Reine, Lofoten, seen from top of Reinebringen.
|Major islands||Austvågøy, Vestvågøy, Flakstadøy, Moskenesøy, Værøy, Røst|
|Area||1,227 km2 (474 sq mi)|
Lofoten (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈluːfuːtən]) is an archipelago and a traditional district in the county of Nordland, Norway. Lofoten is known for a distinctive scenery with dramatic mountains and peaks, open sea and sheltered bays, beaches and untouched lands. Though lying within the Arctic Circle, the archipelago experiences one of the world's largest elevated temperature anomalies relative to its high latitude.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Sports
- 5 Transportation
- 6 In popular culture
- 7 Gallery
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Lofoten (Old Norse: Lófót) was originally the old name of the island Vestvågøya. The first element is ló (i.e., "lynx") and the last element is derived from Norse fótr (i.e., "foot"), as the shape of the island must have been compared with that of a lynx's foot. (The old name of the neighbouring island Flakstadøya was Vargfót, "wolf's foot", from vargr "wolf". See also Ofoten.)
"There is evidence of human settlement extending back at least 11,000 yrs in Lofoten, and the earliest archaeological sites ... are only about 5,500 yrs old, at the transition from the early to late Stone Age." Iron Age agriculture, livestock, and significant human habitation can be traced back to ~250 BCE.
The town of Vågan (Norse Vágar) is the first known town formation in northern Norway. It existed in the early Viking Age, maybe earlier, and was located on the southern coast on eastern Lofoten, near today's village Kabelvåg in Vågan municipality. However, the Lofotr Viking Museum with the reconstructed 83-meter-long longhouse (the largest known) is located near Borg on Vestvågøy, which has many archeological finds from the Iron Age and Viking Age.
The islands have for more than 1,000 years been the centre of great cod fisheries, especially in winter, when the cod migrates south from the Barents Sea and gathers in Lofoten to spawn. Bergen in southwestern Norway was for a long time the hub for further export south to different parts of Europe, particularly so when trade was controlled by the Hanseatic League. In the lowland areas, particularly Vestvågøy, agriculture plays a significant role, as it has done since the Bronze Age.
Lofotr was originally the name of the island of Vestvågøy only. Later it became the name of the chain of islands. The chain of islands with its pointed peaks looks like a lynx foot from the mainland. In Norwegian, it is always a singular. Another name one might come across, is "Lofotveggen" or the Lofoten wall. The archipelago looks like a closed wall when seen from elevated points around Bodø or when arriving from the sea, some 100 kilometres (62 miles) long, and 800–1,000 metres (2,600–3,300 feet) high.
Lofoten is located at the 68th and 69th parallels north of the Arctic Circle in North Norway. It is well known for its natural beauty within Norway. Lofoten encompasses the municipalities of Vågan, Vestvågøy, Flakstad, Moskenes, Værøy, and Røst. The principal islands, running from north to south are:
- Southern tip of Hinnøya.
- Southern 60% (approx.) of Austvågøy (526.7 square kilometres (203.4 square miles) in total )
- Gimsøy (46.4 square kilometres (17.9 square miles) )
- Vestvågøy (411.1 square kilometres (158.7 square miles) )
- Flakstadøya (109.8 square kilometres (42.4 square miles) )
- Moskenesøya (185.9 square kilometres (71.8 square miles) )
The Lofoten Islands are characterised by their mountains and peaks, sheltered inlets, stretches of seashore and large virgin areas. The highest mountain in Lofoten is Higravstinden (1,161 metres (3,809 feet) in Austvågøy; the Møysalen National Park just northeast of Lofoten has mountains reaching 1,262 metres (4,140 feet). The famous Moskstraumen (Malstrøm) system of tidal eddies is located in western Lofoten, and is indeed the root of the term maelstrom.
Geologically, Lofoten is considered part of the Western Gneiss Region of Norway. The high relief and irregular surfaces of Lofoten has been attributed to etching that took place during the Mesozoic Era. Evidence of this would be the kaolinite found at some locations. To the northwest the Lofoten archipelago is bounded by the NE–SW-trending West Lofoten Border Fault. This is a normal fault whose fault scarp has been eroded forming a strandflat.
The sea is rich with life, and the world's largest deep water coral reef, called the Røst Reef, is located west of Røst. Lofoten has a high density of sea eagles and cormorants, and millions of other sea birds, among them the colourful puffin. Otters are common, and there are moose on the largest islands. There are some woodlands with downy birch and rowan. There are no native conifer forests in Lofoten, but some small areas with private spruce plantations. Sorbus hybrida (Rowan whitebeam) and Malus sylvestris occur in Lofoten, but not further north.
