The Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) headed by Morarji Desai submitted a special interim report on "Problems of Redressal of Citizen's Grievances" in 1966. In this report, the ARC recommended the setting up of two special authorities designated as 'Lokpal' and 'Lokayukta' for the redressal of citizens' grievances.
The LokAyukta, along with the Income Tax Department and the Anti Corruption Bureau, mainly helps people publicise corruption among the Politicians and Government Officials. Many acts of the LokAyukta have resulted in criminal or other consequences for those charged.
Maharashtra was the first state to introduce the institution of Lokayukta through The Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayuktas Act in 1971. This was followed by similar acts being enacted by states of Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala and Delhi.
Maharashtra Lokayukta is considered as weak due to lack of powers, staff, funds and no independent investigating agency. Karnataka Lokayukta is considered as the most powerful Lokayukta in the country.
Constitutional Amendment for Effectiveness
An amendment to the Constitution has been proposed to implement the Lokayukta uniformly across Indian states. The proposed changes will make the institution of Lokayukta uniform across the country as a three-member body, headed by a retired Supreme Court judge or high court chief justice and comprising the state vigilance commissioner and a jurist or an eminent administrator as other members.
Lokayukta/Lokpal/Lokaayog Acts in Indian States
- Lokayukta, Andhra Pradesh
- Lokayukta, Assam
- Lokayukta, Bihar
- Lok Aayog Adhyadesh(ordinance), Chhattisgarh
- Lokayukta, Delhi
- Lokayukt, Goa
- Lokayukta, Gujarat
- Lokayukta, Haryana
- Lokayukta, Himachal Pradesh
- Lokayukta, Jharkhand
- Lokayukta, Karnataka
- Lokayukta, Kerala
- Lokayukta, Madhya Pradesh
- Lokayukta, Maharashtra
- Lokpal, Orissa
- Lokpal, Punjab
- Lokayukta, Rajasthan
- Lokayukta, Uttarakhand - adopted from Uttar Pradesh
- Lokayukta, Uttar Pradesh
There are no Lokayuktas in Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and West Bengal. The latest Lokayukta was established in Goa. On May 20, 2014 Arunachal assembly passed lokayukta bill.
Role of the Lokayukta in Combating Corruption
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- Make Lokayukta the nodal agency for receiving all corruption complaints.
- Accord Lokayukta jurisdiction over State-level probe agencies.
- Bring bureaucrats under the ambit of the Lokayuktas.
- Accord powers of search and seizure and powers to initiate contempt proceedings.
- Provide Lokayukta administrative and financial autonomy.
- Bring Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) funded by the government under Lokayukta's jurisdiction.
- "Karnataka Lokayukta". National Informatics Center. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- "Karnataka Anti-Corruption Laws (Acts)". National Informatics Center. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- "A watchdog without teeth". Indian Express. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
- "Fed up with corruption, Karnataka Lokayukta Santosh Hegde resigns". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- Preeti Dilip Pohekar. A Study of Ombudsman System in India. Gyan Publishing House.
- "Let's look at Lokayukta for a change!". Mid-Day. 2011-12-26. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- "Lokayukta may get constitutional status". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
- "Sudershan Reddy sworn-in as Goa's Lokayukta". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 16 March 2013.
- "Bring NGOs under ambit: Lokayuktas". Pioneer. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- "'Make Lokayukta nodal agency for all graft complaints'". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012.