Lois Mailou Jones

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This article is about the artist. For the Antarctic scientist, see Lois Jones (scientist).
Loïs Mailou Jones
Lois Jones, artist and teacher - NARA - 559227.jpg
Born (1905-11-03)November 3, 1905
Boston, Massachusetts
Died June 9, 1998(1998-06-09) (aged 92)
Nationality American
Known for Painting and Illustration
Movement Harlem Renaissance

Loïs Mailou Jones (November 3, 1905 – June 9, 1998)[1] was an influential artist and teacher during her seven decade career. Jones was the only African-American female painter of the 1930's and 1940's to achieve fame abroad. Jones' career began in textile design before she decided to focus on fine arts. Jones looked towards Africa and the Caribbean and her experiences in life when painting. As a result, her subjects were some of the first paintings by an African-American artist to extend beyond the realm of portraiture. Jones was influenced by the Harlem Renaissance movement and her countless international trips.Lois Mailou Jones' career was enduring and complex. Her work in designs, paintings, illustrations, and academia made her an exceptional artist that continues to receive national attention and research.

Early life and education (1905-1928)[edit]

Jones was born to Thomas Vreeland and Carolyn Jones. Her father was a building superintendent who later became a lawyer after becoming the first African-American to earn a law degree from Suffolk Law School.[2] Her mother worked as a cosmetologist.[3] During her childhood, Jones' parents encouraged her to draw and paint using watercolors. Her parents bought a house on Martha's Vineyard where Jones met those who influenced her life and art such as: sculptor Meta Warrick Fuller, Harry T. Burleigh, and novelist Dorothy West.[4]

From 1919 to 1923, Jones attended the High School of Practical Arts in Boston. During these years, she took night classes from the Boston Museum of Fine Arts through an annual scholarship. Additionally, she apprenticed in costume design with Grace Ripley. She held her first solo exhibition at the age of seventeen in Martha's Vineyard.[1] Jones began experimenting with African mask influences during her time at the Ripley Studio. From her research of African masks, Jones created costume designs for Denishawn.[5]:178

From 1923 to 1927, Jones attended the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston to study design where she won the Susan Minot Lane Scholarship in Design yearly. Jones took night courses at the Boston Normal Art School while working towards her degree. After graduating from the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Jones received her graduate degree in design from the Design Art School of Boston in 1928. Afterwards, Jones began working at the F. A. Foster Company in Boston and the Schumacher Company in New York City. During the summer of 1928, Jones attended Harvard University where she decided to focus on painting instead of design.[1]

Jones continued taking classes throughout her lifetime. In 1934, Jones took classes on different cultural masks at Columbia University. In 1945, she received a BA in art education from Howard University, graduating magna cum laude.[1]

Career and life (1928-1998)[edit]

Jones’ career began in the 1930's and she continued to produce art work until her death in 1998 at age 92. Her style shifted and evolved multiple times in response to influences in her life especially her extensive travels. She worked with different mediums, techniques, and influences throughout her long career. Jones’ extensive travels throughout Europe, Africa, and the Caribbean influenced and changed how she painted. Jones felt that her greatest contribution to the art world was "proof of the talent of black artists." Jones wished to be known as an American painter with no labels.[6] Her work echoes her pride in her African roots and American ancestry.

1928 - 1936[edit]

Jones’ teaching career began shortly after finishing college. The director of the Boston Museum School refused to hire Jones by telling her to find a job in the South where "her people" lived.[5]:186 In 1928 she was hired by Charlotte Hawkins Brown after some initial reservations, and subsequently founded the art department at Palmer Memorial Institute in North Carolina. As a prep school teacher, she coached a basketball team, taught folk dancing, and played the piano for church services. In 1930, she was recruited by James Vernon Herring to join the art department at Howard University in Washington, D.C. Jones remained as professor of design and watercolor painting until her retirement in 1977. Jones worked to prepare her students for a competitive career in the arts by inviting working designers and artists into her classroom for workshops. While developing her own work as an artist, she became an outstanding mentor and strong advocate for African American art and artists.[7]:13 14 15 16

