Longwave

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For other uses, see Longwave (disambiguation).
The tuning dial on a 1940s radio, showing longwave wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres, corresponding to frequencies between 375 and 150 kHz

In radio, longwave refers to parts of the radio spectrum with relatively long wavelengths – typically kilometer-sized or greater. The term is a historic one dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of long, medium and short wavelengths. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.

In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely and its meaning varies across the world. The most common definition is the radio band with wavelengths greater than 1000 meters (frequencies less than 300 kHz),[1][2][3] which would include the ITUs low frequency (LF) (30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF) (3–30 kHz) bands, but sometimes part of the medium frequency (MF) band (300–3000 kHz) is included.[4] In all cases it includes the entire LF band.

In Europe, Africa and large parts of Asia (ITU Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting (in addition to the medium wave band), the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band.

The Region 1 longwave broadcast band falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30–300 kHz). Broader definitions of longwave may extend below and/or above it. In the US, the Longwave Club of America is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band",[5] i.e., all frequencies below 535 kHz. (Lower frequencies correspond to longer wavelengths.)

Non-broadcast use[edit]

Non-directional beacons[edit]

Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.

Time signals[edit]

There are stations in the range 40–80 kHz that transmit time signals to radio clocks. For example:

Radio controlled clocks receive their time calibrations signal with built-in longwave receivers. They use longwave, rather than shortwave or mediumwave, because the accuracy of the clocks is not affected by changes in the time signal's travel from the transmitter to the ionosphere and to the receiver; as longwave travels by groundwave, rather than skywave, the propagation time does not vary.

Military communication[edit]

The United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with their submarines.

LowFER[edit]

In North America during the 1970s the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays the 160–190 kHz range is used in the United States for Part 15 LowFER amateur and experimental stations, and the 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.

Historic[edit]

Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz.[6]

Broadcasting[edit]

Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. The longwave broadcasters are located in west, north, central and southeast Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia, Algeria and Morocco.

Typically, a larger area can be covered by a longwave broadcast transmitter than a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to limited ground conductivity at lower frequencies.[7]

Carrier frequencies[edit]

Carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz ranging from 153 to 279 kHz, except for a French language station in Germany and five Mongolian transmitters.

Until the 1970s, some longwave stations in northern and eastern Europe and the Soviet Union operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz.[8]

Some stations, for instance Droitwich in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock. They can be therefore used as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.

In January 2014 Russia closed all of its LW transmitters except for one in Caucasus.[9]

List of longwave broadcasting transmitters[edit]

List of stations currently operating:

  Denotes non-standard frequency (not divisible by 9)

[10] [11] [12] [13]

