Lojban

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Lojban
la .lojban.
Lojban logo.svg
Pronunciation [laʔˈloʒbanʔ]
Created by Logical Language Group
Date 1987
Setting and usage a logically engineered language for various usages
Purpose
Latin and others
Sources Loglan
Language codes
ISO 639-2 jbo
ISO 639-3 jbo
Glottolog None
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Lojban (pronounced [ˈloʒban]) is a constructed, syntactically unambiguous human language based on predicate logic, succeeding the Loglan project.

The Logical Language Group (LLG) began developing Lojban in 1987. The LLG sought to realize Loglan's purposes, and further improve the language by making it more usable and freely available (as indicated by its official full English title, "Lojban: A Realization of Loglan"). After a long initial period of debating and testing, the baseline was completed in 1997, and published as The Complete Lojban Language. In an interview in 2010 with the New York Times, Arika Okrent, the author of In the Land of Invented Languages, stated: "The constructed language with the most complete grammar is probably Lojban—a language created to reflect the principles of logic."[1]

Lojban is proposed as a speakable language used for communication between people of different language backgrounds, as a potential means of machine translation and as a programming language.

Etymology[edit]

The name "Lojban" is a compound formed from loj and ban, which are short forms of logji (logic) and bangu (language).

History[edit]

Lojban has a predecessor, Loglan, a language invented by James Cooke Brown in 1955 and later developed by The Loglan Institute. Loglan was originally conceived as a means to examine the influence of language on the speaker's thought (an assumption known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis).

As Brown started to claim his copyright[2][3] on the language's components, restraint was laid on the community's activity. In order to circumvent such control, a group of people decided to initiate a separate project, departing from the lexical basis of Loglan and reinventing the whole vocabulary, which led to the current lexicon of Lojban. In effect they established in 1987 The Logical Language Group, based in Washington DC. They also won a trial over whether they could call their version of the language "Loglan".[4]

To ensure that the gismu (root words) of the language sound familiar to people from diverse linguistic backgrounds, they were based on the six most widely spoken languages as of 1987—Mandarin, English, Hindi, Spanish, Russian, and Arabic. Lojban has also taken components from other constructed languages, notably the set of evidential indicators from Láadan.[5]

Following the publication of The Complete Lojban Language, it was expected that "the documented lexicon would be baselined, and the combination of lexicon and reference grammar would be frozen for a minimum of 5 years while language usage grew."[6] As scheduled, this period, which has officially been called the "freeze", expired in 2002. The speakers of Lojban are now free to construct new words and idioms, and decide where the language is heading.

Applications[edit]

While the initial aim of the Loglan project was to investigate the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, the active Lojban community recognizes additional applications for the language, including but not limited to:

Lojban as a speakable language[edit]

Lojban is practiced by its speakers in text[7] and voice[8] chats.

Learning aids[edit]

Apart from the actual practice of the language, some members of the community and LLG have been endeavoring to create various aids for the learners. The Complete Lojban Language (CLL, also known as The Red Book, due to its colour, and The Codex Woldemar, after its author), the definitive word on all aspects of Lojban, is one of them, finalized in 1997. Some of the projects in varying stages of completeness are:

  • la muplis, an application listing Lojban sentences from Tatoeba database with their translation to other languages[9]
  • Parser: la ilmentufa[10] (also includes experimental grammar), la camxes[11] (by Robin Lee Powell and Jorge Llambías), la jbofi'e[12] (by Richard Curnow)
  • Database: la jbovlaste (by Robin Lee Powell)
(see also – External link: Learning Courses/Resources)

Currently, Lojban's learning resources available on the internet are available mainly to speakers of English, French, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, and Esperanto, to varying degrees.[13][14]

Lojban as a literary language[edit]

Like most languages with few speakers, Lojban lacks much of an associated body of literature and its creative extensions have not been fully realized (the true potential of its attitudinal system, for example, is considered unlikely to be drawn out "until and unless we have children raised entirely in a multi-cultural Lojban-speaking environment"[15]). Also such collective or encyclopedic sources of knowledge like the Lojban Wikipedia, which may help expand the language's lexical horizon, are not very well developed.