In the early 1930's, Jones began to seek recognition for her designs and art work. She began to exhibit her works with the William E. Harmon Foundation with a charcoal drawing of a student at the Palmer Memorial Institute, Negro Youth (1929). In this period, Jones shifted away from designs and began experimenting with portraiture.[7]:25

"Ascent of Ethiopia", Lois Mailou Jones, 1932

Jones developed as an artist through visits and summers spent in Harlem during the onset of the Harlem Renaissance or New Negro Movement.[5] Aaron Douglas, a Harlem Renaissance artist, influenced Jones' seminal art piece, The Ascent of Ethiopia. African design elements can be seen in both Douglas and Jones' paintings. Jones studied actual objects and design elements from Africa.[5]:193

In both of her works, Negro Youth and Ascent of Ethiopia, the influence of African masks are seen in the profiles of the faces. The chiseled structures and shading renderings mimic three-dimensional masks that Jones studied.[8] Jones would utilize this style throughout her career.

1937 - 1953[edit]

In 1937, Jones received a fellowship to study in Paris at the Académie Julian. She produced over thirty watercolors during her year in France.[1] In total, Jones completed approximately forty paintings during her time at the Académie. She utilized the en plein air method of painting that she used throughout her career. Two paintings were accepted at the annual Salon de Printemps exhibition at the Société des Artists Français for her Parisian debut.[7]:29-30 Jones loved her time in Paris as she felt fully accepted in society as opposed to the United States at this time. The French were appreciative of paintings and talent. After Jones was granted an extension of her fellowship to travel Italy, she returned to Howard University and taught watercolor painting classes.[7]:31[1]

In 1938, she produced Les Fétiches (1938) an African inspired oil painting which is owned by the Smithsonian American Art Museum.[9] Jones painted Les Fétiches in a Post-Cubist and Post-Primitive style. Five African masks swirl around the dark canvas. Jones was able to view and study many different African objects and masks at the Musee d'Homme and galleries through her fellowship in Paris. In Les Fétiches, masks from Songye Kifwebe and Guru Dan are visible.[8]

Jones' Les Fétiches was instrumental in transitioning 'Négritude'—a distinctly francophone artistic phenomenon—from the predominantly literary realm into the visual. Jones' work provided an important visual link to Négritude authors including Aimé Césaire, Léon Damas, and Léopold Sédar Senghor.[10] She also completed Parisian Beggar Woman with text supplied by Langston Hughes.[1] In 1938, Jones' first solo exhibition was hung in the Whyte Gallery and would later be exhibited at the Howard University Gallery of Art in 1948.[11]

Her main source of inspiration was Céline Marie Tabary, also a painter, whom she worked with for many years. Tabary submitted Jones' paintings for consideration for jury prizes since works by African-American artists were not always accepted.[1][12] Jones traveled extensively with Tabary, including to the south of France. They frequently painted each other. They taught art together in the 1940s.[1]

In 1941, Jones entered her painting, Indian Shops Gay Head, Massachusetts, into the Corcoran Gallery's annual competition. At the time, the Corcoran Gallery prohibited African American artists from entering their artworks themselves. Jones had Tabary enter her painting to circumvent the rule. Jones ended up winning the Robert Woods Bliss Award for this work of art, yet she could not pick up the award herself. Tabary had to mail the award to Jones. In spite of these issues, Jones worked harder in spite of the racial biases found throughout the country at this time.[7]:49 50 In 1994, the Corcoran Gallery of Art gave a public apology to Jones at the opening of the exhibition, The World of Lois Mailou Jones, fifty years after Jones hid her identity.[4]

Over the course of the next ten years, Jones exhibited at the Phillips Collection, Seattle Art Museum, National Academy of Design, the Barnett-Aden Gallery, Pennsylvania's Lincoln University, Howard University, galleries in New York, and the Corcoran Gallery of Art. In 1952, Loïs Mailou Jones: Peintures 1937-1951 was published. The book reproduced more than one hundred of Jones' art pieces completed in France.[1] At the Barnett-Aden Gallery, Jones exhibited with a group of prominent black artists such as Jacob Lawerence and Alma Thomas. These artists and others were known as the "Little Paris Group."[13]:27