Freq. kHz Station name Country Location Aerial type Power kW Coordinates Remarks
153 Radio Antena Satelor  Romania Brașov T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts with a height of 250 metres. 200 45°45′22.27″N 25°36′26.77″E / 45.7561861°N 25.6074361°E / 45.7561861; 25.6074361 (Bod Transmitter, Mast 1) ; 45°45′13.16″N 25°36′25.15″E / 45.7536556°N 25.6069861°E / 45.7536556; 25.6069861 (Bod Transmitter, Mast 2)  
NRK P1  Norway Ingøy Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 362 m height, fed at the top, ex-Omega equipment. 100 71°4′17″N 24°5′14″E / 71.07139°N 24.08722°E / 71.07139; 24.08722 (Ingøy longwave transmitter) The transmitter is important for the fishing fleet in the Barents Sea.
Chaîne 1  Algeria Kenadsa 2000 low power estimated <10 kw and low modulation
162 France Inter  France Allouis Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 350 m, fed on the top. 1000/2000 47°10′10.45″N 2°12′16.75″E / 47.1695694°N 2.2046528°E / 47.1695694; 2.2046528 (Allouis transmitter, Mast 1) ; 47°10′25.34″N 2°12′16.81″E / 47.1737056°N 2.2046694°E / 47.1737056; 2.2046694 (Allouis transmitter, Mast 2) Time signal phase-modulated.
164 MNB Radio 1  Mongolia Ulan Bator (Khonkhor) 259 metres high cable-stayed steel truss mast.[14] 500 47°47′54.67″N 107°11′14.7″E / 47.7985194°N 107.187417°E / 47.7985194; 107.187417 (Ulan-Bator transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC.
171 Médi 1  Morocco Nador Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres tall. 1600 35°02′50.65″N 2°55′22.81″W / 35.0474028°N 2.9230028°W / 35.0474028; -2.9230028 (Nador transmitter, Mast 1); 35°02′30.27″N 2°55′16.16″W / 35.0417417°N 2.9211556°W / 35.0417417; -2.9211556 (Nador transmitter, Mast 2) ; 35°02′9.89″N 2°55′9.52″W / 35.0360806°N 2.9193111°W / 35.0360806; -2.9193111 (Nador transmitter, Mast 2)  
183 Europe 1  Germany Felsberg-Berus Directional aerial, four ground insulated steel lattice masts. Heights of 270 m, 276 m, 280 m and 282 m. Spare aerial: two ground insulated steel lattice masts of 234 m height. 2000 Main antenna: 49°17′4.2″N 6°40′57.73″E / 49.284500°N 6.6827028°E / 49.284500; 6.6827028 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 1) ; 49°16′55.86″N 6°40′46.16″E / 49.2821833°N 6.6794889°E / 49.2821833; 6.6794889 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 2) ; 49°16′47.55″N 6°40′34.48″E / 49.2798750°N 6.6762444°E / 49.2798750; 6.6762444 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 3) ; 49°16′39.18″N 6°40′22.72″E / 49.2775500°N 6.6729778°E / 49.2775500; 6.6729778 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 4), Spare antenna: 49°17′8.93″N 6°39′31.71″E / 49.2858139°N 6.6588083°E / 49.2858139; 6.6588083 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 1) ; 49°17′1.54″N 6°39′23.6″E / 49.2837611°N 6.656556°E / 49.2837611; 6.656556 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 2) French language channel. The most powerful longwave transmitter in Germany; DRM test after 00:00 UTC.
189 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2  Iceland Gufuskalar near Hellissandur Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 412m. 300 64°54′26″N 23°55′19.5″W / 64.90722°N 23.922083°W / 64.90722; -23.922083 (Hellissandur Longwave Mast)
