This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
The Lokayukta (also Lok Ayukta) ( lokāyukta, "civil commissioner") is the Indian Parliamentary Ombudsman, executed into power, through and for, each of the State Governments of India. It is brought into effect in a state, after passing the Lokayukta Act in respective state Legislature and a person of reputable background is nominated to the post. The post is created to quickly address grievances against the working integrity and efficiency of the government or its administration (public servants). Once appointed, Lokayukta cannot be dismissed or transferred by the government, and can only be removed by passing an impeachment motion by the state assembly, making it a powerful deterrent against corruption and mal-administration of the governing system.
The Administrative Reform Commission for Redressal of Citizen's Grievances submitted its interim report to the Prime Minister in October,1966 with recommendations to set up the Institution of Lokayukta in each of the States to investigate complaints against administrative actions and to improve the standard of public administration in India through investigation of complaints against administrative actions, which includes complaints of corruption, favouritism and indiscipline as other existing systems to handle these issues, namely courts, departmental authorities and other avenues were not sufficient to deal with issues of corruption other malpractices by public servants and therefore, an alternative and efficient system machinery was needed. In 1968, the Government of India on the basis of the Administrative Reforms Commission report and its recommendation established the institution of Lokayukta on the pattern of the Ombudsman Institution and introduced a Bill which provided for appointment of Lok-Pal and his deputies at National level and included Lokayukta for the States. Though the bill passed in the Lok Sabha(Lower House) it could not be passed in the Rajya Sabha(Upper House). However, the Bill formed the basis of legislation in several States for the creation of Lokayukta and the provisions of the Lokayukta Acts varied from one State to another. As a result of this, resolutions were adopted in the 1st All India Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayuktas Conference held in Shimla, to keep a uniformity in the provisions of various Acts of the states and the same was reiterated in the All India Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayuktas Conference held in Bhopal on 9th and 10 October 2010. As it was resolved that uniformity in the Acts of all the States is necessary and hence it was planned that this would be feasible only by a Central Legislation.
Naresh Kadyan moved public interest litigation before High Court and then contempt of court order petition for not appointing Lokayukta in Haryana. The Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) headed by Morarji Desai submitted a special interim report on "Problems of Redressal of Citizen's Grievances" in 1966. In this report, the ARC recommended the setting up of two special authorities designated as 'Lokpal' and 'Lokayukta' for the redressal of citizens' grievances.
The Lokayukta, along with the Income Tax Department and the Anti Corruption Bureau, mainly helps people publicise corruption among the Politicians and Government Officials. Many acts of the LokAyukta have resulted in criminal or other consequences for those charged.
Maharashtra was the first state to introduce the institution of Lokayukta through The Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayuktas Act in 1971. This was followed by similar acts that were enacted by the states of Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Delhi. Powers of Lokayukta in each state are different and efforts are being made to make them uniform.
The Lokayukta is appointed by the Governor of the State, through nomination by its Chief Minister (in consensus with Chief justice of the State High Court, Leaders of the Opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council, Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and Chairman of the Legislative Council). Once appointed, Lokayukta can not be dismissed nor transferred by the government, and can only be removed by passing an impeachment motion by the state assembly. Any person who is a judge or a retired Chief Justice or a retired judge of the High Court is eligible to be appointed as Lokayukta.
|Timeline||Sequence of Events|
|1963||Concept was first considered during a parliamentary discussion on budgetary allocation for the Law ministry.|
|1966||Administrative Reforms Commission headed by Late Shri.Morarji Desai gives its first report on the problems of addressing citizens' grievances against the administration. The report recommends the establishment of the Lokayukta and the Lokpal institutions at the State and the Central Governments to investigate grievances against the governments and public servants. It also recommends that it act as an independent entity.|
|1968||Lokpal Bill first introduced into the parliament but is not passed. (Eight more unsuccessful attempts were made between 1968 and 2011). |
The State of Orissa passed the bill, but is able to establish this post only later in 1983.
|1971||Maharashtra passes the bill in its assembly successfully.|
|1972||Maharashtra implements this post, bringing it into effect on 25 October 1972, becoming the first ever government in India to establish the Lokayukta.|
|1983||Orissa establishes the office of the Lokayukta (Act passed in 1971). |
Few other states follow
|2002||M. N. Venkatachaliah heads a commission recommending the appointment of the Lokpal and Lokayuktas; The commission also recommends that the PM be kept out of its authority.|
|2005||The second Administrative Reforms Commission headed by Veerappa Moily, presses for establishing Lokpal without delay.|
|2011||Anna Hazare leads India's anti corruption movement demanding that the Indian Government immediately address the issue of corruption. Presses for a Lokpal. |
|2013||Lokpal Bill passes in both houses of the Parliament, and formally becomes the Lokpal and Lokayukta Act.|
|2016||Government of India makes amendments to the Act mandating public officers, their spouses and dependent children to declare and file their Assets & Liabilities every year.|
Lokayukta/Lokayog in Indian states
There are no Lokayuktas in Jammu and Kashmir and Puducherry. Lokayukta was enacted in Tamil Nadu on 13 July 2018 and was established on 13 November 2018, the Arunachal Pradesh assembly passed a Lokayukta bill On 4 March 2014, the Mizoram assembly passed a Lokayukta Bill in March 2019
Role in combating Corruption and Maladministration
This article contains wording that promotes the subject in a subjective manner without imparting real information. (January 2020)
The Lokpal and Lokayukta Act 2013, makes it compulsory for each state to appoint Lokayukta similar to Lokpal at central level for investigation into complaints of corruption against government officers in public offices. As per the Act the institution should have both Judicial and Non-Judicial members. Lokayukta investigates cases of corruption committed at state level, and once proved recommends action. It is a great check on corruption, brings about transparency in the system, makes administrative machinery citizen friendly. His functions largely depend upon jurisdiction vested in him and facilities provided for taking cognizance of citizens’ grievances promptly, dexterously and expeditiously through simple, informal mechanism devoid of technicalities.