Alain Locke, a philosophy professor at Howard University and founder of the Harlem Renaissance, encouraged Jones to paint her heritage. Jones painted her striking painting, Mob Victim (Meditation), after walking along U St Northwest in Washington, DC. She saw a man walking that prompted her to ask him to pose in her studio. Jones wanted to depict a lynching scene. The man had seen a person being lynched before and mimicked the pose which the man held before being lynched.[14] The painting illustrates a contemplation of imminent death that many male African-Americans were facing during the 1940s.[7]:51 Other paintings that came out of Locke's encouragement were Dans un Café à Paris (Leigh Whipper), The Janitor, and The Pink Table Cloth.[7]:51

Previously in 1934, Jones met Louis Vergniaud Pierre-Noel, a prominent Haitian artist, while both were students at Columbia University. They corresponded for almost twenty years before marrying in the south of France in 1953.[7]:53 Jones and her husband lived in Washington, D.C. and Haiti. Their frequent trips to Haiti inspired and impacted Jones' art style significantly.[7]:77

Lois Jones, artist at work

1954 - 1967[edit]

In 1954, Jones was a guest professor at Centre D'Art and Foyer des Artes Plastiques in Port-au-Prince, Haiti where the government invited her to paint Haitian people and landscapes. Her work became energized by the bright colors. She and her husband returned there during summers for the next several years, in addition to frequent trips to France. Jones completed forty-two paintings and exhibited them in her show, Oeuvres des Loïs Mailou Jones Pierre-Noël, which was sponsored by the first lady of Haiti. As a result of her paintings, Jones was given the Diplôme et Décoration de l'Ordre National "Honneur et Mérite au Grade de Chevalier."[7]:77 In 1955, she unveiled portraits of the Haitian president and his wife commissioned by United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower.[1]

Jones's numerous oils and watercolors inspired by Haiti are probably her most widely known works. In them her affinity for bright colors, her personal understanding of Cubism's basic principles, and her search for a distinctly style reached an apogee. In many of her pieces one can see the influence of the Haitian culture, with its African influences, which reinvigorated the way she looked at the world. These include Ode to Kinshasa and Ubi Girl from Tai Region. Her work became more abstract, vibrant, and thematically after moving to Haiti. Jones' previously impressionist techniques gave way to a spirited, richly patterned, and brilliantly colored style.[11]

In the 1960's, she exhibited at School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Cornell University, and galleries in France, New York and Washington, D.C. In 1962, she initiated Howard University's first art student tour of France, including study at Académie de la Grande Chaumière and guided several more tours over the years. [1]

1968 - 1988[edit]

In 1968, she documented work and interviews of contemporary Haitian artists for Howard University's "The Black Visual Arts" research grant.

Jones received the same grant in 1970 as well. Between 1968 and 1970, Jones traveled to eleven African countries which influenced her painting style. She documented and interviewed contemporary African artists in Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya, Zaire, Nigeria, Dahomey, Ghana, the Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leona, and Senegal.[7]:97 Her report Contemporary African Art was published in 1970 and in 1971 she delivered 1000 slides and other materials to the University as fulfillment of the project.

On May 22, 1970, Jones took part in a national day of protest in Washington, DC that was created by Robert Morris in New York. They protested against racism and the Vietnam War. While many Washington DC artists did not paint to be political or create their own commentary on racial issues, Jones was greatly influenced by Africa and the Caribbean which her art reflected.[13]:80-81 For example, Jones' Moon Masque is thought to represent then-contemporary problems in Africa.[15]

In 1973, Jones received the "Women artists of the Caribbean and Afro-American Artists." grant from Howard University.[16] In the same year, she was awarded an honorary Doctor of Philosophy from Colorado State Christian College.[17]

Her research inspired Jones to synthesize a body of designs and motifs that she combined in large, complex compositions.[18] Jones's return to African themes in her work of the past several decades coincided with the black expressionistic movement in the United States during the 1960's. Skillfully integrating aspects of African masks, figures, and textiles into her vibrant paintings, Jones became a link between the Harlem Renaissance movement into a contemporary expression of similar themes.[7]:99

On July 29, 1984, Lois Jones Day is declared in Washington, DC.[1]