Presently accessible Lojbanic writings are principally concentrated on the Lojban.org,[16] though there exist independent Lojbanic blog/journal sites as well. The Lojban IRC[17] (or its archive[18]) has a gathering of Lojbanic expressions too, but its grammatical correctness is not always guaranteed. These available materials on the internet include both original works and translations of classic pieces in the field of natural languages, ranging from poetry, short story, novel, and academic writing. Examples of works that are already available include:

Lojban as a means of creativity[edit]

Lojban is seen by some as an intellectual device for creative writing or as having many potential aspects yet to be discovered or explored.

Dan Parmenter:
The removal of grammatical ambiguity from modification [...] seems to heighten creative exploration of word combination. [...] Other areas of possible benefit are (surprisingly in a 'logical' language) emotional expression. Lojban has a fully developed set of metalinguistic and emotional attitude indicators that supplant much of the baggage of aspect and mood found in natural languages, but most clearly separate indicative statements from the emotional communication associated with those statements. This might lead to freer expression and consideration of ideas, since stating an idea can be distinguished from supporting that idea. The set of possible indicators is also large enough to provide specificity and clarity of emotions that is difficult in natural languages.


John Cowan:
There is a marker for "figurative speech" which would be used on "back stabber" and would signal "There is a culturally dependent construction here!" The intent is not that everything is instantly and perfectly comprehensible to someone who knows only the root words, but rather that non-root words are built up creatively from the roots. Thus "heart pain" would refer to the literal heart and literal pain; what would be ambiguous would be the exact connection between these two. Is the pain in the heart, because of the heart, or what? But "heart pain" would not be a valid tanru for "emotional pain", absent the figurative speech marker.

Computer Network Discussions on Loglan/Lojban and Linguistics: Lojban as seen by the linguistics and cognitive science community 20, 23

The language was built to attempt to remove some limits on human thought; these limits are not understood, so that the tendency is to try to remove restrictions whenever we find the language structure gets in our way. You definitely can talk nonsense in Lojban.


Bob LeChevalier:
In Lojban, a little grammar makes for a lot of semantic fun, since the grammar doesn't interfere with the semantic quibble you love. [...] In addition to its grammar, Lojban is definitely a priori in its words[...] We presume that everything can be covered as compounds of the classification scheme implied by the gismu [root words]. [...] We haven't, though, tried to impose a system on the universe like most a priori languages have. Instead, we have tried to broaden gismu flexibility so that multiple approaches to classifying the universe are possible. Our rule is that any word have one meaning, not that any meaning have one word. There is no 'proper' classification scheme in Lojban. [...] Lojban offers a new world of thought.

Why Lojban?

Lojban as a potential machine interlingua[edit]

There've been proposals[25][26][27][28][29][30] to use Lojban as an intermediate language in machine translation and knowledge representation.

Lojban as a programming language[edit]

Constructs in programming languages have been shown[31][32] to be translated to Lojban.

Like with some programming languages Lojban grammar can be parsed using parsing expression grammars.[33][34]

Linguistic properties[edit]

Lojban:

  • has a grammar that is based on predicate logic, designed to express complex logical constructs precisely.
  • has no irregularities or ambiguities in spelling and grammar (although word derivation relies on arbitrary variant forms). This gives rise to high intelligibility for computer parsing.
  • is designed to be as culturally neutral as possible.
  • allows highly systematic learning and use, compared to most natural languages.
  • possesses an intricate system of indicators which effectively communicate contextual attitude or emotions.

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Lojban grammar

Phonology and orthography[edit]

Lojban has 6 vowels and 17 consonants. Some of them have, apart from the preferred/standard sounds, permitted variants intended to cover dissimilitude in pronunciation by speakers of different linguistic backgrounds.

Stress normally falls on the penultimate syllable.

There are 16 diphthongs (and no triphthongs). A distinction between diphthongs and monophthongs can be written by inserting a comma in the Latin alphabet. Vowel hiatus is also prevented by inserting an apostrophe, which usually indicates [h], though there are other valid realizations. For those who have trouble pronouncing certain consonant clusters, there is the option of adding vowels between them (epenthesis), as long as they differ sufficiently from the phonological vowels and are pronounced as short as possible. The resulting additional syllables are not factored in the grammar, including for the purposes of stress determination.

Lojban is written almost entirely with lower-case letters; upper-case letters are used to mark stress in words that do not fit the normal rules of stress assignment, or when whitespace is omitted.

