Locomotives of the Midland Railway

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The Locomotives of the Midland Railway (which it always referred to as engines), followed its small engine policy. The policy was later adopted by the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, and contrasted with the London and North Western Railway's policy. The small engine policy was partly the consequence of a difference in the background of senior managers. In most railway companies, the elite position was the design, construction and maintenance of locomotives. Bigger engines brought more prestige and allowed longer trains. In the Midland, the marketing department was paramount. They recognised that people wanted more frequent, shorter trains rather than an infrequent service. It concentrated on very light, very fast and frequent trains.

Overview[edit]

The small engine policy was, perhaps, carried on too long, giving rise to the derisive poem:

M is for Midland with engines galore
Two on each train and asking for more

The Midland was blessed, in that George Stephenson had built its main lines with very shallow gradients. The LNWR had to cope with the hilly country north of Lancaster. The Midland had also found it more efficient to use smaller, less fuel hungry locos, simply adding pilots or banking engines as necessary.

The small engine policy served the Midland well when its network was confined to the English Midlands, which is largely free of steep gradients. As the company expanded into other parts of Britain the policy's downsides began to cause problems. The company's own main line to Scotland (the Settle-Carlisle Line) and the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway (where the Midland was responsible for providing locomotives) were renowned for their steep gradients and the company's locomotive stock proved badly suited to the task. Nonetheless the small engine policy remained and double-heading or banking was used to make up for the shortfall in power. This indirectly caused two accidents on the Settle-Carlisle Line (at Hawes Junction and Ais Gill) where trains stalled due to insufficient power, even from multiple locomotives. The policy also greatly reduced capacity on the Midland's network as not only were there more (but smaller) trains than there would have been on another railway but further capacity was taken up by the need to accommodate light engines that had been used for piloting or banking duties that were returning to their depots.

The small engine policy remained in place into the 1920s and remained an influence during the early years of the Midland's successor the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, its Chief Mechanical Engineer for most of the 1920s being Henry Fowler, a long-standing Midland engineer and former CME of that company.

Numbering and classification[edit]

Before 1907 numbering was somewhat erratic. New locomotives might take the numbers of old engines, which were placed on the duplicate list and had an A suffix added to their numbers. In 1907 the whole stock were renumbered in a systematic way, each class in a consecutive sequence, classes being ordered by type (passenger/tank/goods), power and age. After the grouping this system was adapted for the whole LMS

The Midland classified their stock into three classes numbered 1 to 3 with 1 the least powerful and three the most. Stock were also split into passenger and freight engines. When the two largest 4-4-0 clases, the 3-cylinder compounds and the "999s", were introduced these were put into Class 4. This system formed the basis for the subsequent LMS and BR classification systems.

Engines inherited from constituent companies[edit]

Midland formed in 1844 from the Midland Counties Railway, the North Midland Railway and the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway, and took over a number of others including the Leicester and Swannington Railway and the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway. See

Engines built by the Midland[edit]

Initially, the Midland concentrated on maintaining and improving the somewhat varied fleet that it had inherited, with the assistance of The Railway Foundry in Leeds. In addition it bought in twenty four of their Jenny Lind locomotives.