1989 - 1998[edit]

Jones continued to produce exciting new works at an astonishing rate of speed. Jones traveled to France and experimented with her previous Impressionist-Post-impressionist style that started her career in Paris. Her landscapes were painted with a wider color palette from her Haitian and African influences.[7]:111

On her eighty-fourth birthday, Jones had a major heart attack and subsequently a triple bypass.[7]:112

The Meridian International Center created a retrospective exhibition with the help of Jones herself. 1990 exhibition toured across the country for several years. The exhibition was the first exhibition of Jones that garnered her nationwide attention. Despite her extensive portfolio, teaching career, and cultural work in other countries, Jones had been left out of the history books because she did not stick to typical subjects that were suitable for African-Americans to paint.[19]

Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton collected one of her island seascapes Breezy Day at Gay Head while they were in the White House.[4]

In 1991, The National Museum of Women in the Arts held an exhibition that showcased some of Jones' children books illustrations.[20]

In 1994, The Corcoran Gallery of Art opened The World of Lois Mailou Jones exhibition with a public apology for their past racial discrimination.[1]

In 1997, Jones' paintings were featured in an exhibition entitled Explorations in the City of Light: African-American Artists in Paris 1945-1965 that appeared at several museums throughout the country including the New Orleans Museum of Art, the Milwaukee Art Museum, and the Studio Museum of Harlem. The exhibition also featured the works of Barbara Chase-Riboud, Edward Clark, Harold Cousins, Beauford Delaney, Herbert Gentry, and Larry Potter. The exhibition examined the importance of Paris as an artistic mecca for African-American artists during the 20 years that followed World War II.[21]

In 1998, Jones died with no immediate survivors at the age of ninety-two at her home in Washington, DC..[22] She is buried on Martha's Vineyard in the Oak Bluffs Cemetery.[4] Howard University hosted an exhibition Remembering Lois.[1]

Legacy[edit]

Lois Mailou Jones' work is in museums all over the world and valued by collectors. Her paintings grace the permanent collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, National Portrait Gallery, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the National Palace in Haiti, the National Museum of Afro-American Artists among others.

After her death, her friend and adviser, Dr. Chris Chapman completed a book about her life and the African-American pioneers she had worked with and been friends with, including Dr. Carter G. Woodson, Alain Locke, Dorothy West, Josephine Baker, and Matthew Henson. Entitled Lois Mailou Jones: A life in color, it is available through Xlibris and museum stores.[23]

The Lois Mailou Jones Pierre-Noel Trust founded a scholarship in her name at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and a scholarship fund for the Department of Fine Arts at Howard University.[1]

In 2006, Lois Mailou Jones: The Early Works: Paintings and Patterns 1927-1937 opened at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The exhibition showed thirty designs and paintings from the beginning of her career.[24]

From November 14, 2009, to February 29, 2010, a retrospective exhibit of her work entitled Lois Mailou Jones: A life in vibrant color was held at the Mint Museum of Art in Charlotte, North Carolina.[25] The traveling exhibit included 70 paintings showcasing her various styles and experiences: America, France, Haiti, and Africa.[26][17]

Jones is featured in a new publication, Identity Unknown: Rediscovering Seven American Women Artists.[27]

Awards and honors[edit]