The letters in Lojban and their respective pronunciations are shown in the table below. The IPA symbols in parentheses indicate alternative pronunciations; preferred pronunciations have no parentheses.

Lojban consonant phonemes
Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal /m/[1] /n/[1]
Plosive voiceless /p/ /t/ /k/ /ʔ/
voiced /b/ /d/ /ɡ/
Fricative voiceless /f/ ([ɸ]) /s/ /ʃ/ ([ʂ]) /x/ /h/ ([θ])
voiced /v/ ([β]) /z/ /ʒ/ ([ʐ])
Approximant /l/[1]
Rhotic /r/[1][2]
Lojban vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close /i/ /u/
Mid /ɛ/ ([e]) /ə/ /o/ ([ɔ])
Open /a/ ([ɑ])
Letters Auxiliary characters
IPA [a]
([ɑ])
[b] [ʃ]
([ʂ])
[d] [ɛ]
([e])
[f]
([ɸ])
[ɡ] [i] [ʒ]
([ʐ])
[k] [l][1] [m][1] [n][1] [o]
([ɔ])
[p] [r][1][2] [s] [t] [u] [v]
([β])
[x] [ə] [z] [h]
([θ])
[ʔ] .
Latin a b c d e f g i j k l m n o p r s t u v x y z ' . ,
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Sonorants /m n l r/ may be syllabic.
  2. ^ a b There is no preferred sound for /r/; any rhotic sound is equally acceptable.

In principle, Lojban may be written in any orthographic system as long as it satisfies the required regularities and unambiguities. Some of the reasons for such elasticity would be as follows:

  1. Lojban is defined by the phonemes rather than graphemes; as long as they are correctly rendered so as to maintain the Lojbanic audio-visual isomorphism, a representational system can be said to be an appropriate orthography of the language;
  2. Lojban is meant to be as culturally neutral as possible, so it is never crucial or fundamental to claim that some particular orthography of some particular languages (e.g. the Latin alphabet) should be the dominant mode.

Some Lojbanists extend this principle to claim that even an original orthography of the language is to be sought.[37]

This article uses the common Latin alphabet mode.

Morphology[edit]

Lojban has three word-classes: predicate words (brivla), structure words (cmavo), and name words (cmevla). Each of them has uniquely identifying properties, so that one can unambiguously recognize which word is of which part of speech in a string of the language. They may be further divided in sub-classes. There also exists a special fragmental form assigned to some predicate words and structure words, from which compound words (lujvo) may be created.[38][39]

Syntax and semantics[edit]

The language's grammatical structures are "defined by a set of rules that have been tested to be unambiguous using computers", which is in effect called the "machine grammar".[40] Hence the characteristics of the standard syntactic (not semantic) constructs in Lojban:

  • each word has exactly one grammatical interpretation;
  • the words relate grammatically to each other in exactly one way.

Such standards, however, are to be attained with certain carefulness:

It is important to note that new Lojbanists will not be able to speak 'perfectly' when first learning Lojban. In fact, you may never speak perfectly in 'natural' Lojban conversation, even though you achieve fluency in the language. No English speaker always speaks textbook English in natural conversation; Lojban speakers will also make grammatical errors when talking quickly. Lojbanists will, however, be able to speak or write unambiguously if they are careful, which is difficult if not impossible with a natural language.

Nick Nicholas and John Cowan. 'What Is Lojban? II.3

The computer-tested, unambiguous rules also include grammar for 'incomplete' sentences e.g. for narrative, quotational, or mathematical phrases.

Lojbanic expressions are modular; smaller constructs of words are assembled into larger phrases so that all incorporating pieces manifest as a possible grammatical unity. This mechanism allows for simple yet infinitely powerful phrasings; "a more complex phrase can be placed inside a simple structure, which in turn can be used in another instance of the complex phrase structure".

Its typology can be said to be basically subject–verb–object and subject–object–verb. However, it can practically be anything:

  • mi prami do (SVO) (I love you)
  • mi do prami (SOV) (By me, you are loved)
  • do se prami mi (OVS) (You are loved by me)
  • do mi se prami (OSV) (You, I love)
  • prami fa mi do (VSO) (Loved by me, you are)
  • prami do fa mi or te prami do mi (VOS) (Love you, I do)

Such flexibility has to do with the language's intended capability to translate as many expressions of natural languages as possible, based on a unique positional case system. The meaning of the sentence mi prami do is determined by prami realizing, with its own predefined "place structure", a specific semantic relation between mi and do; when the positional relation between mi and do changes, the meaning of the sentence changes too. As shown above, Lojban has particular devices to preserve such semantic structure of words while altering their order.