198 BBC Radio 4  United Kingdom Droitwich (SFN) T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres. 500 52°17′46.9″N 2°6′24.32″W / 52.296361°N 2.1067556°W / 52.296361; -2.1067556 (Droitwich Mast 1) ; 52°17′40.4″N 2°6′20.62″W / 52.294556°N 2.1057278°W / 52.294556; -2.1057278 (Droitwich Mast 2) All three transmitters carry Radio teleswitch PSK data. Droitwich relays BBC World Service from 01:00 to 05:20 UTC.
Burghead (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 154 m. 50 57°41′57.9″N 3°28′4.78″W / 57.699417°N 3.4679944°W / 57.699417; -3.4679944 (Burghead Transmitter, Main Mast)
Westerglen (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 m. 55°58′33″N 3°48′58.8″W / 55.97583°N 3.816333°W / 55.97583; -3.816333 (Westerglen Mast)
Chaîne 1  Algeria Berkaoui 2000 low power estimated <10 kw and low modulation
207 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2  Iceland Eiðar near Egilsstaðir Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 221 m. 100 65°22′22.93″N 14°20′27.29″W / 65.3730361°N 14.3409139°W / 65.3730361; -14.3409139 (Eiðar Longwave Mast)
RTM A  Morocco Azilal Demnate 304.8 metres tall guyed mast 400
209 MNB Radio 1  Mongolia Choibalsan Cable-stayed steel truss mast, height: 275.84 metres 75 48°00′17.27″N 114°27′17.6″E / 48.0047972°N 114.454889°E / 48.0047972; 114.454889 (Choibalsan transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC.
Dalanzadgad 43°31′54.43″N 104°24′41.4″E / 43.5317861°N 104.411500°E / 43.5317861; 104.411500 (Dalanzadgad transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC.
Olgii Omnidirectional antenna, 352.5 metres high guyed mast 30 48°57′24.52″N 89°58′13.15″E / 48.9568111°N 89.9703194°E / 48.9568111; 89.9703194 (Olgii transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC.
216 Radio Monte Carlo  Monaco Roumoules Directional aerial, 3 300 metre high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metre high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial. 700/1400 43°47′41.45″N 6°8′48.41″E / 43.7948472°N 6.1467806°E / 43.7948472; 6.1467806 (Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 1) ; 43°47′34.56″N 6°8′59.09″E / 43.7929333°N 6.1497472°E / 43.7929333; 6.1497472 (Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 2); 43°47′27.7″N 6°9′9.85″E / 43.791028°N 6.1527361°E / 43.791028; 6.1527361 (Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 3), Backup antenna: 43°47′36.29″N 6°9′30.61″E / 43.7934139°N 6.1585028°E / 43.7934139; 6.1585028 (Roumoules transmitter, longwave backup mast) Transmitter located in France. In operation from 5:30 to 23:00 CET.
225 Polskie Radio 1  Poland Solec Kujawski Directional aerial, 2 guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 m and 289 m. 1000 53°1′21.01″N 18°15′32.63″E / 53.0225028°N 18.2590639°E / 53.0225028; 18.2590639 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 330 metres tall mast) 53°1′12.83″N 18°15′44.06″E / 53.0202306°N 18.2622389°E / 53.0202306; 18.2622389 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 289 metres tall mast) Earlier Konstantynów was used ( 52°22′3.91″N 19°48′7.04″E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E / 52.3677528; 19.8019556 (Konstantynów Radio Mast ( destroyed)) )