  • Robert Woods Bliss Award for Landscape for Indian Shops Gay Head, Massachusetts (1941)[1]
  • Atlanta University award for watercolor painting Old House Near Frederick, Virginia (1942)[16]
  • Women of 1946 award from the National Council of Negro Women (1946)[1]
  • John Hope Prize for Landscape for Ville d'Houdain, Pas-de-Calais and award from the Corcoran Gallery of Art for Petite Ville en hautes-Pyrenées (1949)[1]
  • Atlanta University award for Impasse de l'Oratorie, Grasse, France (1952)
  • Oil painting award from the Corcoran Gallery of Art Coin de la Place Maubert, Paris (1953)[16]
  • Chevalier of the National Order of Honor and Merit from the government of Haiti. (1954)[16]
  • Award for design of publication Voici Hätii (1958)[16]
  • Atlanta University award for Voodoo Worshippers, Haiti and America's National Museum of Art award for Fishing Smacks, Menemsha, Massachusetts (1960)[16]
  • Elected Fellow of The Royal Society of Arts in London. Receives Franz Bader Award for Oil Painting from National Museum of Art for Peasants on Parade (1962)[16]
  • Honorary Doctor of Philosophy from Colorado State Christian College (1973)[16]
  • Howard University Fine Arts Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching (1975)[16]
  • Honored by President Jimmy Carter at the White House for outstanding achievements in the arts (1980).[1]
  • Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Suffolk University in Boston (1981)[16]
  • Candace Award, Arts and Letters, National Coalition of 100 Black Women (1982)[28]
  • Third Annual Art Awards, Washington, DC (1983)[1]
  • Lois Jones Day, Washington, DC (July 29, 1984)[1]
  • Outstanding Achievement Award in the Visual Arts, Women's Caucus of Art, Cooper Union, New York, NY (1986)[1]
  • Honorary Doctorate in Fine Arts from Massachusetts College of Art, Boston (1986)[16]
  • Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Howard University (1987)[16]
  • Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from The Atlanta College of Art (1989)[16]
  • Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts from the Corcoran School of Art (1996)[16]

Selected Collections[edit]

Dans un Café à Paris, Lois Mailou Jones, 1939
  • Men Working, not dated, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[29]
  • Negro Youth, 1929, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[30]
  • Brother Brown, 1931, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[31]
  • Les Fétiches, 1938, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[9]
  • Place du Tertre, 1938, The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC[32]
  • Dans un Café à Paris (Leigh Whipper), 1939, Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY[33]
  • Seated Man in Yellow Overalls, 1939, Smithsonian American art Museum, Washington, DC[34]
  • Cauliflower and Pumpkin, 1938, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY[35]
  • Self-Portrait, 1940, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[36]
  • Les Clochards, Montmartre, Paris, 1947, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[37]
  • Coin de la Rue Medard, 1947, The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC[38]
  • Jardin du Luxembourg, ca. 1948, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[39]
  • Arreau, Hautes-Pyrénées, 1949, National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, DC[40]
  • Jeune Fille Française, 1951, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[41]
  • Eglise Saint Joseph, 1954, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[42]
  • Shapes and Colors, 1958, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[43]
  • Challenge--America, 1964, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC[44]
  • Moon Masque, 1971, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[15]
  • Ode to Kinshasa, 1972, National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, DC[45]
  • Ubi Girl from Tai Region, 1972, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, MA[46]
  • La Baker, 1977, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, MA[47]
  • The Green Door, 1981, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC[48]
  • Suriname, 1982, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC[49]
  • Glyphs, 1985, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, MA[50]
  • Untitled (Portrait of Léopold Sédar Senghor), 1996, Minneapolis Institute of Art, Minneapolis, MN[51]

Selected Exhibitions[edit]

