Lonar crater full rim view
|Location||Buldhana district, Maharashtra, India|
|Type||impact crater lake, salt lake|
|Native name||लोणार सरोवर (Marathi)|
|Max. length||1,830 m (6,000 ft)|
|Surface area||1.13 km2 (0.44 sq mi)|
|Average depth||137 m (449 ft)|
|Max. depth||150 m (490 ft)|
Lonar Lake, also known as Lonar crater, is a notified National Geo-heritage Monument, saline, soda lake, located at Lonar in Buldhana district, Maharashtra, India. Lonar Lake was created by an asteroid collision with earth impact during the Pleistocene Epoch. It is one of the four known, hyper-velocity, impact craters in basaltic rock anywhere on Earth. The other three basaltic impact structures are in southern Brazil. Lonar Lake has a mean diameter of 1.2 kilometres (3,900 ft) and is about 137 metres (449 ft) below the crater rim. The meteor crater rim is about 1.8 kilometres (5,900 ft) in diameter.
Lonar Crater sits inside the Deccan Plateau—a massive plain of volcanic basalt rock created by eruptions some 65 million years ago. Its location in this basalt field suggested to some geologists that it was a volcanic crater. Today, however, Lonar Crater is understood to be the result of a meteorite impact that occurred between 35,000 and 50,000 years ago. The water in the lake is both saline and alkaline.
Geologists, ecologists, archaeologists, naturalists. and astronomers have published studies of various aspects of this crater lake ecosystem.
The Smithsonian Institution, the United States Geological Survey, Geological Survey of India, the University of Sagar and the Physical Research Laboratory have conducted extensive studies of the site. Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered in this lake in 2007. A recent study, conducted by IIT Bombay found that the minerals, in the lake soil, are very similar to the minerals found in moon rock brought back during Apollo Program.
- 1 Geographical features
- 2 Geological origin: Impact crater
- 3 History
- 4 Ambar Lake
- 5 By-products of the lake
- 6 Gaylussite mineral
- 7 Lake ecosystem
- 8 Microbial diversity
- 9 Religious setting
- 10 Threats to Lonar lake
- 11 Gallery
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
A series of small hills surround the basin, which has an oval shape, almost round, with a circumference at top of about 8 km (five miles). The sides of the basin rise abruptly at an angle of about 75°. At the base of the sides, the lake has a circumference of about 4.8 km (three miles). The slopes are covered with tree-savannah, housing teak (Tectona grandis), Wrightia tinctoria, Butea monosperma, and Helicteres isora, and with shrub-savannah housing Acacia nilotica and Ziziphus spp.. Along the lake shore, non-native Prosopis juliflora is spreading.. Millet, maize, okra, banana, and papaya are the main cultivated crops.
The water of the lake contains various salts and sodas. During dry weather, when evaporation reduces the water level, large quantities of soda are collected. Two small streams, named Purna and Penganga, drain into the lake, and a well of fresh water is located on the southern side, close to the water's edge.
Geological origin: Impact crater
|Diameter||1.8 km (1.1 mi)|
|Depth||290 m (950 ft)|
|Age||570 ± 47 Ka|
Lonar Lake lies within the only known extraterrestrial impact crater found within the great Deccan Traps, a huge basaltic formation in India. The lake was initially believed to be of volcanic origin, but now it is recognized as an impact crater. Lonar Lake was created by the impact of either a Comet or of an Asteroid. The presence of plagioclase that has been either converted into Maskelynite or contains Planar deformation features has confirmed the impact origin of this crater. It is believed that only shock metamorphism caused by a hypervelocity impact can transform plagioclase into maskelynite, or create planar deformation features. The presence of impact deformation of basalt layers comprising the rim, of shocked Breccia inside the crater, of shatter cones, and of the non-volcanic Ejecta blanket surrounding the crater all support the impact origin of Lonar Lake.
The crater has an oval shape. The meteorite impact came from the east, at an angle of 35 to 40 degrees.
There are various estimates of the age of the crater. Earlier thermoluminescence analyses gave a result of 52,000 years, while recent Argon-argon dating suggests that the crater is much older; it could be 570 000 ± 47 000 years old. This greater age is in line with the degree of erosion of the crater rim.
- The outermost ejecta blanket
- The crater rim
- The slopes of the crater
- The crater basin, excluding lake
- The crater lake
The Ain-i-Akbari, a document written about 1600 CE, states:
These mountains produce all the requisites for making glass and soap. And here are saltpetre works which yield a considerable revenue to the State, from the duties collected. On these mountains is a spring of salt water, but the water from the centre and the edges is perfectly fresh.