227 MNB Radio 1  Mongolia Altai Cable-stayed steel truss mast. 75 46°19′25.52″N 96°15′31.2″E / 46.3237556°N 96.258667°E / 46.3237556; 96.258667 (Altai transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC.
234 RTL  Luxembourg Beidweiler Directional aerial, 3 guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 m high, with vertical cage aerials. 1500/2000 49°43′42.57″N 6°19′4.29″E / 49.7284917°N 6.3178583°E / 49.7284917; 6.3178583 (Beidweiler Radio Mast) ; 49°43′49.2″N 6°19′15.02″E / 49.730333°N 6.3208389°E / 49.730333; 6.3208389 (Beidweiler Radio Mast) ; 49°43′55.81″N 6°19′25.67″E / 49.7321694°N 6.3237972°E / 49.7321694; 6.3237972 (Beidweiler Radio Mast) Spare transmitter site Junglinster ( 49°43′0.35″N 6°15′28.9″E / 49.7167639°N 6.258028°E / 49.7167639; 6.258028 (Junglinster Radio Tower) ; 49°43′6.56″N 6°15′40.27″E / 49.7184889°N 6.2611861°E / 49.7184889; 6.2611861 (Junglinster Radio Tower) ; 49°43′12.75″N 6°15′51.44″E / 49.7202083°N 6.2642889°E / 49.7202083; 6.2642889 (Junglinster Radio Tower) )
243 DR P1/DR P2  Denmark Kalundborg Semi-directional Alexanderson antenna 153/333 degrees, two grounded 118 m steel lattice radiating towers with interconnecting top wire capacitance. 50 55°40′39.27″N 11°4′8.6″E / 55.6775750°N 11.069056°E / 55.6775750; 11.069056 (Kalundborg Transmitter Longwave Tower 1) ; 55°40′32.91″N 11°4′14.33″E / 55.6758083°N 11.0706472°E / 55.6758083; 11.0706472 (Kalundborg Transmitter Longwave Tower 2) Transmitting in time slots only.
252 Chaîne 3  Algeria Tipaza Omnidirectional aerial, single guyed lattice steel mast, height 355 m. 750/1500 36°33′58.14″N 2°28′50.3″E / 36.5661500°N 2.480639°E / 36.5661500; 2.480639 (Tipaza Longwave transmitter) French language channel; during night-time half transmitter power.
RTÉ Radio 1  Ireland Clarkstown Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 m. 100/300 53°27′46″N 6°40′39″W / 53.46278°N 6.67750°W / 53.46278; -6.67750 (Clarkstown longwave mast) The only AM transmitter for RTÉ Radio 1. Power is decreased at night to 100 kW. Transmitter will cease broadcasting on May 1st 2017.[15]
270 Czech Radio 1  Czech Republic Topolná Directional aerial (maximum of radiation in East-West direction), two grounded 257 m high guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials. 50 49°7′32.88″N 17°30′45.97″E / 49.1258000°N 17.5127694°E / 49.1258000; 17.5127694 (Topolná transmitter, Mast 1) ; 49°7′18.85″N 17°30′41.78″E / 49.1219028°N 17.5116056°E / 49.1219028; 17.5116056 (Topolná transmitter, Mast 2) Broadcast from Monday to Friday 5:00-24:00 CET and 6:00-24:00 CET at weekends.
279 Belaruskaje Radyjo 1  Belarus Sasnovy 500 53°24′31″N 28°31′57″E / 53.40861°N 28.53250°E / 53.40861; 28.53250 (Sasnovy transmitter)  
Turkmen Radio 1  Turkmenistan Ashgabat (Kartamak) Cable-stayed steel truss mast 150 37°51′14.89″N 58°21′57.99″E / 37.8541361°N 58.3661083°E / 37.8541361; 58.3661083 (Ashgabat transmitter)  