MR class Wheel
arrangement
Pre-1907 Fleet
number(s)
Post-1907 Fleet
number(s)
Manufacturer
Serial number(s)
Year(s)
made
Quantity Year(s)
withdrawn
Comments
Matthew Kirtley (1844–1873)
130 class 2-2-2 1–39, 94, 97–100, 120–149 1852–1866 75 1870–1905 Most survivors rebuilt by Johnson after 1875.[1]
156 class 2-4-0 101–119, 153–164 1–22 Derby Works 1866–1874 29  ?-1947 [2]
800 class 2-4-0 800–829,
(various)
35–62,
63–67
Neilson & Co. (30)
Derby Works (18)
1870–1871 48 1905–1936
270 class 0-6-0 270–279 2309–2312 Kitson & Co. 1852–1853 10 1863–1924 [3]
280 class 0-6-0 280–289 2307–2308 Robert Stephenson & Co. 1853 10 1898–1921 [3]
480 class 0-6-0 480–569
690–699
(+ various)
2398–2591
2672–2686
Derby Works (97)
Dübs & Co. (20)
Kitson & Co. (45)
Robert Stephenson & Co. (75)
Sharp Stewart (20)
Yorkshire Engine Co. (10)
1863–1869 267 1902–1945 [4]
700 class 0-6-0 700–779
830–879
910–1067
(+ various)
2592–2671
2687–2867
Derby Works (26)
Dübs & Co. (150)
John Fowler & Co. (10)
Kitson & Co. (10)
Neilson & Co. (40)
Vulcan Foundry (80)
1869–1874 316 1903–1951 [5] 50 to Italy in 1906
890 class 2-4-0 890–909
(+ various)
68–87
88–126
Neilson & Co. (20),
Derby Works (42)
1871–1875 62 ..
222 class 0-6-0WT 222, 320
223, 221
1604 Derby Works 1860–1863 4 1894–1928 [6] Lickey bankers
221 class 0-6-0ST 221 Sharp, Stewart & Co. 1863 1 1882 [7] ex Staveley Iron Works, acquired 1866; renumbered 2027 in 1872
1063 class 0-6-0WT 1063–1065 Manning Wardle (2)
? (1)
1860–1864 3 1891–1900 [7] ex Sheepbridge Iron Works, acquired 1870
880 class 0-6-0T 880–889 1610–1619 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1871 10 1924–1927 [7]
2066 class 0-6-0WT 2066–2068 Manning Wardle 1873 3 1890–1898 [7]
Samuel W. Johnson (1873–1903)
1070 class 2-4-0 1070–1089
1, 9, 10, 13
70–71, 74
96, 146
127–146,
147–156
Sharp, Stewart & Co. (20),
Derby Works (10)
1874–1876 30 1912–1950 [8]
50 class 2-4-0 50–54 187–191 Derby Works 1876 5 1926–1936 [9]
55 class 2-4-0 55–59 192–196 Derby Works 1876 5 1924–1939 [9]
1282 class 2-4-0 1282–1311 157–186 Dübs & Co. 1876 30 1922–1948 [10]
1347 class 2-4-0 1347–1356 197–206 Derby Works 1877 10 1919–1941 [11] Renumbered 101–110 in 1879
1400 class 2-4-0 1400–1490
1472–1491
1502–1531
207–216
222–271
Derby Works (30)
Neilson & Co. (30)
1879–1881 60 1925–1949 [12]
111 class 2-4-0 111–115 217–221 Derby Works 1880 5 1928–1943 [13]
1492 class 2-4-0 1492–1501 272–281 Derby Works 1881 10 1924–1933 [14]
1312 class 4-4-0 1312–1321 300–309 Kitson & Co. 1876 10 1911–1930 [15] Class 2
1327 class 4-4-0 1327–1346 310–327 Dübs & Co. 1876 20 1904–1934 [15] Class 2
1562 class 4-4-0 1562–1666 328–357 Derby Works 1882–1884 30 1923–1937 [16] Class 2
1667 class 4-4-0 1667–1676 Derby Works 1876 20 1896–1901 [15] Class 2
1738 class 4-4-0 1738–1757 358–377 Derby Works 1885 20 1922–1940 [17] Class 2; No. 1757 named Beatrice
1808 class 4-4-0 1808–1822
80–87, 11, 14
378–402 Derby Works 1888–1891 25 1922–1952 [18] Class 2
2183 class 4-4-0 2183–2202 403–427 Sharp, Stewart & Co. (20)
Derby Works (5)
1892–1896 25 1914–1922 [19] Class 2
2203 class 4-4-0 2203–2217
184–199
161–164
230–239
428–472 Sharp, Stewart & Co. (15)
Derby Works (30)
1893–1895 45 1914–1931 [20] Class 2
2581 class 4-4-0 2581–2590 473–482 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1900 10 1914–1927 [21] Class 2
156 class 4-4-0 156–160
150, 153–155
204–209
1667–1676
483–522 Derby Works 1896–1901 20 1912–1918 [21] Class 2
2421 class 4-4-0 2421–2440 502–522 Sharp, Stewart & Co. 1899 20 1912–1913 [22] Class 2
