Loma Linda University

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Loma Linda University
Loma linda university logo.png
MottoTo make man whole
TypePrivate health sciences university
Established1905 (1905)
Religious affiliation
Seventh-day Adventist Church
Endowment$1.04 billion (2020)[1]
PresidentRichard H. Hart
ProvostRonald Carter
Administrative staff
1,068
Undergraduates960
Postgraduates2,467
Location,
California
,
United States

34°03′11″N 117°15′40″W / 34.053°N 117.261°W / 34.053; -117.261Coordinates: 34°03′11″N 117°15′40″W / 34.053°N 117.261°W / 34.053; -117.261
CampusSuburban
Websitewww.llu.edu Edit this at Wikidata

Loma Linda University (LLU) is a private Seventh-day Adventist health sciences university in Loma Linda, California. As of 2019, the university comprises eight schools[2] and the Faculty of Graduate Studies offers more than 100 degree and certificate programs.[citation needed] LLU also offers distance education. It is a part of the Seventh-day Adventist education system.[3][4][5][6] The university is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC). Its on-campus church has around 7,000 members. Loma Linda Academy, a Seventh-day Adventist K–12 school, is located nearby.

History[edit]

Early Postcard of Loma Linda Sanitarium

Beginnings[edit]

Loma Linda University had its beginning in 1905 when Seventh-day Adventists John Burden and Ellen G. White worked together to purchase the property and develop what became known as the Loma Linda Sanitarium.[7] In 1906, Ellen White recalled:

"While attending the General Conference of 1905, at Washington, D. C, I received a letter from Elder J. A. Burden, describing a property he had found four miles west of Redlands, five and one-half miles southeast of San Bernardino, and eight miles northeast of Riverside. As I read his letter, I was impressed that this was one of the places I had seen in vision, and I immediately telegraphed him to secure the property without delay. He did so, and as the result, Loma Linda is in our possession."[8]

In February 1906, a council of church workers met at Loma Linda. It consisted of the faculty of Fernando Academy, the faculty of the Loma Linda school, and the executive committee of the Southern California Conference. John Burden reported their ideas to Ellen White in a letter dated February 14 that there was agreement on the siting of the school.

In 1906, The Loma Linda College of Evangelists was established. Courses included:

  • Religion: Bible Evangelism, Acts and Epistles, Missionary Methods, and Doctrines and Prophecies.
  • General: History, Languages, Mathematics, English, Music, Piano and Organ.
  • Industrial: Science of Gardening, Practical Gardening, Electrical Mechanics, Carpentry, Cookery, Accounting, Sewing.
  • Nursing/Medical: Chemistry and Anatomy, Children's Diseases, Physiology, Obstetrics, Gynecology, Hydrotherapy, Practical Nursing and Hydrotherapy.[9]

The 1910 Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook enters the school as 'Loma Linda College'. It adds the legal title, 'College of Medical Evangelists of Loma Linda' (CME) and notes that the school was chartered as a Medical College in 1909.[10] At the General Conference Committee Council held at Takoma Park, April 5–15, 1910. Later that same year, the minutes for the 187th Meeting of the General Conference Committee, December 2, recorded that the medical school and other facilities were to be furnished in 1910.[11]

1910 to 1919[edit]

Early Clinical Developments[edit]

From 1913 to 1962, the university taught basic sciences in Loma Linda, but sent its students to Los Angeles for clinical experience. Ellen White promoted rural settings for Adventist schools, but to train medical students, the school needed clinical experience. Loma Linda Sanitarium did not have such a clinic.[12] The American Medical Association would not recognize the medical college if it did not provide adequate clinical experience for its students.