As befits a logical language, there is a large assortment of logical connectives. Such conjunction words take different forms depending on what they connect, another reason why the (standard) Lojbanic expressions are typically precise and clear.

Multiple predicate words may be linked up together so as to narrow the semantic scope of the phrase. In sutra dansu "to quickly dance", the modifying word sutra narrows the sense of the modified word dansu to form a more specific concept (in which case the modifier may resemble English adverbs or adjectives). One could go still further, adding a quite extreme example of its syntactic flexibility.

Lojban can easily "imitate" even Amerindian one-word sentences like this one:

  • Nuu-chah-nulth language: inikwihl'minik'isit
  • Gloss:: inkiw (fire/burn) -ihl (in-the-house) -'minik (plural) -'is (diminutive) -'it (past-tense)

which can be expressed in Lojban the same way:

  • Lojban: fagykemyzdanerso'icmapru
  • Gloss: fire-type-house-inside-many-small-past-event

Lexicon[edit]

Compound words (lujvo) and borrowed words (fu'ivla) are continually increasing as the speakers find demands. The number of root words (gismu) and structure words (cmavo) are basically unchanging, but new inventions are to be accepted as experimental components. In fact, it has been noticed that particular inclination or disproportion exists in the available vocabulary. Cortesi[41] has pointed out the lack of certain terms for mathematics and geometry (although this demand may now be disputed as the current set of Lojban vocabulary does actually allow speakers to express such notions as steradian (stero), trigonometric tangent (tanjo), multiplicative inverse (fa'i), matrix transpose (re'a) among a number of other kinds of operators or metric units). Other instances which require speakers to construct noncanonical words:

  • There are few (almost no) entries of African country names on the official list of root words while other country names (especially those with large populations of speakers of the six source languages) are covered to a remarkable extent.
  • Such distinction as between palne (tray) and palta (plate) exist while no distinction between "illustration" and "photography" is made by the available set of gismu (that is, no exclusive root word for "photography" exists except the generic pixra (picture) (see also – Grammar: Morphology: brivla: gismu).

Samples[edit]

Common phrases[edit]

Lojban literal meaning English
coi/co'o About this sound coi/co'o  hello/goodbye hello!/good-bye!
pe'u About this sound pe'u  please please!
ki'e About this sound ki'e  thanks thanks!
.u'u About this sound u'u  (repentance) I'm sorry!
xu do se glibau/jbobau About this sound xu do se glibau/jbobau  is-it-true-that you is-a-speaker-of-English-language / is-a-speaker-of-Lojban-language Do you speak English / Lojban?
ti/ta/tu About this sound ti/ta/tu  this/that/that-over-there this one/that one/that yonder
mi na jimpe About this sound mi na jimpe  I not-true-that understand I don't understand
go'i About this sound go'i  (the last clause) yes, that's true
na go'i About this sound na go'i  not-true-that (the last clause) no, that's false
la'u ma About this sound la'u ma  being-a-quantity-of what? How much, how many?
ma jdima About this sound ma jdima  what is-the-price What's the cost?
lo vimku'a cu se stuzi ma toilet (tail of the clause follows) is-located-at what? Where's the toilet?

Some unique Lojbanic expressions[edit]

Lojban: .oi ro'o bu'o nai pei
Gloss: attitudinal: pain! in physical sense attitude ends what's your attitude?
Translation: Are you no longer in pain?
Lojban: mi nelci ko
Gloss: I like imperative "you"
Translation: Make it so that I like you!
Lojban: lo cukta ku be'u zvati ma
Gloss: that which is book(s) end of noun phrase attitudinal: need! is located at what?
Translation: I need the book! Where is it?
Lojban: ko ga'i nai klama lo nenri be lo mi zdani
Gloss: imperative "you" attitudinal: meekness! come to that which is inside of [attach arguments of noun] that which my is home
Translation: I would be honored if you would enter my residence.
Lojban: le pa nanmu cu ninmu
Gloss: the one in question which one is man tail of the clause follows is woman
Translation: The man is a woman.
Lojban: se ri'a gi mi jgari lo djacu gi mi jgari lo kabri
Gloss: with physical effect of ( I grasp that which is some water ) I grasp that which is cup
Translation: I grasp water, since I grasp a cup.

