Loiano is a town and comune of province of Bologna in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy in the Tusco-Emilian Apennines at 714 metres (2,343 ft) above sea level. Its population was 4,260 as of the 2003 census. Highway SS 65 connects it to Bologna, 35 kilometres (22 mi) to the north, and Florence, 73 kilometres (45 mi) to the south.
It is the site of the astronomical observatory of the University of Bologna, named for the astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini.
At Val Sicura, within the territory of the commune, a shooting range founded in 1889 remains active.