In 1905, the American Medical Association formed a national Council on Medical Education. Dr. Nathan Porter Colwell (1870–1936) became its first secretary the next year. In reaction, Adventists leaders interested in developing the medical school met with Dr. Colwell. He visited the campus and gave counsel on how to proceed. E. E. Andross, president of the Pacific Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists and chairman of the board for the College of Medical Evangelists, reported on a special meeting of the constituency of the college convened at Loma Linda, January 27, 1913. A large number of General Conference men were in California at time. Andross called this meeting in order to benefit from their counsel. In his report, he wrote that a medical hospital and dispensary was needed to address accreditation requirements for the future medical education at the institution. On September 29, 1913, the College of Medical Evangelists opened the First Street Dispensary in the heart of Los Angeles.[13]

Los Angeles Hospital[edit]

The December 16, 1915, Review and Herald reported on the General Conference Committee's Biennial Council which met in November at Loma Linda:

"In order to equip and properly complete the medical college at Loma Linda, Cal., it will be necessary to build in Los Angeles a hospital requiring an outlay of approximately $60,000. The constituency of the medical college voted to erect this building when the funds have been provided, so that there will be no further increase of indebtedness. A memorial presented, suggesting that the necessary funds to this end be raised by the women of the denomination, and that a committee of sisters be appointed to promote this work..."[14]

World War I and a 'B' Rating[edit]

The United States federal government exempted medical students from the military draft. But they would only recognize 'A' and 'B' rated medical schools. The College of Medical Evangelists only had a 'C' rating. California state authorities supported a higher rating, and after a nationwide effort, Percy T. Magan and colleagues persuaded Dr. Colwell to visit the school and determine whether a 'B' rating could be given. After the AMA's visit, the rating was upgraded to 'B'. Medical students who had already left for their military duties returned to finish their medical training. Margaret Rossiter White, Historical Records Librarian at Loma Linda, wrote at the time that it was a tremendous victory for Loma Linda.[15]

1919–1960[edit]

LLU's 47 General Hospital, Milne Bay

On November 16, 1922, Dr. Colwell reported that the Council on Medical Education had granted an 'A' rating to the College of Medical Evangelists. The medical world, under the leadership of the American Medical Association was quickly developing standards for medical education and for the quality of hospitals. The requirements for accreditation developed as well. The July 12, 1923 Review and Herald presented the addresses given at the Educational Convention held at Colorado Springs, Colo., June 5–19, 1923. In an article entitled 'Separation from the World in Education', W.E. Howell, former President of the Loma Linda College of Evangelists (1906)[9] and at the time of the article, the Secretary, or director, of the SDA General Conference Education Department[16] expressed concern for where dependence on accreditation would lead Adventist schools.[17] During World War II, the CME sponsored the 47th General Hospital.[18]

1960–1980[edit]

Nichol Hall

University status and name change[edit]

In 1961 college leaders voted to convert the institution to a university and renamed the institution after the city. All its science and clinical faculties were consolidated within the city of Loma Linda by 1962.

On July 9, 1967, the university opened the Loma Linda University Medical Center with more than 125 patients from the old community hospital.[19] The university also operated the Seventh-day Adventist liberal arts college in Riverside from 1967 to 1990, which is now known as La Sierra University.

In 1980, the state designated LLU the only Level I trauma center in San Bernardino, Riverside, Inyo and Mono counties, which comprise more than a fourth of the state's land mass. About 1,600 emergency helicopters land there each year.[19]

1980–2011[edit]

In October 1984, at Loma Linda University Medical Center, Baby Fae became the first human to receive a heart of a baboon. The transplant appeared to be successful, but Baby Fae died 21 days later of heart failure due to rejection of the transplant.

In 1991, B. Lyn Behrens became the first female president of LLU. Serving until March 2008, she was succeeded by Richard Hart, who had previously served as LLU's chancellor.

Loma Linda University opened its new 150,000-square-foot (14,000 m2) Centennial Complex on October 28, 2009. The complex includes new classrooms, two large 200–400 seat amphitheaters and more than 100 workstations with labs for dental, medical, physical therapy and graduate students. Updated technology allows the university to link to areas around the globe. Additionally, the complex houses simulation labs where students can practice medical skills on live actors and sophisticated robotic mannequins. The complex was expected to bump up the university's growth by 25 percent from its current enrollment of 4,000 students to 5,000 students by 2010.[20]

Grants and funding[edit]

The University applies for and receives grants from various organizations. Some of the research grants include:

  • California Walnut Commission[21] for walnut research
  • Pfizer Public Health & Government Group[22] for public health television and Internet programming
  • NSF Partnership for Innovation Grant[23] in partnership with the Larta Institute

Federal government support[edit]

The special relationship between Loma Linda University and Representative Jerry Lewis, R – San Bernardino, first came to light in a Pulitzer Award-winning expose written by Jerry Kammer.[24] Lewis has lent significant help in funding important school operations. From 1998–2003, Loma Linda has received $167.2 million in federal funds, the number one academic recipient in the country receiving nearly $60 million more than the runner up, the University of South Florida.[25] In 2000, it was the single largest recipient of higher education grants at $36 million. Several grants were from the Department of Defense, plus $5 million from NASA for space radiation research. Critics point out that the brother of Lewis is employed by Loma Linda University.[26] In 2008, Loma Linda University received nearly $9.5 million of which $5 million came from the Department of Defense.[27]

Academics[edit]

Loma Linda University offers more than 100 degrees and certificate programs in the following schools:

  • School of Allied Health Professions
  • School of Behavioral Health
  • School of Dentistry
  • School of Medicine
  • School of Nursing
  • School of Pharmacy
  • School of Public Health
  • School of Religion
  • Faculty of Graduate Studies

School of Public Health[edit]

The Loma Linda University School of Public Health was founded in 1967. The school is an accredited member of the Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH).[28] The School of Public Health offers a Master of Science (MS), Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Public Health (MPH), Doctor of Public Health (DrPH), and certificates.[29]

School of Behavioral Health[edit]

The Loma Linda University School of Behavioral Health was created in 2012 to unite LLU's behavioral health disciplines. The school's departments and the degrees they offer are listed below:

  • Counseling and Family Sciences: Child Life Specialist (MS), Counseling (MS), Drug and Alcohol Counseling (Certificate Online), Marital and Family Therapy (MS Online or On-Campus, DMFT Online), Systems, Families, and Couples (PhD), School Counseling (Certificate)
  • Psychology: Clinical Psychology (PhD, PsyD)
  • Social Work and Social Ecology: Criminal Justice (MS), Gerontology (MS), Social Welfare and Social Research (PhD), Social Work (MSW Hybrid or On-Campus, DSW Hybrid)
  • Division of Interdisciplinary Studies: Play Therapy (Certificate Online)
  • Dual Degrees: Counseling/Marital and Family Therapy/Drug and Alcohol Counseling (MS/MS/Certificate Online), Social Work/Criminal Justice (MSW/MS), Social Work/Gerontology (MSW/MS)[30]

Rankings[edit]

Loma Linda University is not ranked in the 2022 version of the U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges Ranking but its nursing program is tied for 76th.[31] It was listed as the 994th best university in the world and the 213th best university in the United States by the Center for World University Rankings in their 2018-2019 rankings.[32]

Medical Center[edit]

The Loma Linda University Medical Center, in Loma Linda, California, admits more than 30,000 patients per year.[33] LLUMC, as it is commonly known, also houses the Loma Linda University Children's Hospital, Proton Treatment Center, Transplantation Institute & Liver Center, and Loma Linda International Heart Institute.[34]

Notable alumni[edit]

School of Medicine[edit]

Name Class of Notability Ref.
T.R.M. Howard, M.D. 1935 Nationally known civil rights leader, entrepreneur, mentor to Medgar Evers, key figure in the investigation of the lynching of Emmett Till, President of the National Medical Association and Chief Surgeon of the Taborian Hospital of Mound Bayou, Mississippi City Hospital, Number Two, in St. Louis, Missouri
Frank Jobe, M.D. 1956 A world-renowned Orthopedic Surgeon and Professor of Orthopedics at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. Orthopaedic Consultant for the Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team, PGA Tour & Senior PGA Tour,

Los Angeles Lakers basketball team, Los Angeles Kings hockey team, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim baseball team

Orthopaedic Surgery, Los Angeles County Hospital in Los Angeles, California
Cynara L. Coomer, M.D. 1996 Chief of Breast Surgery and Director of the Comprehensive Breast Center at Staten Island University Hospital and a Fox News medical contributor. SUNY Downstate Health Sciences Medical Center