The North Wind and the Sun[edit]

A translation of The North Wind and the Sun.[42]

la berti brife jo'u la solri

ni'o la berti brife jo'u la solri pu troci lo ka cuxna lo poi me vo'a vau traji be lo ka vlipa i ca'o bo lo pa litru noi dasni lo glare kosta cu klama

i le re mei pu simxu lo ka tugni fi lo nu lo traji be lo ka clira fa lo nu ce'u snada lo ka gasnu lo nu le litru co'u dasni le kosta cu traji lo ka vlipa

i ba bo la berti brife co'a traji cupra lo brife i ku'i lo nu by by zenba lo ka cupra lo xo kau brife cu rinka lo nu le litru zu'e ri zenba lo ka se tagji le kosta i ba bo la berti brife co'u troci i ba bo la solri co'a glare dirce i ba zi bo le litru co'u dasni le kosta

i se ki'u bo la berti brife cu bilga lo ka tugni fi lo nu la solri cu traji lo ka vlipa

Tongue twisters[edit]

  • lo'u lu le la li'u le'u
  • le crisa srasu cu rirci crino
  • tisna fa la tsani le cnita tsina lo tinci tinsa
  • la .bab. cu zbasu loi bakyzbabu loi bakygrasu
  • mi na djuno lo du'u klama fa makau la .makaus. makau makau makau
  • le jbijbejbo cu cpucpacpe le jbajbu le cpicpare
  • la .santas. cu santa'a santa

A Lojbanic poem (audio)[edit]

Community[edit]

The Internet[edit]

The activities of Lojban speakers are mostly via the Internet:

  • Lojban.org: A user-maintained multilingual site, attempting to reflect a cross section of the Lojban community outside of the LLG.
  • Lojban IRC chat: Based on the Freenode IRC network. One may use IRC clients (irc.freenode.net #lojban) as an alternative to the web interface.
  • Lojban Mailing List: A beginner-oriented means to talk/learn about the language.
  • Lojban subreddit: the main Lojban group in Reddit
  • jbotcan.org: A community in which people may practice their Lojban, ask questions, propose Lojban-related ideas, etc.
  • uikipedias: The Lojban Wikipedia, where discussions may be conversed in English.

The Logfest[edit]

Gatherings of Lojbanists have been organized in USA annually since as early as 1990, called Logfest. It is mostly informal, taking place on a weekend, with the only scheduled activity being the annual meeting of the LLG. Those who cannot be present may still be involved via IRC. Activities may be whatever the attendees want to do: Lojban conversation, lessons, technical discussions, or socializing.

Population[edit]

The total number of Lojban speakers is unknown.

According to mw.lojban.org,[43] places known to have concentration of Lojbanists are:

  • Canada, Sweden, Russia, United States

As of August 2007, Frappr.com shows[44] that some people from the following countries are interested in or enthusiasts of the language:

  • Argentina, Canada, China, Estonia, France, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela.

Below are some of the notable personalities who have contributed to the development of Lojban:

  • Bob LeChevalier (aka la lojbab): the founder and the President of the LLG.[45]
  • Robin Lee Powell (aka la camgusmis): the author of a novel-sized story, la nicte cadzu (Night Walkers).
  • Jorge Llambías (aka la xorxes): one of the most active Lojbanists, having done several translations. He is also a prominent figure on the mailing list, helping beginners with the language.
  • John W. Cowan: the author of The Complete Lojban Language.
  • Miles Forster (aka la selpa'i): a German Lojbanist who wrote the song ca pa djedi[46] and made several large translations into Lojban.
  • Robin Turner: a British philosopher and linguist living in Turkey. He is the coauthor of Lojban For Beginners.
  • Nick Nicholas (aka la nitcion): an Australian linguist. He is the coauthor of Lojban For Beginners.

Comparison with other logical languages[edit]

Loglan[edit]

The principal difference between Lojban and Loglan is one of lexicon. The words for Lojban were made by the same principles as those for Loglan; that is, candidate forms were chosen according to how many sounds they had in common with their equivalent in some of the most commonly spoken languages on Earth, which was then multiplied by the number of speakers of the languages with which the words had letters in common. The difference with the Lojban remake of the root words was that the weighting was updated to reflect the actual numbers of speakers for the languages. This resulted in word forms that had fewer sounds taken from English, and more sounds taken from Chinese. For instance, the Loglan word norma is equivalent to the Lojban word cnano (cf. Chinese 常, pinyin cháng), both meaning "normal".