  • Solo exhibition, 1937, Howard University, Washington, DC, sponsored by Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority.[1]
  • Solo exhibition, 1946, Barnett Aden Gallery, Washington, DC[1]
  • Solo exhibition, 1947, Lincoln University of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania[1]
  • Solo exhibition, 1948, Whyte Gallery and Howard University, Washington, DC[1]
  • Solo exhibition, 1955, Pan American Union Building, Washington, DC[1]
  • Solo exhibition, 1961, Galerie International, New York, NY[1]
  • Solo exhibition, 1966, Galerie Soulanges, Paris, France[1]
  • Solo exhibition, 1967, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY[1]
  • Forty Years of Painting, 1972, Howard University Gallery of Art, Washington, DC[52]
  • Reflective Moments, 1973-1974, MFA, Boston, Boston, MA[1]
  • Six Distinguished Women Artists, 1976, Brooklyn Museum, New York, NY[1]
  • Solo exhibition, 1979, The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC[1]
  • The World of Loïs Mailou Jones, 1990-1996, The Meridian International Center, Toured throughout the nation[1]
  • The Art of Loïs Mailou Jones, 1991-1993, Bomani Art Gallery, San Francisco, CA[53]
  • The Life and Art of Lois Mailou Jones, 1994, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC[1]
  • Loïs Mailou Jones: The Early Works: Paintings and Patterns 1927-1937, 2006, School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA[1]
  • Lois Mailou Jones: A Life in Vibrant Color, 2009-2010, Mint Museum of Art, Charlotte, NC[54]
  • Full Spectrum: The Prolific Master within Loïs Mailou Jones, 2014-2015, DC Commission on the Arts and Humanities in Partnership with the Loïs Mailou Jones Trust,The I Street Gallery, Washington, DC[55]
  • The Life and Work of Lois Mailou Jones, 2015, Martha’s Vineyard Museum, Edgartown, MA[56]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Carla M. Hanzal, Loïs Mailou Jones: a life in vibrant color, Mint Museum of Art, October 2009, Chronology, pp. 134–140.
  2. ^ Finley, Cheryl1. "Loïs Mailou Jones: Impressions Of The South." Southern Quarterly 49.1 (2011): 80-93. Humanities Source. Web
  3. ^ Betty Laduke, "Lois Mailou Jones: The Grande Dame of African-American art", Woman's Art Journal (Vol. 8, No. 2, Autumn 1987 - Winter 1988), 32; phone conversation between Lois Jones and Betty Laduke.
  4. ^ a b c d Araujo, Karla. "Against All Odds | Martha's Vineyard Magazine". www.mvmagazine.com. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  5. ^ a b c d Helene,, Kirschke, Amy; Renee,, Ater,. Women artists of the Harlem Renaissance. ISBN 9781628460339. OCLC 922665448. 
  6. ^ Laduke, Betty (1987-01-01). "Lois Mailou Jones: The Grande Dame of African-American Art". Woman's Art Journal. 8 (2): 32. doi:10.2307/1358163 – via JSTOR. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Benjamin, Tritobia H. (1994). Life and art of Lois Mailou Jones. San Francisco: Pomegranate Artbooks. 
  8. ^ a b Finley, Cheryl (2011). "The Mask as Muse: The Influence of African Art on the Life and Career of Loïs Mailou Jones". NKA Journal of Contemporary African Art. 29. 
  9. ^ a b "Les Fétiches by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-26. 
  10. ^ Powell, Richard J. (2002). Black Art: A Cultural History. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 79, 272. ISBN 0-500-20362-8. 
  11. ^ a b Minderovic, Christine Miner (1997). Jones, Lois Mailou. St. James Guide to Black Artists. Detroit: St. James Press. pp. 285–288. 
  12. ^ Fairbrother, Trevor J. (2006). Painting Summer in New England. Yale University Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-0-300-11692-2. Retrieved 29 March 2013. [verification needed]
  13. ^ a b Lawlor., Cohen, Jean; 1948-, Lawrence, Sidney,; Elizabeth., Tebow,; Benjamin., Forgey,; Museum., American University (Washington, D.C.). (2013-01-01). Washington art matters : art life in the capital 1940-1990. Washington Arts Museum. ISBN 9780615828268. OCLC 854910561. 
  14. ^ Kennelly, Eleanor (September 16, 1994). "Three cultures on an easel - Jones' art reflects travels, heritage". The Washington Times. 
  15. ^ a b "Moon Masque by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-26. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Awards & Recognition | Loïs Mailou Jones". www.loismailoujones.com. Retrieved 2017-03-19. 
  17. ^ a b "Lois Mailou Jones: A Life in Vibrant Color at The Women's Museum". The Dallas Art News. July 12, 2011. 
  18. ^ Bernard, Catherine. Patterns of Change: the Work of Loïs Mailou Jones, Anyone Can Fly Foundation, accessed March 29, 2013.
  19. ^ Clifford, Terry (November 14, 1993). "A life on canvas--Lois Mailou Jones: Sharing the beauty of an artist's soul". Chicago Tribune. 
  20. ^ "Loïs Mailou Jones | National Museum of Women in the Arts". nmwa.org. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  21. ^ Kimmelman, Michael (1996-02-18). "ART VIEW;Black Artists At Home In Postwar Paris". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-26. 
