co. (20)
North British Loco. Co. (50)
|1911–14||O4||3570–3900||Another 521 built for the government, of which 276 later came to the LNER. 58 converted to “O1” between 1944 and 1952|
|8M||2-8-0||19||Gorton Works||1918–21||O5||3902–3920||All eventually converted to “O4”|
|8A||0-8-0||89||Gorton Works (35)
Kitson & Co. (51)
Neilson, Reid & Co. (3)
|1902–11||Q4||3200–43, 9925–37||13 converted to tanks by LNER (class Q1) 1942–45|
|9N||4-6-2T||21||Gorton Works||1911–17||A5||9800–20||24 more built by LNER 1923–26|
|9K||4-4-2T||40||Gorton Works (28)
Vulcan Foundry (12)
|9L||4-4-2T||12||Beyer, Peacock & Co.||1907||C14||7440–51|
|4||0-6-0ST||1||Hudswell Clarke||1909||J69/1||—|| Acquired 1911|
|1B||2-6-4T||20||Gorton Works||1914–17||L1||9050–69|| LNER class L3 from 1945; first standard gauge locomotive of its wheel arrangement in Britain|
|8H||0-8-4T||4||Beyer, Peacock & Co.||1907–08||S1||9900–05|| Two more built by LNER in 1932|
There were also 3 steam rail cars built in 1904-1905. These were withdrawn in 1914.
Lancashire, Derbyshire and East Coast Railway
|A||0-6-2T||18||1895–1900||N6|| LDEC Nos. 1–8, 19–28. Five more that had been ordered were sold by Kitson's to the Hull and Barnsley Railway|
|B||0-6-0T||4||1897||J60|| LDEC Nos. 9–12|
|C||0-4-4T||6||1897–1898||G3|| LDEC Nos. 13–18|
|D||0-6-4T||9||1904–06||M1|| LDEC Nos. 29–34, A1–13; GCR 1148–1153, 1145–47|
In 1923 the Great North of Scotland Railway passed on a total of 122 locomotives, 100 4-4-0 tender locomotives and 22 tank engines, all capable of being used on either passenger or goods trains, to the LNER.
|Passed to LNER||Wheel
|Manufacturer||Date introduced||Date withdrawn||Notes|
|K||D47/2||6||3||4-4-0||Neilson & Co.||1866||1921–25|||||
|L||D47/1||6||6||4-4-0||Neilson & Co.||1876||1924–26|||||
|M||D45||9||9||4-4-0||Neilson & Co.||1878||1925–32|||||
|C||D39||3||3||4-4-0||Neilson & Co.||1879||1925–27|||||
|A||D44||6||6||4-4-0||Kitson & Co.||1884||1924–32|||||
|G||D48||3||3||4-4-0||Kitson & Co.||1885||1928–34|||||
|D||J90||6||6||0-6-0T||Kitson & Co.||1884||1932–36|||||
|E||J91||3||3||0-6-0T||Kitson & Co.||1885||1931–34|||||
|O||D42||9||9||4-4-0||Kitson & Co.||1888||1935–46|||||
|P||D43||3||3||4-4-0||R. Stephenson & Co.||1890||1936–38|||||
|Q||D38||3||3||4-4-0||R. Stephenson & Co.||1890||1931–38|||||
|R||G10||9||9||0-4-4T||Neilson & Co.||1893||1937–47|||||
|S||D41||6||6||4-4-0||Neilson & Co.||1893||1947–|||||
|T||D41||26||26||4-4-0||Neilson & Co.||1895–98||1946–|||||
|V||D40||5||13||4-4-0||Neilson & Co.||1899–1900||1946–||Ten were ordered, five sold to the SE&CR|||
|Thomas E. Heywood
|X||Z5, later Z4||2||2||0-4-2T||Manning Wardle||1915|||||
|F||D40||6||8||4-4-0||North British Loco. Co.||1920||Named|||
The H&BR was taken over by the North Eastern Railway (NER) in 1922.
|A||0-6-0T||12||Beyer, Peacock & Co.||1884||—|
|B||0-6-0||20||Beyer, Peacock & Co.||1884||—|
|C||2-4-0||10||Beyer, Peacock & Co.||1885||—|
|K||0-4-0WT||6||Kitson & Co.||1886–89||—|
|B||0-6-0||55||Kitson & Co. (36)
Vulcan Foundry (4)
Yorkshire Engine Co. (15)
|G2||0-6-0T||3||R. Stephenson & Co.||1892||J80|
|F1||0-6-2T||5||Kitson & Co.||1900||N11||Ordered by the Lancashire, Derbyshire and East Coast Railway|
|F2||0-6-2T||9||Kitson & Co.||1901||N12|
|G3||0-6-0T||16||Yorkshire Engine Co. (6)
Kitson & Co. (10)
|A||0-8-0||15||Yorkshire Engine Co.||1907||Q10|
|J||4-4-0||5||Kitson & Co.||1910||D24|
|L1||0-6-0||10||Kitson & Co.||1911–12||J28|
|L||0-6-0||5||Yorkshire Engine Co.||1914||J28|
|LS||0-6-0||5||Kitson & Co.||1915||J28|
These three classes were taken into LNER stock on 1 November 1937. The other former Metropolitan locomotives were retained by London Transport, which had acquired all of them at its formation on 1 July 1933.