Loglan and Lojban still have essentially the same grammars, and most of what is said in the Grammar section above holds true for Loglan as well. Most simple, declarative sentences could be translated word by word between the two languages.

In the new phonology for Lojban, the consonant q and the vowel w were removed, and the consonant h was replaced by x. The consonant ' (apostrophe) was added with the value of [h] in the International Phonetic Alphabet, but its distribution is such that it can appear only intervocally, and in discussions of the morphology and phonotactics, it is described not as a proper consonant, but a "voiceless glide". (This phoneme is realized as [θ] by some speakers.)

gua\spi[edit]

gua\spi is a descendent of Loglan but is tonal, developed by Jim Carter. Instead of structure words there are in Gua\spi six different tones. Predicates have only one syllable instead of two. Some of its characteristics, including tones, phonotactics, expressions for masses vs sets, non-existence of metalinguistic negation, etc., received criticism.[47]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ New York Times, the. Questions Answered: Invented Languages
  2. ^ "Why I like Lojban". nvg.org. 
  3. ^ "AI Newsletter". ainewsletter.com. 
  4. ^ Johansen, Arnt Richard. Why I like Lojban (accessed August 2007)
  5. ^ Cowan, John. The Complete Lojban Language 13.11
  6. ^ Official Baseline Statement. lojban.org
  7. ^ IRC text chat log
  8. ^ Recordings of live Lojban discussions
  9. ^ la muplis, an app listing Lojban sentences with their translations
  10. ^ la ilmentufa, a parser of Lojban texts
  11. ^ la camxes, a parser of Lojban texts
  12. ^ la jbofi'e, a parser and glosser of Lojban texts
  13. ^ Learning (accessed August 2015)
  14. ^ Word Lists (accessed August 2015)
  15. ^ Cowan, John. The Complete Lojban Language 13.16
  16. ^ https://mw.lojban.org/papri/te_gerna_la_lojban
  17. ^ Lojban IRC
  18. ^ Lojban IRC logs
  19. ^ "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" in Lojban
  20. ^ "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" in Lojban
  21. ^ "The Little Prince" in Lojban
  22. ^ "The Metamorphosis" in Lojban
  23. ^ "In a Grove" in Lojban
  24. ^ "The Book of Esther" in Lojban
  25. ^ http://wiki.opencog.org/w/Category:Lojban
  26. ^ https://groups.google.com/d/topic/opencog/_bp40fVZya0/discussion
  27. ^ https://groups.google.com/d/topic/opencog/7mwTsU6E3iA/discussion
  28. ^ Goertzel, Ben: Potential Computational Linguistics Resources for Lojban. Self-published, March 6, 2005.
  29. ^ Semantic parsing using Lojban - On the middle ground between semantic ontology and language
  30. ^ Speer, Rob; Havasi, Catherine: Meeting the Computer Halfway: Language Processing in the Artificial Language Lojban. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004.
  31. ^ Writing algorithms in Lojban
  32. ^ lojbo staile liste: Inspired by programming languages
  33. ^ PEG
  34. ^ Issues With The Lojban Formal Grammar
  35. ^ Kena. Vodka-Pomme: Considerations on writing: The case of lojban (accessed August 2007)
  36. ^ Cowan, John Woldemar. The Complete Lojban Language: 4.1 (accessed August 2007)
  37. ^ Nicholas, Nick, and John Cowan. What is Lojban?: 2.2 (accessed August 2007)
  38. ^ Nicholas, Nick. John Cowan. What Is Lojban? II.3
  39. ^ Cortesi, David. Lack of Geometry
  40. ^ A translation of 'The North Wind and the Sun' to Lojban.
  41. ^ "Lojban around the world". lojban.org. 
  42. ^ "Frap Pr". frappr.com. 
  43. ^ "LLG Members". lojban.org. 
  44. ^ "Ca Pa Djedi (Original Song in Lojban by selpa'i)". YouTube. 
  45. ^ "critique of gua\spi". lojban.org. 

External links[edit]