The first European to visit the lake was a British officer, J.E. Alexander, in 1823.
Buldhana district in Maharashtra, where the lake is located, was once part of the Maurya Empire empire and then part of the Satavahana Empire. The Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas also ruled this area. During the period of the Mughals, Yadavas, Nizam, and the British, trade prospered in this area. Several temples found on the periphery of the Lake are known as Yadava temples and also as Hemadpanti temples (named after Hemadri Ramgaya).
There is a small circular depression at a distance of around 700 m (2,300 ft) from the main lake, believed to be caused by a splinter of the meteor that hit the ground to also make a crater. There is a Hanuman temple near this lake, with the idol made of rock believed to be[by whom?][clarification needed] highly magnetic. The water from Ambar lake is being drained by local farmers. This lake is sometimes also called Chhota (little) Lonar.
By-products of the lake
The Gazetteer chronicles the findings of the British administrators and scientists, notably, Colonel Mackenzie, scientist Dr. I. B. Lyon, J. O. Malcolmson and Plymen, agricultural chemist. Some extracts from Plymen's report, given in quotes, are informative.
The saline deposits obtained from the lake are rather of an exceptional nature. Compared with the most famous salt lake in India, the Sambhar Lake in Rajsthan(India), it will be seen that whereas at Lonar the carbonates of soda are the most important, in the case of the Sambhar Lake the deposits of sodium chloride or common salt give the lake its value. The modes of formation are also entirely different and it is practically certain that the Lonar salts are derived from an unknown source in the bed of the lake. It is true that water is continually flowing into the lake and that except by evaporation there is no loss. The main feeder stream could not however supply this amount of alkali nor could the other smaller supplies coming in during the rains, for on all sides of the lake vegetation is abundant, particularly where the main stream flows in continuously. Were any quantity of alkali present in this water, vegetation would suffer considerably and, with exception of a few varieties of plants, eventually die out entirely.
The salts collected from this lake vary in their nature and composition and from their-appearance are easily separated by men accustomed to handling them. Various names are given to some five or six main varieties, but there is no fixed line between one salt and another, their compositions depending upon the period and condition of crystallization. At the present time large quantities of these salts are lying on the shores of the lake...
Kala Namak and Nimak Dalla are found in white crystalline masses.
Khuppal is obtained in solid compact lumps and consists of a mixture of carbonates and chlorides in roughly equal proportions.
Pipadi or Papri, which has a similar chemical composition, is very different in appearance. It is frequently tinged, slightly pink in colour and hollow air spaces are found between the crystalline masses which are formed in flakes or layers.
Bhuski has no definite structure but consists of a soft flaky powder mixed with a quantity of impurity. It can be compared to small salt substance or baking soda.
The salts are not all obtained in the same way or at the same period of the year. Pipadi and Bhuski are deposited on the shores of the lake as the water dries up in the hot weather, Pipadi being the upper layer and therefore the purer. Except for Bhuski the salts are in a fairly pure state and contain only small proportions of earthy matter. Their further purification is not considered difficult.
Commercial exploitation of the salts from the lake is recorded from 1842, including the period of Government of Nizam, and until 1903. Presently, there is only a very small local demand for these Lonar Lake products.
Gaylussite is the mineral has been recently reported from drill core in Lonar lake. Gaylussite is a carbonate mineral, a hydrated sodium calcium carbonate, formula Na2Ca(CO3)2·5H2O. It occurs as translucent, vitreous white to grey to yellow monoclinic prismatic crystals. It is an unstable mineral which dehydrates in dry air and decomposes in water.
The chemical characteristics of the lake shows two distinct regions that do not mix - an outer neutral (pH 7) and an inner alkaline (pH 11) each with its own flora and fauna. The lake is a haven for a wide range of plant and animal life. Resident and migratory birds such as black-winged stilts, brahminy ducks, grebes, shelducks (European migrants), shovellers, teals, herons, red-wattled lapwings, rollers or blue jays, baya weavers, parakeets, hoopoes, larks, tailorbirds, magpies, robins and swallows are found on the lake. Among reptiles, the monitor lizard is reported to be prominent. The lake is also home to thousands of peafowls, chinkara and gazelles. The area of 3.83 km2 (1.48 sq mi) was declared as Lonar Wildlife Sanctuary by the government on 20 November 2015.