List of stations that have closed or are otherwise inactive:

  Closed
Freq. kHz Station name Country Location Aerial type Power kW Coordinates Remarks
153
Deutschlandfunk  Germany Donebach Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top 500 49°33′40.25″N 9°10′22.76″E / 49.5611806°N 9.1729889°E / 49.5611806; 9.1729889 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 1)  ; 49°33′33.53″N 9°10′50.82″E / 49.5593139°N 9.1807833°E / 49.5593139; 9.1807833 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 2) closed
Radio Mayak  Turkmenistan Ashgabat 650 closed
YuFM  Russia Taldom transmitter Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height 300 56°45′30.04″N 37°37′12.17″E / 56.7583444°N 37.6200472°E / 56.7583444; 37.6200472 (Taldom longwave transmitter, 153 kHz-mast) closed
Radio Rossii Popova near Komsomolsk-na-Amure 1200 50°39′16.75″N 136°54′46.9″E / 50.6546528°N 136.913028°E / 50.6546528; 136.913028 (Popova longwave transmitter) closed
162 TRT Radyo 4  Turkey Agri Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 250 m 1000 39°46′23.11″N 43°02′14.55″E / 39.7730861°N 43.0373750°E / 39.7730861; 43.0373750 (Agri transmitter, Mast 1) ; 39°46′25.86″N 43°02′33.32″E / 39.7738500°N 43.0425889°E / 39.7738500; 43.0425889 (Agri transmitter, Mast 2) inactive
Radio Tashkent 1  Uzbekistan Tashkent 150 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Norilsk Omnidirectional antenna, 205 m high antenna 150 69°22′46″N 87°6′26″E / 69.37944°N 87.10722°E / 69.37944; 87.10722 (Norilsk transmitter) ? closed
Radio Yuldash, Radio Rossii Ufa 54°46′19.73″N 56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
171
 Netherlands Lopik 500 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 54°54′42.62″N 21°43′2.32″E / 54.9118389°N 21.7173111°E / 54.9118389; 21.7173111 (Bolshakovo longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Ukraine 1  Ukraine Krasne near Lwów Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150/75 49°54′12.85″N 24°41′15.22″E / 49.9035694°N 24.6875611°E / 49.9035694; 24.6875611 (Krasne longwave transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Raduga Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 250 55°29′16″N 83°41′28″E / 55.48778°N 83.69111°E / 55.48778; 83.69111 (Raduga longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Murmansk Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 69°00′59.07″N 32°55′57.17″E / 69.0164083°N 32.9325472°E / 69.0164083; 32.9325472 (Murmansk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Noginsk Omnidirectional antenna, 242 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°50′0.89″N 38°20′35.18″E / 55.8335806°N 38.3431056°E / 55.8335806; 38.3431056 (Noginsk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Ezhva near Syktyvkar Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 61°49′09.34″N 50°41′26.42″E / 61.8192611°N 50.6906722°E / 61.8192611; 50.6906722 (Zelenets longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Tulagino near Yakutsk Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 6 ring masts 150 62°14′15.01″N 129°48′10.4″E / 62.2375028°N 129.802889°E / 62.2375028; 129.802889 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, central mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′0.85″E / 62.2396722°N 129.8002361°E / 62.2396722; 129.8002361 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°47′51.2″E / 62.2375167°N 129.797556°E / 62.2375167; 129.797556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.27″N 129°48′0.82″E / 62.2353528°N 129.8002278°E / 62.2353528; 129.8002278 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.31″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2353639°N 129.80556°E / 62.2353639; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°48′29.7″E / 62.2375167°N 129.808250°E / 62.2375167; 129.808250 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2396722°N 129.80556°E / 62.2396722; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) closed
177 Deutschlandradio Kultur  Germany Zehlendorf near Oranienburg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts 500 52°47′41.87″N 13°23′9.5″E / 52.7949639°N 13.385972°E / 52.7949639; 13.385972 (Zehlendorf Longwave Mast) closed
180 TRT Radyo 2  Turkey Polatli Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed latice steel mast 1200 39°45′22.46″N 32°25′6.24″E / 39.7562389°N 32.4184000°E / 39.7562389; 32.4184000 (Polatli Longwave Mast) inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Yelizovo near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 53°11′4.92″N 158°24′2.24″E / 53.1847000°N 158.4006222°E / 53.1847000; 158.4006222 (Yelizovo Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, 200 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 51°50′22.5″N 113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) inactive