  22. ^ Cotter, Holland (1998-06-13). "Lois Mailou Jones, 92, Painter and Teacher". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-01-26. 
  23. ^ Chapman, Chris (2007-01-01). Lois Mailou Jones: A Life in Color. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781425717292. 
  24. ^ Villarreal, Ignacio. "Lois Mailou Jones: The Early Works: Paintings and Patterns". artdaily.com. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  25. ^ Lois Mailou Jones: A Life in Vibrant Color, Mint Museum of Art page, accessed March 29, 2013.
  26. ^ O'Sullivan, Michael (December 24, 2010). "Lois Mailou Jones: Color tells a story". The Washington Post. 
  27. ^ Seaman, Donna (2017-02-14). Identity Unknown: Rediscovering Seven American Women Artists. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 9781620407608. 
  28. ^ "CANDACE AWARD RECIPIENTS 1982-1990, Page 3". National Coalition of 100 Black Women. Archived from the original on March 14, 2003. 
  29. ^ "Men Working by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  30. ^ "Negro Youth by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  31. ^ "Brother Brown by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  32. ^ "Lois Mailou Jones - Place du Tertre". www.phillipscollection.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  33. ^ "Dans un Cafe a Paris". www.brooklynmuseum.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  34. ^ "Seated Man in Yellow Overalls by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  35. ^ "Lois Mailou Jones | Cauliflower and Pumpkin | The Met". The Metropolitan Museum of Art, i.e. The Met Museum. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  36. ^ "Self Portrait by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  37. ^ "Les Clochards, Montmartre, Paris by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  38. ^ "Lois Mailou Jones - Coin de la Rue Medard, Paris". www.phillipscollection.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  39. ^ "Jardin du Luxembourg by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  40. ^ "Arreau, Hautes-Pyrénées | National Museum of Women in the Arts". nmwa.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  41. ^ "Jeune Fille Française by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  42. ^ "Eglise Saint Joseph by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  43. ^ "Shapes and Colors by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  44. ^ "Search results for: lois mailou jones, page 1 | Collections Search Center, Smithsonian Institution". collections.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  45. ^ "Ode to Kinshasa | National Museum of Women in the Arts". nmwa.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  46. ^ "Ubi Girl from Tai Region". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 2017-01-26. Retrieved 2017-03-26. 
  47. ^ "La Baker". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  48. ^ Jones, Lois Mailou (1981-01-01), The Green Door, retrieved 2017-03-20 
  49. ^ "Suriname by Loïs Mailou Jones / American Art". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  50. ^ "Glyphs". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 2017-01-26. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  51. ^ "Untitled (Portrait of Léopold Sédar Senghor), 1996". Minneapolis Institute of Art. Retrieved 10 February 2017. 
  52. ^ Jones, Lois Mailou (1972-01-01). Lois Mailou Jones: Retrospective Exhibition, "Forty Years of Painting," 1932-1972. Howard University Gallery of Art. 
  53. ^ "Recent Exhibitions | Loïs Mailou Jones". www.loismailoujones.com. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  54. ^ "The Mint Museum | Lois Mailou Jones: A Life in Vibrant Color". www.mintmuseum.org. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  55. ^ "Recent Exhibitions | Loïs Mailou Jones". www.loismailoujones.com. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  56. ^ "Recent Exhibitions | Loïs Mailou Jones". www.loismailoujones.com. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Benjamin, Tritobia Hayes (1994). The Life and Art of Lois Mailou Jones. San Francisco: PomegranateArtbooks. 
  • Benjamin, Tritobia Hayes (1998). "A Passionate Life in Art". International Review of African American Art. 15 (2): 39–42. 
  • Hills, Patricia (2005). Syncopated Rhythms: 20th Century African American Art from George and Joyce Wein Collection. Boston: Boston University Art Gallery. 
  • Martin, Elizabeth (1997). Female Gazes:Seventy-Five Women Artists. Toronto: Second Story Press. 
  • Perry, Reginia (1992). Free within Ourselves: African-American Artists in the Collection of the National Museum of American Art. Washington, DC and San Francisco: Smithsonian Institution in association with Pomegranate Books. 
  • Seamon, Donna (2017). Identity Unknown: Rediscovering Seven American Women Artists. New York: Bloomsbury USA.

External links[edit]