Large whales had seemingly disappeared from these waters; however in 2014, Heiko the minke whale swam into a shallow fjord of Lofoten to flee from whaling boats drew international interests and caused rises in public opinions to question and oppose to domestic whaling industries. As she might be pregnant, careful monitoring was conducted and Heiko was immediately beloved by locals to provide chances to witness whales at close ranges that have been a long-lost attraction in the area.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Lofoten features a subpolar oceanic climate under the Köppen climate classification. Winter temperatures in Lofoten are very mild considering its location north of the Arctic Circle – Lofoten has the largest positive temperature anomaly in the world relative to latitude. This is a result of the Gulf Stream and its extensions: the North Atlantic Current and the Norwegian Current. Røst and Værøy are the most northerly locations in the world where average temperatures are above freezing all year.
Strong winds can occur in late autumn and winter. Snow and sleet are not uncommon in winter, the mountains can have substantial amounts of snow, and in some winters, avalanches might come down from steep mountain slopes. Two of the top ten deadliest rainstorms ever recorded passed through Lofoten.
In Svolvær, the sun is above the horizon continuously ("midnight sun") from 25 May to 17 July, and in winter the sun does not rise from 4 December to 7 January. In Leknes, the sun is above the horizon from 26 May to 17 July, and in winter the sun does not rise from 9 December to 4 January.
The temperature in the sea has been recorded since 1935. At 1 metre (3 feet 3 inches) depth in the sea near Skrova, water temperatures varies from a low of 3 °C (37 °F) in March to 14 °C (57 °F) in August. Some years peaking above 17 °C (63 °F). November is around 7–8 °C (45–46 °F). At a depth of 200 metres (660 feet), the temperature is near 8 °C (46 °F) all year.
Mountaineering and rock climbing
Lofoten offers many rock climbing and mountaineering opportunities. It has 24 hours of daylight in the summer and has Alpine-style ridges, summits and glaciers, but at a height of less than 1,200 metres (3,900 feet). The main centre for rock climbing is Henningsvær on Austvågøya.
The main areas for mountaineering and climbing are on Austvågøya and Moskenesøya. Moskenesøya features remote and serious mountaineering whereas Austvågøya is very popular area for rock climbing. For more information, see the walking guide by Dyer and the rock climbing guidebook by Craggs and Enevold (see references).
There is a well marked cycling route that goes from Å in the south and continues past Fiskebøl in the north. The route is part public road, part cycle-path with the option to bypass all of the tunnels by either cycle-path (tunnels through mountains) or boat. Traffic is generally light, although in July there may be a lot of campervans. Some of the more remote sections are on gravel roads. There is a dedicated cycling ferry which sails between Ballstad and Nusfjord, allowing cyclists to avoid the long, steep Nappstraum tunnel. The route hugs the coastline for most of its length where it is generally flat. As it turns inland through the mountain passes there are a couple of 300–400-metre (980–1,310-foot) climbs.
The European road E10 connects the larger islands of Lofoten with bridges and undersea tunnels. The E10 road also connects Lofoten to the mainland of Norway through the Lofast road connection, which was officially opened on December 1, 2007. There are several daily bus services between the islands of Lofoten and between Lofoten and the mainland along E10.
Lofoten is also served by a number of small airports:
- Leknes Airport (84,215 passengers in 2006)
- Svolvær Airport, Helle (63,787 passengers in 2006)
- Røst Airport (7,755 passengers in 2006), which mainly offers flights to Bodø.
- A heliport at Værøy (7,923 passengers in 2006)
- Stokmarknes Airport, Skagen is located in Vesterålen.
- Harstad/Narvik Airport, Evenes has direct flights to Oslo and Trondheim.
Bodø is often used as a hub for travel to Lofoten. In addition to air travel there is a ferry connecting Bodø to Moskenes. There is also a ferry connecting Svolvær to Skutvik in Hamarøy, with road connection east to E6. Hurtigruten calls at Stamsund and Svolvær.
In popular culture
- Edgar Allan Poe's short story "A Descent into the Maelström" tells the story of a man who survived his ship being drawn into and swallowed by Moskstraumen.
- Jules Verne's novel 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1870) concludes with the Nautilus fallen into the Maelström, and Prof. Aronnax, Conseil and Ned Land, who had been attempting to escape when the Nautilus began its fall, washed up on an island in the Lofotens.
- Johan Bojer's novel The Last of the Vikings (1922) tells the story of the Lofoten cod fishermen.
- In Nikos Kavvadias's poem "The pilot Nagel", pilot Nagel's birthplace was the Lofoten islands.