60 class 4-4-0 60–69, 93
138–139
151–152
165–169
805–809
2636–2640
2591–2600
523–562 Derby Works (30)
Neilson & Co. (10)
1898–1899 40 1913–15 [23] Class 2
25 class 4-2-2 25–32, 37
1854–1862
600–607
610–619
Derby Works 1887–1890 18 1919–1928 [24]
1853 class 4-2-2 1853, 34
1863–1872
8, 122, 20
145, 24, 33
35–36, 38–39
4, 16–17, 94
97–100, 129, 133
149, 170–178
608–609
620–659
Derby Works 1893, 1896 42 1920–1927 [25]
179 class 4-2-2 179–183, 75–77, 79, 88 660–669 Derby Works 1893, 1896 10 1925–1927 [26]
115 class 4-2-2 115–121, 123–128, 130–131 670–684 Derby Works 1896–1899 15 1921–1928 [27]
2601 class 4-2-2 2601–2608
22–23
685–694 Derby Works 1899–1900 10 1919–1922 [28] 2606–2608 renumbered 19–21 in 1900
Class 3 Belpaire 4-4-0 2606–2610
800–804
2781–2790
810–869
700–779 Derby Works 1900–1905 80 1925–1953 [29]
1000 class 4-4-0 2631–2635 1000–1004 Derby Works 1902–1903 5 1948–1952 [24] 3-cylinder compound
1322 class 0-4-0ST 1322–1326, 202
1428–1430, 1697
1500–1507 Derby Works 1883, 1889–1890 10 1907–1949 [28] Nicknamed "Jinties"
1116A class 0-4-0ST 1116A–1120A,
2359–2360,
1131A–1133A
1508–1517 Derby Works 1893, 1897 10 1921–1955 [30]
1134A class 0-4-0ST 1134A–1143A 1518–1527 Derby Works 1897, 1903 10 1922–1958 [31]
6 class 0-4-4T 6, 15, 18, 137, 140–144, 147 1226–1235 Derby Works 1875 10 1925–1930 [31]
1252 class 0-4-4T 1262–1281
1252–1261
1236–1265 Neilson & Co. 1875–1876 30 1920–1954 [32] BR 58031–58038
1532 class 0-4-4T 1532–151
1632–1656
1718–1737
1266–1330 Derby Works 1881–1886 65 1920–1956 [33] BR 58039–58051
1823 class 0-4-4T 1823–1832
1322–1326, 202
1428–1430, 1697
1833–1842
2013–2022
2218–2227
1331–1380 Derby Works (20)
Dübs & Co. (30)
1889–1893 50 1925–1959 [34] BR 58052–58072
1102 class 0-6-0T 1102–1141
1620–1559 Neilson & Co. (25),
Vulcan Foundry (15)
1874–1876 40 1920–1931 [35]
1377 class 0-6-0T (various) 1660–1844 Derby Works (165),
Vulcan Foundry (20)
1878–1891 185 1928–1965 [36] "Half-cab"
1121 class 0-6-0T 1121–1130
2248–2252
2361–2390
2571–2580
1845–1899 Derby Works (10)
Sharp, Stewart & Co. (5)
Robert Stephenson & Co. (40)
1895–1900 55 1930–1963 [37]
2228 class 0-4-4T 2228–2247
690–695, 780–783
2611–2630
1381–1430 Dübs & Co. (40)
Derby Works (10)
1895–1900 50 1931–1957 [38] BR 58073–58091
2441 class 0-6-0T 2441–2460
2741–2780
1900–1959 Vulcan Foundry 1899–1902 60 1954–1967 [39] LMS 7200–7259 from 1934
Class 2 & 3 goods 0-6-0 .. .. ... .. .. ..
2501 class 2-6-0 2501–2510
2521–2540
2200–2229 Baldwin Locomotive Works 1899 30 1908–1914 [40]
2511 class 2-6-0 2511–2520 2230–2239 Schenectady Locomotive Works 1899 10 1912–1915 [41]
Richard Deeley (1903–1909)
1000 class 4-4-0 1000–1029 1005–1044 Derby Works 1905–1909 40 1948–1953 [42] 3-cylinder Compound
990 class 4-4-0 990–999 Derby Works 1908–1909 10 1925–1928 [43] LMS 801–809 from 1926
1528 class 0-4-0T 1528–1532 Derby Works 1907 5 1957–1966 [44]
2000 class 0-6-4T 2000–2039 Derby Works 1907 40 1935–1938 [43]
Paget locomotive 2-6-2 2299 Derby Works 1908 1 1912 [44]
Henry Fowler (1909–1922)
3835 class 0-6-0 3835–4026 Derby Works (142)
Armstrong Whitworth (50)
1911–1922 192 1954–1965 [45] plus S&DJR 67–71
483 class 4-4-0 .. Derby Works 1912–1924 157 1948–1963 [46] Renewals of Johnson Class 2
Battery locomotive Bo 1550 Derby Works 1913 1 1964 [47] Renumbered BEL 1 by British Railways
Lickey Banker 0-10-0 2290 Derby Works 1919 1 1956 [48]
1528 class 0-4-0T 1533–1537 Derby Works 1921–1922 5 1957–1966 [47]