While the Lonar Lake appears green for most of the year due to the presence of dense blooms of cyanobacteria such as Arthrospira spp., bacteria and archaea belonging to diverse functional groups such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers, heterotrophs and syntrophs have been reported. Diverse alveolates, fungi, stramenopiles, choanoflagellates, amoebozoans and cercozoans, and many novel lineages of putative micro-eukaryotes were detected in molecular surveys of Lonar Lake sediments. Gene sequences of ciliated protozoans such as Oxytricha longa and fungi belonging to Candida spp. were also recovered from lake sediment microcosms containing enriched populations of methylotrophic bacteria. A new species of fungus Curvularia lonarensis has been described from the lake.
Noteworthy functional groups of microorganisms:
Methylotrophs belonging to Methylomicrobium, Methylophaga and Bacillus species have been identified in the Lonar Lake sediments. Methane-oxidizing methylotrophs (methanotrophs) were also detected in the surface scum atop the lake water-column. A novel species of non-methane-utilizing methylotroph Methylophaga lonarensis was isolated in pure culture from lake sediment microcosms. This haloalkaliphilic bacterium synthesizes and intracellularly accumulates organic solutes such as ectoine that are of biotechnological interest. Methylotrophic methanogenesis has been reported in Lonar Lake sediments and the primary microorganism (archaeon) that is responsible was identified as being closely related to Methanolobus oregonensis.
Endolithic bacteria belonging to the phyla Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and endolithic archaea belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were detected in Lonar basalt rock samples that were retrieved from the crater walls and the lake-bed. The diversity and richness of endolithic bacteria in these samples were estimated to be higher than that of endolithic archaea. Most of the detected endolithic prokaryotes were identified as being putative methanotrophs, methanogens, phototrophs, ammonia-oxidizers, nitrogen-fixers, denitrifiers, dissimilatory sulfate-reducers and metal-reducers.
Nonsymbiotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms such as Halomonas sp., Paracoccus sp., Klebsiella sp., Slackia sp., and Actinopolyspora sp. have been reported from this lake. All the nitrogen fixers are haloalkaliphilic in nature as they can grow only at pH-11. Some of the bacteria and actinomycetes isolated from this lake are able to grow on some components of inorganic medium containing martian soil simulant components.
Numerous temples surround the lake, most of which stand in ruins today, except for the temple of Daitya Sudan at the centre of the Lonar town, which was built in honour of Vishnu's victory over the giant Lonasur. It is a fine example of early Hindu architecture. Vishnumandir, Wagh Mahadev, Mora Mahadev, Munglyacha Mandir and Goddess Kamalaja Devia are the other temples found inside the crater.
Daitya Sudan temple
Daitya Sudan Temple is a Vishnu temple dated to the Chalukya Dynasty which ruled Central and Southern India between the 6th and 12th centuries. It belongs to the Hemadpanthi class and is built in the form of an irregular star. It features carvings similar to those seen at Khajuraho temples. The deity of this temple is made of an ore with a high metal content that resembles stone. The ceiling of the temple has carvings. The exterior walls are also covered with carved figures. The plinth of the temple is about 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in height and the unfinished roof suggests an intended pyramidal form for the tower.
The temple of Daitya Sudan at Lonar is the best example of the Hemadpanthi style. From the standing image of Surya in the principal niche on the back of the temple, it is conjectured that the temple was originally dedicated to the Sun god. However, in the present form its vaishnav temple of god vishnu in its daityasudan avatar. There is a story that a demon by the name of Lonasur or Lavanasur used to reside in this locality along with his sisters. He was killed by lord Vishnu in his Daityasudan Avatar hence the name.
The temple measures 32 m (105 ft). long by 25.8 m (84.5 ft). broad. It is a tree chamber temple, the inner most being garbh gruh, the sanctum sanctorum, where the idol of lord vishnu standing atop Lavanasur is there. The present day idol was made by bholse rulers of Nagpur after the original went missing. The second chamber is called antarl where individual pooja are performed, on the roof of this block one can see beautiful cravings of puranic stories viz. Killing of Lavanasur by Lord Krishna and appearance of Dhar of Lonar; story of Kansa and Krishna, story of Narasimha and HiranKashyap and lastly raskrida. The outermost chamber is called as sabhamandap which is meant for group offerings and performance. This portion as well as the entrance gate does not match the style and construction elements of the temple overall. The brickwork might have been added later to the damaged or unfinished temple, which may be attributed to various invasions post the 10th century.