|G||0-6-4T||4||Yorkshire Engine Co.||1915||M2|
|H||4-4-4T||8||Kerr, Stuart & Co.||1920–21||H2|
M&GN locomotives were taken into LNER stock on 1 October 1936.
|M&GN Class A||4-4-2T||3||Melton Constable Works||1904–1910||C17||M&GN Nos. 41, 20, 9|
|M&GN Class C||4-4-0||40||Sharp, Stewart & Co. (33)
Beyer, Peacock & Co. (7)
|1894–1899||D52/D53/D54||LNER class based on firebox variations|
|M&GN Class D||0-6-0||16||Neilson & Co. (8)
Kitson & Co. (8)
|1896-1899||J40/J41||J41 was a rebuilt D Class while J40 was not rebuilt|
|M&GN Shunting Class||0-6-0T||9||Melton Constable Works||1897–1905||J93|
Locomotives built by the LNER
North British Loco. Co.
|1928–35||35–112||+51 rebuilds of A1|
|B17||4-6-0||73||North British Loco. Co. (10)
Darlington Works (52)
R. Stephenson & Co. (11)
|1928–37||1600–1672||Two were streamlined in "A4" style|
|D49||4-4-0||76||Darlington Works||1927–35||2700–2775||Named after counties & hunts.|
|J39||0-6-0||289||Darlington Works (261)
Beyer, Peacock & Co. (28)
|K4||2-6-0||5||Darlington Works||1937–39||1993–1998||One later rebuilt by Thompson as K1|
|P2||2-8-2||6||Doncaster Works||1934–36||501–506||later streamlined – all rebuilt as A2/2 during 1941–44|
|U1||2-8-0+0-8-2||1||Beyer, Peacock & Co.||1925||9999||Garratt – for banking on Worsborough incline|
|V1||2-6-2T||82||Doncaster Works||1930–39||7600–7681||63 later rebuilt as V3|
|V3||2-6-2T||10||Doncaster Works||1939-40||7682–7691||+63 rebuilds of V1 – larger boiler development of V1|
|W1||4-6-4||1||Darlington Works||1929||10000||experimental high pressure locomotive, later rebuilt in "A4" style.|
|A1/1||4-6-2||1||1945||113||Rebuild of Gresley A1 “Great Northern”|
|A2/2||4-6-2||6||1943||501–506||Rebuilds of Gresley “P2” 2-8-2s|
|A2/1||4-6-2||4||Darlington Works||1944||507–510||Derived from V2 2-6-2 design.|
|A2/3||4-6-2||15||Doncaster Works||1946–47||500, 511–524|
North British Loco. Co.
|1942–52||1000–1273||Another 136 (Nos.61274–61409) built by BR|
|B2||4-6-0||9||1945–49|| Rebuilds of Gresley B17 class|
|K1||2-6-0||1||1945||1997||Rebuild of Gresley K4 class|
|K5||2-6-0||1||1945||1841||Rebuild of Gresley K3 class|
|O1||2-8-0||58||1944||Rebuilds of Robinson “O4” class|
|L1||2-6-4T||1||Darlington Works||1945||7701||Another 99 built by BR 1949–50|
|Q1||0-8-0T||13||1942–43||9925–9937||Rebuilds of Robinson “Q4” class tender engines|
|A2||4-6-2||1||Doncaster Works||1947||525||14 more built by BR 1948|
Another A1, "Tornado" has been built by subscription among LNER (and other) locomotive enthusiasts, and came into service in 2008. In total it cost £3 million. Again under the chairmanship of Mark Allatt, the team is (2014) now raising funds most successfully to build another Gresley P2 2-8-2 of the "Cock O'the North" Class, to be called "Prince of Wales". Both new steam locomotives are the product of a restored railway works in Darlington.
- LNER Class A1 – continuation of a GNR design. Several built under the GNR entered service under the LNER.
- LNER Class A2 – based on an NER design simply designated as 4.6.2
- LNER Class A5 – Continuation of a GCR design
- LNER Class A8 – rebuilt from H1 between 1931 and 1936
- LNER Class B12/3 – based on an existing GER design
- LNER Class B16 – continuation of an NER design
- LNER Class C9 – C7 rebuild
- LNER Class D16 – based on an existing GER design. Built by the GER but delivered after grouping.
- LNER Class J27 – continuation of an NER design
- LNER Class J50 – continuation of a GNR design. Thirty were rebuilds of Class J51.
