In boolean logic, logical nor or joint denial is a truth-functional operator which produces a result that is the negation of logical or. That is, a sentence of the form (p NOR q) is true precisely when neither p nor q is true—i.e. when both of p and q are false. It is logically equivalent to and , where the symbol signifies logical negation, signifies OR, and signifies AND.
|Part of a series on|
|Charles Sanders Peirce|
|Pragmatism in epistemology|
The NOR operator is also known as Peirce's arrow. Peirce, in unpublished manuscripts, first considered it as a logical operator, and showed that it can express logical NOT, AND, and OR. Stamm, Sheffer, and Nicod were the first to discuss it in print. Quine introduced the symbol for it. As with its dual, the NAND operator (a.k.a. the Sheffer stroke—symbolized as either , or ), NOR can be used by itself, without any other logical operator, to constitute a logical formal system (making NOR functionally complete). Other terms for the NOR operator include Quine's dagger, the ampheck (from Ancient Greek ἀμφήκης, amphēkēs, "cutting both ways") used by Peirce, and neither-nor. Other ways of notating include, P NOR Q, and "Xpq" (in Bocheński notation).
The computer used in the spacecraft that first carried humans to the moon, the Apollo Guidance Computer, was constructed entirely using NOR gates with three inputs.
The NOR operation is a logical operation on two logical values, typically the values of two propositions, that produces a value of true if and only if both operands are false. In other words, it produces a value of false if and only if at least one operand is true.
The truth table of (also written as P NOR Q) is as follows:
The logical NOR is the negation of the disjunction:
Logical NOR does not possess any of the five qualities (truth-preserving, false-preserving, linear, monotonic, self-dual) required to be absent from at least one member of a set of functionally complete operators. Thus, the set containing only NOR suffices as a complete set.
Other Boolean Operations in terms of the Logical NOR
NOR has the interesting feature that all other logical operators can be expressed by interlaced NOR operations. The logical NAND operator also has this ability.
Expressed in terms of NOR , the usual operators of propositional logic are:
- Bitwise NOR
- Boolean algebra
- Boolean domain
- Boolean function
- Functional completeness
- NOR gate
- Propositional logic
- Sole sufficient operator
- Sheffer stroke as symbol for the logical NAND
- ^ Stamm, Edward (1911). "Beitrag zur Algebra der Logik". Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik. 22 (1): 137–149. doi:10.1007/BF01742795.
- ^ Sheffer, Henry Maurice (1913). "A set of five independent postulates for Boolean algebras, with application to logical constants". Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. 14 (4): 481–488. doi:10.1090/S0002-9947-1913-1500960-1.
- ^ Nicod, Jean G. P. (1917). "A reduction in the number of the primitive propositions of logic". Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 19: 32–41.
- ^ Quine, Willard Van Orman (1940). Mathematical logic (1 ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
- ^ C.S. Peirce, CP 4.264
- ^ Hall, Eldon C. (1996), Journey to the Moon: The History of the Apollo Guidance Computer, Reston, Virginia, USA: AIAA, p. 196, ISBN 1-56347-185-X
- Media related to Logical NOR at Wikimedia Commons