Other[edit]

Name Class of Notability Ref.
Heather Knight 1984 President of Pacific Union College
Jerry Yang 19?? Poker player and winner of the 2007 World Series of Poker Main Event. [35]
Edmund C. Jaeger 191x Renowned naturalist and author. (Attended Loma Linda College of Medical Evangelists years 1911–12 and 1912–13.) [36]
Brian Brock 1996 Theologian of disability. (Graduated with an MA in Biomedical and Clinical Ethics) [37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ As of June 30, 2020. U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 (Report). National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  2. ^ "Loma Linda University". Loma Linda University. 2019. Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019. School of Allied Health Professions, School of Behavioral Health, School of Dentistry, School of Medicine, School of Nursing, School of Pharmacy, School of Public Health, School of Religion
  3. ^ "For real education reform, take a cue from the Adventists". 15 November 2010. Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019 – via Christian Science Monitor.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-03-23. Retrieved 2016-03-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Department of Education, Seventh-day Adventist Church". Archived from the original on 2009-06-24. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  6. ^ Rogers, Wendi; Kellner, Mark A. (April 1, 2003). "World Church: A Closer Look at Higher Education". Adventist News Network. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
  7. ^ Review and Herald, September 20, 1906, p. 24. Online access may be found at the SDA General Conference Online Document Archives linked here. Archived 2012-03-08 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Review and Herald, June 21, 1906, p. 8
  9. ^ a b "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  10. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  11. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  12. ^ In the early 1900s these walk-in clinics were called dispensaries or treatment rooms.
  13. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  14. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  15. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  16. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  17. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventistarchives.org. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  18. ^ The Alumni Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, August 1946 as quoted in Loma Linda University History website linked here. Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine A picture of the CME's 47th General Hospital stationed at Milne Bay is available at the U.S. Army Medical Department Office of Medical History linked here. Archived 2010-12-04 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ a b Glenn, Stacia (October 31, 2007). "Loma Linda University: From humble beginnings to world renown". San Bernardino Sun. Archived from the original on December 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
  20. ^ Kennedy-Ross, Selicia (October 17, 2007). "What's in the future for I. E. universities?". San Bernardino Sun. Archived from the original on December 8, 2012. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
  21. ^ "Walnuts & Weight". Walnuts.org. Archived from the original on 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2008-12-09.
  22. ^ "Designs for Health". Llu.edu. Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2008-12-09.
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-05-09. Retrieved 2011-02-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "A Steady Flow of Influence". pbs.org. Archived from the original on 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
  25. ^ "Pork? Funds for Collages Raise Objections". Pe.com. July 9, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-07-20. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  26. ^ "New Democrats Leaders Love Pork Barrel Spending". Conservative.org. Archived from the original on 2008-03-04. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2008-06-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ "Association of Schools of Public Health Accreditation". Archived from the original on 2007-07-16.
  29. ^ "School of Public Health Degrees". Archived from the original on 2007-09-03. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
  30. ^ "School of Behavioral Health – Loma Linda University". Llu.edu. Archived from the original on 27 October 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  31. ^ "Loma Linda University". U.S. News & World Report. 2021. Retrieved November 23, 2021.
  32. ^ "Loma Linda University Ranking | CWUR World University Rankings 2018–2019". cwur.org. Retrieved April 26, 2020.
  33. ^ "About Us – Loma Linda University Medical Center". Llu.edu. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  34. ^ "Our Services – Loma Linda University Medical Center". Llu.edu. Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-12. Retrieved 2007-08-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ Ryckman, Raymond E.; Zackrison, James L. (1998). Son of the Living Desert – Edmund C. Jaeger, 1887–1983: Ecologist, Educator, Environmentalist, Biologist, and Philanthropist. Loma Linda, California: R.E. Ryckman. pp. 167–169. ISBN 978-0-9663563-0-4. OCLC 39497413. LCC QH31.J33 R97 1998 University of California, Riverside, Science Library Archived 2016-01-07 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "Schools of Religion, Behavioral Health graduates encouraged to serve others (Page 11)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-02-13. Retrieved 2019-02-12.

External links[edit]