Kazakh Radio 1  Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 250 closed
Radio Mayak  Kazakhstan Aktyubinsk 150 closed
 Kazakhstan Chimkent 50 closed
189 Rai Radio 1  Italy Caltanissetta Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m 10 37°29′53.05″N 14°04′04.08″E / 37.4980694°N 14.0678000°E / 37.4980694; 14.0678000 (Caltanissetta transmitter) closed
Sveriges Radio P1  Sweden Orlunda 300 58°25′37″N 14°58′38″E / 58.42694°N 14.97722°E / 58.42694; 14.97722 (Orlunda radio transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kostantinogradovka near Blagoveshchensk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1200 50°30′23.58″N 128°18′32.9″E / 50.5065500°N 128.309139°E / 50.5065500; 128.309139 (Blagoveschensk transmitter) closed
Sakartvelos Radio  Georgia Dusheti 250 42°03′1.76″N 44°40′37.56″E / 42.0504889°N 44.6771000°E / 42.0504889; 44.6771000 (Dusheti transmitter) inactive
198
Polskie Radio Parlament/Radio Polonia  Poland Raszyn Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, 335 m high 200 52°4′21.72″N 20°53′2.15″E / 52.0727000°N 20.8839306°E / 52.0727000; 20.8839306 (Raszyn Radio Mast) closed[16]
Radio Mayak  Russia Saint Petersburg - Olgino Omnidirectional aerial, 205 m high guyed steel lattice mast 150 59°59′30.01″N 30°07′38.81″E / 59.9916694°N 30.1274472°E / 59.9916694; 30.1274472 (Olgino Radio Mast) inactive
Radio Mayak  Russia Angarsk Before 2001: T-antenna spun between 2 205 m tall guyed steel lattice mast 250 52°31′51.95″N 103°52′9.46″E / 52.5310972°N 103.8692944°E / 52.5310972; 103.8692944 (Angarsk Radio Mast), possibly 52°26′10.17″N 103°41′1.05″E / 52.4361583°N 103.6836250°E / 52.4361583; 103.6836250 (Irkutsk Radio Mast) closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Avsyunino Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°35′13.75″N 39°09′57.84″E / 55.5871528°N 39.1660667°E / 55.5871528; 39.1660667 (Avsyunino Radio Mast) inactive
Radio Mayak  Russia Ufa 150 54°46′19.73″N 56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
 Kyrgyzstan Krasnaya Rechka near Bishkek 150 42°52′51.9″N 74°59′43.79″E / 42.881083°N 74.9954972°E / 42.881083; 74.9954972 (Krasnorechenka transmitter) closed
207
RNE Radio 5  Spain Logroño Directional antenna, 300 metres tall. >100 closed
Radio Ukraine 1  Ukraine Brovary Omnidirectional antenna, 259.6 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 50°29′48.8″N 30°48′9.2″E / 50.496889°N 30.802556°E / 50.496889; 30.802556 (Brovary Longwave Mast) closed
Jordan Radio  Jordan Al Karanah  ? 31°45′55.47″N 36°28′44.97″E / 31.7654083°N 36.4791583°E / 31.7654083; 36.4791583 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) ; 31°45′29.66″N 36°28′59.11″E / 31.7582389°N 36.4830861°E / 31.7582389; 36.4830861 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Tynda Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 244 m 150 55°05′19.31″N 124°43′9.7″E / 55.0886972°N 124.719361°E / 55.0886972; 124.719361 (Tynda Longwave Mast) closed
Deutschlandfunk  Germany Aholming Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top 500 48°43′50.55″N 12°55′47.04″E / 48.7307083°N 12.9297333°E / 48.7307083; 12.9297333 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 1)  ; 48°43′38.46″N 12°56′2.06″E / 48.7273500°N 12.9339056°E / 48.7273500; 12.9339056 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 2) closed
216
NRK P1  Norway Lambertseter near Oslo 200 closed
Azerbaijan Radio  Azerbaijan Baku 500 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Krasnoyarsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 210 m tall 150 56°02′02.97″N 92°45′32.31″E / 56.0341583°N 92.7589750°E / 56.0341583; 92.7589750 (Krasnoyarsk Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Atamanovka Directional antenna 150 51°50′02″N 113°43′10″E / 51.83389°N 113.71944°E / 51.83389; 113.71944 (Atamanovka Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Birobidzhan 2 guyed masts, 260 m high 30 48°44′19.37″N 132°48′3.95″E / 48.7387139°N 132.8010972°E / 48.7387139; 132.8010972 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) ; 48°44′14.71″N 132°48′32.6″E / 48.7374194°N 132.809056°E / 48.7374194; 132.809056 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) closed
225 TRT GAP  Turkey Van Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed lattice steel mast 600 38°35′11.47″N 43°15′59.17″E / 38.5865194°N 43.2664361°E / 38.5865194; 43.2664361 (Van transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Surgut Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 61°23′35″N 72°53′20″E / 61.39306°N 72.88889°E / 61.39306; 72.88889 (Surgut transmitter) closed
234
Radio Moldova  Moldova Grigoriopol 1000 closed
 Libya Yafran near Tripoli 1000 closed