The main entrance of the temple is east facing. The principle niche at the back of the temple has an image of Surya, the sun god, which gives rise to the speculation that this might have been dedicated to him. The niche on south has an image of Chamunda. The one on left of the temple i.e. north has Narasimha in it. All of these three niches are built like mini temples in themselves having elaborate pillars, base and decoration.
There are numerous ridges onto the temple with different decoration, images having iconic as well as artistic significance. Many of the images depict deities or incidents on Hindu Puranas. 
- Kamalja Devi Temple is located beside the lake and also features carved images. Although the water level rises during the rainy season and falls in summer, the temple is located above the water level.
- Gomukh Temple is located along the rim of the crater. A perennial stream emerges from here and pilgrims visiting the temple bathe in the stream. It is also called Sita Nahani temple and Dhara.
- Shankar Ganesh temple, partially submerged and noted for rectangular shiva
- Ram Gaya temple
- Motha Maruti temple is near the Ambar crater lake, with the idol made of rock believed to be splinter of the meteor that created the crater.
Threats to Lonar lake
Lonar lake faces anthropological and environmental problems as listed below:
- Use of fertilizers, pesticides and toxic materials in the agriculture field around the lake results in pollution of lake water.
- "Dhara", and "Sita Nahani" are perennial streams that are one of the water sources for the lake. They are used for bathing, washing clothes and cattle, and other domestic purposes by the local people, pilgrims, and tourists. The household effluents containing detergents are regularly disposed of here.
- Deforestation is illegally carried out in the surroundings and cattle grazing inside or near the rim of the crater creates fecal pollution.
- Excavation activities are often carried out illegally thus disturbing the lake's underground water source.
- The government is unable to raise funds needed for preserving this crater and often tourist activities continue to cause environmental damage to nearby land.
- During local festivals such as the Kamala Devi festival, large numbers of pilgrims enter the crater. Small shops and food-stalls are often established near the crater or along its rim.
- Among the frequent visitors are the religious visitors from nearby towns and villages who are not adequately educated by the means of signboards and attending officials about littering and maintaining the beauty of this nationally important destination.
- The lake's ecosystem is being damaged because of the sewage dump in the lake. Marauding pilgrims and increasing pollution is disturbing its substantial flora and fauna with about 100 resident and migratory birds.
- Commercial activities, including illegal construction, within the vicinity of lake has damaged the lake's natural topography.
- According to a research done in 2017, the lead researcher stated "The study found out that reduction in water level is a combined result of drying up of (nearby) percolation dam and the closure of streams (which flow) into the lake."
The crater is protected as a geological landmark and authorities have recognized the role of the historical and archaeological heritage in the lake, nevertheless action is needed to prevent the adverse impact of settlements and religious festivities on the local ecosystem. Various civic activities (e.g. "Save Lonar") for the protection of Lonar crater are on-going.
Panoramic views of Lonar Crater
- Shiva crater, an undersea super crater west of India
- Dhala crater, largest in India, at Shivpuri in Madhya Pradesh state
- Ramgarh Crater in Mangrol tehsil of Baran district of Rajasthan state
- Soda lake
- List of impact craters on Earth
- List of lakes in India
- "National Geological Monument, from Geological Survey of India website". Archived from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
- "Geo-Heritage Sites". pib.nic.in.
- national geo-heritage of India, INTACH
- "Geology". Government of Maharashtra. Gazetteers Department. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
- "Lonar Lake, Buldana District, Maharashtra". Geological Survey of India. Archived from the original on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
- . doi:10.1016/j.chemer.2018.06.001. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help); Missing or empty
- Deshpande, Rashmi (3 December 2014). "The Meteor Mystery Behind Lonar Lake". National Geographic Traveller Idia. National Geographic Group. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Dhayade, Kundan (29 November 2004). Dhayade, Kundan (ed.). "Earth observatory NASA". www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov.
- Malu, Ram (18 December 2002). "Lonar crater saline lake, an ecological wonder in India". International Society for Salt Lake Research. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2008.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- "Lonar". Earth Impact Database. Planetary and Space Science Centre University of New Brunswick Fredericton. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
- F. Jourdan; F. Moynier; C. Koeberl; S. Eroglu. (July 2011). "40Ar/39Ar age of the Lonar crater and consequence for the geochronology of planetary impacts". Geology. 39 (7): 671–674. Bibcode:2011Geo....39..671J. doi:10.1130/g31888.1.