Institution of Lokpal has not as yet been created at the centre, although efforts have been made since 1959. Meanwhile, Lokayuktas/Lokpal have been established by many states through state legislations. They provide for inquiry/investigation into complaints of corruption against public servants. He protects Citizens’ Right against mal-administration, corruption, delay, inefficiency, non-transparency, abuse of position, improper conduct etc. To keep the powers of Lokayukta neutral and non-biased provision for fixed tenure is made. The procedure to be followed is informal and inexpensive; technicalities do not come in way. Complaint is supported by affidavit, making out case for inquiry. He is representative of Legislature, powerful friend of citizens to act against officials action, inaction or corruption. But not anti-administration, rather helps in humanizing relations between the public and the administration, a step forward in establishing an ‘Open Government’ securing respect for the rule of law, an educator aiming at propagating the prevention of corruption, inefficiency and mal-administration in governance. He is, therefore, a check on corruption.
- Constitutional Amendment for Effectiveness
An amendment to the Constitution has been proposed to implement the Lokayukta uniformly across Indian states. The proposed changes will make the institution of Lokayukta uniform across the country as a three-member body, headed by a retired Supreme Court judge or high court chief justice and comprising the state vigilance commissioner and a jurist or an eminent administrator as other members.
- Make Lokayukta the nodal agency for receiving all corruption complaints.
- Accord Lokayukta jurisdiction over State-level probe agencies.
- Bring bureaucrats under the ambit of the Lokayuktas.
- Accord powers of search and seizure and powers to initiate contempt proceedings.
- Provide Lokayukta administrative and financial autonomy.
- Bring Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) funded by the government under Lokayukta's jurisdiction.
- The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013
- Citizen's Charter and Grievance Redressal Bill, 2011
- Jan Lokpal Bill
- 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement
- Editor, Insights (25 August 2020). "Lokayukta". INSIGHTSIAS. Retrieved 16 July 2021.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Karnataka Lokayukta". National Informatics Center. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- "Karnataka Anti-Corruption Laws (Acts)". National Informatics Center. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- "Karnataka: Speaker accepts impeachment motion against Lokayukta". The Indian Express. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "What is a Lokayukta?". NDTV.com. 12 July 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
- "A watchdog without teeth". Indian Express. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
- "Fed up with corruption, Karnataka Lokayukta Santosh Hegde resigns". Daily News and Analysis. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- "Lokayukta". lokayukta.maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- "Maharashtra yet to implement 2013 Lokayukta Act: RTI". The Economic Times. 20 December 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
- "Decks for appointment of Lokayukta cleared". The Hindu. 27 July 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
- Deepalakshmi, K. (27 April 2017). "The long wait for a Lokpal". The Hindu. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- "Karnataka Lokayukta, Government of Karnataka". lokayukta.kar.nic.in. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- Khanna, Anuja,Pretika (13 December 2019). "Anti-corruption movement a watershed moment in India". mint. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "The Lokpal and Lokayuktas (Amendment) Bill, 2016". PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Justice PK Saikia sworn-in as Arunachal Lokayukta chief". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 27 June 2019.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Powers and Functions of Lokayukta/Upa-Lokayukta | Home & Political | Government Of Assam, India". homeandpolitical.assam.gov.in. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
- "Archived copy". cg.gov.in. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2022.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Sura, Ajay (10 September 2021). "Haryana: Former HC judge Hari Pal Verma appointed Lokayukta | Chandigarh News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Finally, Karnataka has a new Lokayukta: Vishwanath Shetty".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Mishra, Lalatendu (29 August 2020). "Sanjay Bhatia appointed State Upa-Lokayukta". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
- "About Maharashtra Lokayukta". lokayukta.maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Finally Manipur got Lokayukta IT 20190621".
- "First chairperson of Meghalaya Lokayukta sworn in". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 6 November 2018.
- "C. Lalsawta appointed Mizoram's first Lokayukta chairman".
- "Archived copy" (PDF). punjabgovt.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2022.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Justice Kalyan Jyoti Sengupta sworn-in as Sikkim Lokayukta Chairperson". The Economic Times.
- "Finally, Tamil Nadu Lokayukta constituted".
- "Telangana govt appoints state's Lokayukta, Upa Lokayukta". Business Standard India. 20 December 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2021.
- "New Tripura Lokayukta assumes office". Business Standard India. 27 April 2017.
- Hindustan Times
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Tamil Nadu Lokayukta Act, 2018". www.bareactslive.com. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Finally, Tamil Nadu Lokayukta constituted". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Lokayukta Bill passed in Arunachal Pradesh house". The Economic Times. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Home Arunachal Pradesh Lokayukta". lokayukta.arunachal.gov.in. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Mizoram gets its first Lokayukta chairman". The Hindu. Press Trust of India. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Only four states have appointed judicial, non-judicial members of Lokayukta, says report". The Economic Times. 8 December 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
- "Lokayukta may get constitutional status". Deccan Herald. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
- "Bring NGOs under ambit: Lokayuktas". Pioneer. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- "Make Lokayukta nodal agency for all graft complaints". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- "Karnataka Lokayukta report: Yeddyurappa resigns as CM; difficult task for BJP to find successor". The Economic Times. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Yeddyurappa resigns as Karnataka Chief Minister". NDTV.com. Retrieved 8 July 2021.