- In Angela Green's novel The Colour of Water, much of the action takes place in Å i Lofoten and climaxes at the Maelstrom.
- In Ole Edvart Rølvaag's novel Giants in the Earth, the Norwegian protagonists settling in Dakota Territory are immigrants from Lofoten.
- In Thomas Campbell's poem Ode to Winter
- In the film Maelström, Lofoten is where the ashes of Annstein Karson are distributed.
The islands of the Lofoten archipelago are well known for their natural beauty. The area offers both rugged landscape and unique lighting. Consequently, the islands have long served as an inspiration for artist. Norwegian painter, Gunnar Berg was especially known for his paintings of his native Lofoten. He principally painted memorable scenes of the everyday life of the local fishermen. Other artists whose work has been associated with Lofoten include Adelsteen Normann, Otto Sinding, Christian Krohg, Theodor Kittelsen, and Lev Lagorio.
In 2004, Nurse with Wound broadcast 24 unexpected radio transmissions from the Lofoten Islands, whose sounds were sourced from the environment and objects found in Lofoten. These recordings are included on their three releases entitled Shipwreck Radio.
In the 2015 video game, The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt, a village is named Lofoten within the Norse/Celtic inspired archipelago, Skellige.
Henningsvær in Lofoten during fishing season.
Steinsfjorden in Lofoten
Ramberg beach in Flakstad.
Stockfish has been exported from Lofoten for at least 1,000 years.
Lofoten in art
Theodor Kittelsen (1890)
Lev Lagorio (1895)
Blick von Svolvaer nach Storemolla und Lillemolla
Hermann Eschke (1887)
Fra Svolvær i Lofoten
- Robert M. D’Anjou, Raymond S. Bradley, Nicholas L. Balascio, and David B. Finkelstein. Climate impacts on human settlement and agricultural activities in northern Norway revealed through sediment biogeochemistry. PNAS, November 26, 2012 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1212730109
- "Norway – Vestvågøy – Vendalsjord".
- Steltenpohl, Mark G.; Hames, Willis E.; Andresen, Arild (2004). "The Silurian to Permian history of a metamorphic core complex in Lofoten, northern Scandinavian Caledonides". Tectonics. 23 (1). doi:10.1029/2003TC001522.
- Lidmar-Bergström, K.; Näslund, J.O. (2002). "Landforms and uplift in Scandinavia". In Doré, A.G.; Cartwright, J.A.; Stoker, M.S.; Turner, J.P.; White, N. Exhumation of the North Atlantic Margin: Timing, Mechanisms and Implications for Petroleum Exploration. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. The Geological Societ y of London. pp. 103–116.
- Osmundsen, P.T.; Redfield, T.F.; Hendriks, B.H.W.; Bergh, S.; Hansen, J.-A.; Henderson, I.H.C.; Dehls, J.; Lauknes, T.R.; Larsen, Y.; Anda, E.; Davidsen, B. (2010). "Fault-controlled alpine topography in Norway". Journal of the Geological Society, London. 167: 83–98. doi:10.1144/0016-76492009-019.
- Røst Reef, 40 km long
- Martin, Stephen. Penguin. Reaktion Books Ltd., 2009, p. 22.
- McEnally C. (2014). "After Escaping Whaling Ships, One Whale is Changing Norwegian Attitudes on Whale Meat". The One Green Planet. Retrieved 2015-01-15.
- Temperature scale in Lofoten
- "ROST II, NORWAY (INCLUDING JAN MAYEN AND SVALBARD) Weather History and Climate Data".
- institutt, NRK og Meteorologisk. "Weather statistics for Værøy".
- Temperature scale for Vågan
- Geography of Norway
- "Faste stasjoner".
- "Ekstremsurferne Inntar Lofoten". nrk.no. Opphavsrett NRK.
- "Zalaris Lofoten Insomnia".
- "The Northern Lights Route – Lofoten in Paintings".
- A. Dyer et al. Walks and Scrambles in Norway ISBN 1-904466-25-7.
- Ed Webster Climbing in the Magic Islands ISBN 82-993199-0-0.
- Chris Craggs and Thorbjørn Enevold Lofoten Rock ISBN 978-1-873341-66-7
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lofoten.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lofoten.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Lofoten.|
- The official website for Lofoten
- The first Lofoten website (1996) with special emphasis on the islands of Moskenes and Flakstad.
- Unesco World Heritage – Lofoten archipelago on the tentative list
- Hiking and trekking portal of the Lofoten Islands
- Photographs from Michael Voeller
- Photo gallery on M. Klüber Photography
- Stockfish exported to Europe, Britain 1,100 years ago