London tornado of 1091
The London Tornado of 1091 is reckoned by modern assessment of the reports as possibly a T8 tornado (roughly equal to an F4 tornado) which occurred in London in the Kingdom of England and was the earliest reported tornado, occurring on Friday, 17 October 1091. The wooden London Bridge was demolished, and the church of St. Mary-le-Bow in the city of London was badly damaged; four rafters 26 feet (7.9 m) long were driven into the ground with such force that only 4 feet (1.2 m) protruded above the surface. Other churches in the area were demolished, as were over 600 (mostly wooden) houses. For all the damage inflicted, the tornado claimed just two victims from a population of about 18,000.
- PBS Hunt for the Supertornado
- Schofield, John; Vince, Alan (2003). Medieval Towns: The Archaeology of British Towns in Their European Setting. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8264-6002-8.
- "British & European Tornado Extremes". The Tornado & Storm Research Organisation (TORRO). Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Rowe, M. W. (1976). "Tornadoes in medieval Britain". Journal of Meteorology. 1 (7): 219–222.
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