- LNER Class J72 – NER Class E1
- LNER Class J94 – WD Austerity 0-6-0ST
- LNER Class N2 – continuation of a GNR design
- LNER Class N7 – continuation of a GER design
- LNER Class N15 – continuation of an NBR design
- LNER Class O6 – LMS Stanier Class 8F – 60 loaned to the LNER 1943–47; 68 purchased 1945–46, sold to LMS 1947
- LNER Class O7 – WD Austerity 2-8-0 – 350 loaned to the LNER 1943–47; 200 purchased 1946; 270 loaned to the LNER 1947
- USATC S160 Class – 168 loaned to the LNER 1942–1945
- WD Austerity 2-10-0 – 13 loaned to the LNER 1943–44; 20 loaned 1945–46
- LNER Class S1 – Continuation of a GCR design
- LNER Class T1 – NER Class X
- LNER Class Y1 – Sentinel shunter
- LNER Class Y3 – Sentinel shunter
- LNER Class Y7 – NER Class H
- LNER Class Y10 – Sentinel shunter
- LNER Class Y11 – Simplex 0-4-0 petrol locomotive (later British Rail 15097–15099)
British Railways continued to build LNER designs (the B1 and L1 classes in particular) immediately after Nationalisation. Remarkably, it even built a new series of shunting locomotives (J72 class) to a pre-Grouping design (of the North Eastern Railway). However, it was to be the Eastern Region that took the first of BR's new Standard locomotives, 70000 'Britannia', for its Great Eastern Main Line workings to Norwich in 1951.
|Peppercorn A1||4-6-2||49||Doncaster Works (26)
Darlington Works (23)
|Peppercorn A2||4-6-2||14||Doncaster Works||1948||60526–539|
|Thompson B1||4-6-0||136||North British Loco. Co.(106)
Gorton Works (10)
Darlington Works (20)
|J72||0-6-0T||28||Darlington Works||1949–51||69001–28||NER Class E1|
|Thompson/Peppercorn K1||2-6-0||70||North British Loco. Co.||1949–50||62001–70|
|Thompson L1||2-6-4T||99||Darlington Works (29)
North British Loco. Co. (35)
R. Stephenson & Hawthorns (35)
Withdrawal of ex-LNER locomotives took place throughout the 1960s, with some of the once high-profile 'A4 Class' locomotives ending their lives on heavy freight trains in Scotland; a far cry from the glamorous express workings of the late 1930s.
Several of the many LNER locomotives have been preserved. (Numbers given are those currently carried: many locomotives have carried a range of numbers during their active and preserved careers).
† denotes name given only in preservation.
- Baxter 1988, pp. 214–215.
- Baxter 1988, p. 249.
- Baxter 1988, pp. 248–249.
- Baxter 1988, pp. 247–248.
- Baxter 1988, p. 169.
- Baxter 1988, pp. 169–170.
- Baxter 1988, p. 170.
- Baxter 1988, pp. 170–171.
- Vallance 1991, p. 164.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, pp. 187–188, 190, 226.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, pp. 189–190, 192, 226.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, pp. 192–193, 226.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, pp. 193–194, 227.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, p. 195, 226.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, p. 195, 198, 226.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, pp. 197–198, 226.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, pp. 199–200, 227.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, p. 200, 226.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, pp. 201–202, 226.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, p. 204, 226.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, pp. 207, 226.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, pp. 208, 227.
- Barclay-Harvey 1950, pp. 208–209, 226.
- Goudie 1990, pp. 46, 55, 59, 63–65.
- Boddy et al. 1975, pp. 94–123.
- Boddy et al. 1975, pp. 124–157.
- Boddy et al. 1975, pp. 158–165.
- Steam Railway magazine issue 462
- Boddy, M. G.; Brown, W. A.; Fry, E. V.; Hennigan, W.; Hoole, Ken; Manners, F.; Neve, E.; Platt, E. N. T.; Proud, P.; Yeadon, W. B. (March 1975). Fry, E. V., ed. Locomotives of the L.N.E.R., Part 2B: Tender Engines—Classes B1 to B19. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-73-8.
- Barclay-Harvey, Malcolm (1950). A History of the Great North of Scotland Railway. Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-2592-9.
- Baxter, Bertram (1986). Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 5A: North Eastern Railway, Hull and Barnsley Railway. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-903485-54-0.
- Baxter, Bertram (1988). Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, volume 5B: Great Northern Railway and Great Central Railway. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing. ISBN 0-903485-86-9.
- Baxter, Bertram (2012). Baxter, David; Mitchell, Peter, eds. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 6: Great Eastern Railway, North British Railway, Great North of Scotland Railway, Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway, remaining companies in the LNER group. Southampton: Kestrel Railway Books. ISBN 978-1-905505-26-5.
- Goudie, Frank (1990). Metropolitan Steam Locomotives. Harrow Weald: Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-118-X.
- Groves, Norman (1992). Great Northern Locomotive History, Volume 3b: 1911–1922 The Gresley Era. Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. ISBN 0-901115-70-3.
- Vallance, H. A. (27 June 1991). Great North of Scotland railway. The History of the Railways of the Scottish Highlands vol 3. David St John Thomas. ISBN 978-0-946537-60-0.
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