Ex- LT&SR (1912-1922)[edit]

In 1912 the Midland bought the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway, but this continued to be operated more or less separately. The Midland, and the LMS subsequently built some LT&SR designs.

Liveries[edit]

Prior to 1883 painted green. After 1883 the Midland adopted its distinctive crimson lake livery for passenger engines.

Influence on LMS locomotive policy[edit]

The London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) continued the Midland's small engine policy until William Stanier arrived in 1933. The last new Midland design was Stanier 0-4-4T of 1932/3 but some Fowler 4Fs were constructed as late as 1940.

Preservation[edit]

Five original Midland locomotives have survived, these being:

Image MR No. 1907 No. MR Class Type Manufacturer Serial No. Date Notes
MR 158A at Swanwick 1.jpg
158A 2 156 2-4-0 Derby Works 1866 [49] Rebuilt 1881, 1897; Deeley Class 1
Midland 4-2-2 No. 673 Rainhill 1980.jpg
118 673 115 4-2-2 Derby Works 1897 [26] Rebuilt 1909; Deeley Class 1
Preserved Midland Railway 4-4-0 Compound No. 1000 at Derby Works - geograph.org.uk - 2124177.jpg
2631 1000 1000 4-4-0 Derby Works 1902 [24] Rebuilt 1914; Deeley Class 4 Compound
Hugh llewelyn 41708 (5588679032).jpg
1418 1708 1377 0-6-0T Derby Works 1880 [50] Rebuilt 1896, 1926; Deeley Class 1
43924 and 75078 approach Ingrow station.jpg
3924 3835 0-6-0 Derby Works 1920 [51] Class 4 Goods

In addition, there are 13 engines of two classes built by the LMS to essentially Midland designs:

  • 4F 0-6-0 Nos (4)4027 (4)4123 and (4)4422
  • 3F 0-6-0T Nos 16576/(4)7493, (4)7279 (4)7324, (4)7327, (4)7357, (4)7383 (4)7406 (4)7445 (4)7564 and (4)7298

And two engines built by the Midland for the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway:

Also, one ex-LT&SR engine which passed through Midland ownership:

Further, there are several more engines to later non-Midland designs built at Derby which have survived.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Casserley 1960, pp. 14–15.
  2. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 62–66.
  3. ^ a b Baxter 1982, pp. 95–96.
  4. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 97–105.
  5. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 105–115.
  6. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 115.
  7. ^ a b c d Baxter 1982, p. 116.
  8. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 72–73, 120.
  9. ^ a b Baxter 1982, p. 120.
  10. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 121.
  11. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 122.
  12. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 122–123.
  13. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 123.
  14. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 123–124.
  15. ^ a b c Baxter 1982, p. 124.
  16. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 125.
  17. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 126.
  18. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 127–128.
  19. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 126–127.
  20. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 128.
  21. ^ a b Baxter 1982, p. 129.
  22. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 130.
  23. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 130–131.
  24. ^ a b c Baxter 1982, p. 133.
  25. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 133–134.
  26. ^ a b Baxter 1982, p. 134.
  27. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 134–135.
  28. ^ a b Baxter 1982, p. 135.
  29. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 131–132.
  30. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 135–135.
  31. ^ a b Baxter 1982, p. 136.
  32. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 136–137.
  33. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 137–138.
  34. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 138–139.
  35. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 140–141.
  36. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 141–146.
  37. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 146–147.
  38. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 139–140.
  39. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 147–148.
  40. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 172–173.
  41. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 172.
  42. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 175–176.
  43. ^ a b Baxter 1982, p. 176.
  44. ^ a b Baxter 1982, p. 177.
  45. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 180–183.
  46. ^ Baxter 1982, pp. 177–180.
  47. ^ a b Baxter 1982, p. 180.
  48. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 183.
  49. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 62.
  50. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 142.
  51. ^ Baxter 1982, p. 182.
  • Baxter, Bertram (1982). Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 3A: Midland Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. 
  • Casserley, H.C. (1960). Historic locomotive pocket book. London: Batsford. 

Further reading[edit]

The main works on Midland engines are given by two four volume histories, as follows:

  • Bob Essery and David Jenkinson An Illustrated Review of Midland Locomotives from 1883 (Didcot, Oxon: Wild Swan Publications)
  • Stephen Summerson Midland Railway Locomotives – Irwell Press
    • Vol. 1 – A comprehensive primary account, general survey 1844–1922, growth and development, boilers, tenders, fittings and details. ISBN 1-903266-10-6
    • Vol. 2 – The Kirtley classes. ISBN 1-903266-85-8
    • Vol. 3 – Johnson classes part 1 : the slim boiler passenger tender engines, passenger and goods tank engines. ISBN 1-903266-26-2
    • Vol. 4 – Johnson classes part 2 : the goods and later passenger tender engines, Deeley, Fowler and LTSR classes. ISBN 1-903266-55-6

Also useful is:

External links[edit]