- Jourdan, F.; et al. (2010). "First 40Ar/39Ar Age of the Lonar Crater: A ~0.65 Ma Impact Event?" (PDF). 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference Proceedings. Lunar and Planetary Institute: 1661.
- "Lonar". The Planetary and Space Science Center. University of New Brunswick. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
- Babar, Rohit. "Lonar, A Gem of Craters". Office of Space Science Education. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
- Avinash A. Raut and Shyam S. Bajekal; Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria from Hypervelocity meteorite impact Lonar Crater; in Special Issue of Research Journal of Biotechnology; December 2008 and Avinash A. Raut and Shyam S. Bajekal; Nitrogen Fixing Actinomycetes from Saline Alkaline Environment of Lonar Lake: A Meteorite Impact Crater, in Journal of Environmental Research and Development, Vol.3, No.3, January–March 2009.
- "Mineral contents of Buldhana's Lonar lake similar to moon rocks: IIT-Bombay study". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- Riedel, Nils; Stebich, Martina; Anoop, Ambili; Basavaiah, Nathani; Menzel, Philip; Prasad, Sushma; Sachse, Dirk; Sarkar, Saswati; Wiesner, Martin (12 June 2015). "Modern pollen vegetation relationships in a dry deciduous monsoon forest: A case study from Lonar Crater Lake, central India". Quaternary International. Updated Quaternary Climatic Research in parts of the Third Pole Selected papers from the HOPE-2013 conference, Nainital, India. 371: 268–279. Bibcode:2015QuInt.371..268R. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.01.046.
- Kale, Vishwas S (2014). Landscapes and Landforms of India. Springer. pp. 223–229. ISBN 9789401780292. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
-  Geology - Formation of the alluvium
- Pittarello, L., A. P. Crosta, C. Kazzuo-Vieira, C. Koeberl, and T. Kenkmann (2010) Geology and impact features of Vargeao Dome, southern Brazil. Meteoritics & Planetary Science. vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 51–71.
- "Lonar crater". Wondermondo.
- Lonar crater saline lake, an ecological wonder in India; International Society for Salt Lake Research, 2001 Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Lonar Crater, India: An Analog for Martian Impact Craters; Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007)" (PDF).
-  Leisure
-  –Lonar more, 29 March, Lillyn Kamath
- Tehsin, Arefa (26 July 2015). "You are here: Home » Supplements » Sunday Herald travel » From the bottomless beyond From the bottomless beyond". Deccan Herald, newspaper. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
-  - Working of the Lake
- Anoop et al., Palaeoenvironmental implications of evaporative gaylussite crystals from Lonar Lake, central India, Journal of Quaternary Science, V., Issue 4, pp. 349–359, May 2013
- "Handbook of Mineralogy" (PDF).
- LPSN bacterio.net
- Sultanpuram, V. R.; Mothe, T; Mohammed, F (2015). "Streptomyces alkalithermotolerans sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic and thermotolerant actinomycete isolated from a soda lake". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 107 (2): 337–44. doi:10.1007/s10482-014-0332-z. PMID 25391353.
- Indian Express Newspapers (3 November 1999). "Plea to declare Lonar lake a protected wetland". Express India. Archived from the original on 26 September 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Surakasi VP, Antony CP, Sharma S, Patole MS, Shouche YS. (2010). Temporal bacterial diversity and detection of putative methanotrophs in surface mats of Lonar crater lake. J Basic Microbiol 50: 465–474.
- Antony CP, Kumaresan D, Hunger S, Drake HL, Murrell JC, Shouche YS. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes. ISME Journal. 2013;7(3):468–76.
- Surakasi VP, Wani AA, Shouche YS, Ranade DR. (2007). Phylogenetic analysis of methanogenic enrichment cultures obtained from Lonar Lake in India: isolation of Methanocalculus sp. and Methanoculleus sp. Microb Ecol 54: 697–704.
- Wani AA, Surakasi VP, Siddharth J, Raghavan RG, Patole MS, Ranade D, Shouche YS. (2006). Molecular analyses of microbial diversity associated with the Lonar soda lake in India: an impact crater in a basalt area. Res Microbiol 157: 928–937.
- Antony CP, Shimpi GG, Cockell CS, Patole MS, Shouche YS. (2014). Molecular Characterization of Prokaryotic Communities Associated with Lonar Crater Basalts. Geomicrobiology J 31(6): 519–528.
- Joshi AA, Kanekar PP, Kelkar AS, Shouche YS, Vani AA, Borgave SB, Sarnaik SS. (2008). Cultivable bacterial diversity of alkaline Lonar Lake, India. Microb Ecol 55: 163–172.
- Paul, D., Kumbhare, S. V., Mhatre, S. S., Chowdhury, S. P., Shetty, S. A., Marathe, N. P., et al. (2016). Exploration of microbial diversity and community structure of Lonar Lake: the only hypersaline meteorite crater lake within basalt rock. Front. Microbiol. 6:1553.
- Kumar PA, Srinivas TNR, Kumar PP, Madhu S, Shivaji S. (2010). Nitritalea halalkaliphila gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkaliphilic bacterium of the family ‘Cyclobacteriaceae’, phylum Bacteroidetes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60: 2320–2325.
- Kumar PA, Srinivas TNR, Madhu S, Manorama R, Shivaji S. (2010). Indibacter alkaliphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a haloalkaline lake. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60: 721–726.
- Kumar PA, Srinivas TNR, Madhu S, Sravan R, Singh S, Naqvi SWA et al. (2012). Cecembia lonarensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel haloalkalitolerant bacterium of the family ‘Cyclobacteriaceae’, isolated from a haloalkaline lake and emended descriptions of the genera Indibacter, Nitritalea and Belliella. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62: 2252–2258.
- Srinivas A, Rahul K, Sasikala Ch, Subhash Y, Ramaprasad EV, Ramana ChV. (2012). Georgenia satyanarayanai sp. nov., an alkaliphilic and thermotolerant amylase producing actinobacterium isolated from a soda lake. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62: 2405–2409.
- Sultanpuram VR, Lodha TD, Chintalapati VR, Chintalapati S. (2013). Cohaesibacter haloalkalitolerans sp. nov., isolated from a soda lake, and emended description of the genus Cohaesibacter. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63: 4271-4276
- Sultanpuram VR, Mothe T, Chintalapati S, Chintalapati VR. (2017). Nesterenkonia cremea sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from a soda lake. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 67:1861–1866.
- Sharma R, Prakash O, Sonawane MS, Nimonkar Y, Golellu PB et al. (2016) Diversity and distribution of phenol oxidase producing fungi from soda lake and description of Curvularia lonarensis sp. nov. Frontiers in Microbiology 7: 1847.
- Antony CP, Kumaresan D, Ferrando L, Boden R, Moussard H, Scavino AF et al. (2010). Active methylotrophs in the sediments of Lonar Lake, a saline and alkaline ecosystem formed by meteor impact. ISME J 4: 1470–1480.
- Antony CP, Doronina NV, Boden R, Trotsenko YA, Shouche YS, Murrell JC. (2012). Methylophaga lonarensis, a novel moderately haloalkaliphilic methylotroph isolated from the soda lake sediments of a meteorite impact crater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62: 1613–1618.
- Shetty, S.A., Marathe, N.P., Munot, H., Antony, C.P., Dhotre, D.P., Murrell, J.C., and Shouche, Y.S., Draft genome sequence of Methylophaga lonarensis MPL, a haloalkaliphilic (non-methane-utilizing) methylotroph, Genome Announc., 2013, vol. 1, pp. 202–213.
- Antony CP, Murrell JC, Shouche YS. (2012). Molecular diversity of methanogens and identification of Methanolobus sp. as active methylotrophic Archaea in Lonar crater lake sediments. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 81: 43–51.
- Avinash Anand Raut and Shyam S. Bajekal; Growth of Microaerophilic Nonsymbiotic nitrogen Fixing Microorganisms from Lonar Lake on Inorganic Medium containing Martian soil simulant components; in Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology; to be published on October 2010.
-  Central Provinces Buldana district Gazetteer
-  –Lonar more 29 March Lillyn Kamath
- mrsachindixit (26 December 2012). "Daityasudan Temple". Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- "Lonar crater now included in its wildlife sanctuary, move lauded - Times of India".
- "Sewage threat looms over unique Lonar crater lake - Times of India".
- Kumar, N. Shiva (9 December 2012). "Moon magic on earth" – via www.thehindu.com.
- "Pune-based environmentalists urge MoEF to protect Lonar crater". 9 March 2016.
- "Maharashtra's Lonar Lake, Formed by A Meteorite Fall May Disappear In Some Years".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lonar crater lake.|
- Lonar crater, India: an analog for martian impact craters, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII abstracts.
- Lonar, A Gem of Craters SPARK Volume 2, K-12 outreach, Space Science and Engineering Centre, University of Wisc-Madison.
- Trekking to Lonar Lake