Radio 1  Russia Krasny Bor transmitter near Sankt-Peterburg Omnidirectional aerial, 271.5 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna 1200 59°39′12.32″N 30°41′50.12″E / 59.6534222°N 30.6972556°E / 59.6534222; 30.6972556 (Krasny Bor transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Koskovo near Murmansk Omnidirectional aerial, 210 m tall guyed mast 250 64°21′35.83″N 41°23′4.01″E / 64.3599528°N 41.3844472°E / 64.3599528; 41.3844472 (Koskovo transmitter) inactive
Radio 1  Russia Novosemeykino near Samara Four 205 metres tall towers insulated against ground arranged in a square 2000 53°22′59.44″N 50°20′13.84″E / 53.3831778°N 50.3371778°E / 53.3831778; 50.3371778 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′59.53″N 50°20′19.23″E / 53.3832028°N 50.3386750°E / 53.3832028; 50.3386750 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.2″N 50°20′13.94″E / 53.382278°N 50.3372056°E / 53.382278; 50.3372056 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.31″N 50°20′19.32″E / 53.3823083°N 50.3387000°E / 53.3823083; 50.3387000 (Novosemeykino transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Raduzhnyy near Magadan Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 59°42′51.14″N 150°11′29.9″E / 59.7142056°N 150.191639°E / 59.7142056; 150.191639 (Raduzhnyy transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Odinsk near Irkutsk Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 52°24′57.43″N 103°42′0.29″E / 52.4159528°N 103.7000806°E / 52.4159528; 103.7000806 (Odinsk transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Koskovo near Arkhangelsk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 64°21′50.92″N 41°24′41.8″E / 64.3641444°N 41.411611°E / 64.3641444; 41.411611 (Koskovo transmitter) closed
243 TRT Radyo 4  Turkey Erzurum Omnidirectional antenna, 185 m high guyed lattice steel mast 200 39°59′53.59″N 41°06′40.95″E / 39.9982194°N 41.1113750°E / 39.9982194; 41.1113750 (Erzurum Transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Razdolnoye near Ussuriysk Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 43°32′18″N 131°55′46″E / 43.53833°N 131.92944°E / 43.53833; 131.92944 (Razdoly'ne Transmitter) closed
Kazakh Radio 1  Kazakhstan Karaganda Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 254 m height 1000 49°47′32.45″N 73°01′40.15″E / 49.7923472°N 73.0278194°E / 49.7923472; 73.0278194 (Karaganda Transmitter) closed
Kazakh Radio 2  Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 1000 closed
252
Yle Radio 1  Finland Lahti 200 60°58′48″N 25°38′39″E / 60.980137°N 25.644195°E / 60.980137; 25.644195 (Lahti longwave transmitter), 60°58′43″N 25°38′57″E / 60.978747°N 25.649155°E / 60.978747; 25.649155 (Lahti longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kazan Omnidirectional aerial, 152 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 100 55°49′6.3″N 49°10′24.64″E / 55.818417°N 49.1735111°E / 55.818417; 49.1735111 (Kazan longwave mast) closed
261 Radioropa Info  Germany Burg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial on 324 m high guyed, grounded steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground 200 52°17′12.93″N 11°53′50.52″E / 52.2869250°N 11.8973667°E / 52.2869250; 11.8973667 (Burg transmitter, main mast) inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Taldom Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 5 ring masts, height of central mast 275 m 2500 56°43′59.86″N 37°39′47.51″E / 56.7332944°N 37.6631972°E / 56.7332944; 37.6631972 (Taldom transmitter, Central Mast) ; 56°44′10.32″N 37°39′46.53″E / 56.7362000°N 37.6629250°E / 56.7362000; 37.6629250 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′2.54″N 37°39′29.17″E / 56.7340389°N 37.6581028°E / 56.7340389; 37.6581028 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.09″N 37°39′37.2″E / 56.7308583°N 37.660333°E / 56.7308583; 37.660333 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.76″N 37°39′59.6″E / 56.7310444°N 37.666556°E / 56.7310444; 37.666556 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′3.64″N 37°40′5.34″E / 56.7343444°N 37.6681500°E / 56.7343444; 37.6681500 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 260 m high 150 51°50′22.5″N 113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Tyumen Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 150 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Vorkuta Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 50 closed
Radio Horizont  Bulgaria Vakarel One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215 m high 75 42°34′35.18″N 23°41′55.52″E / 42.5764389°N 23.6987556°E / 42.5764389; 23.6987556 (Vakarel Transmitter) closed
270
Radio Rossii  Russia Orenburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 137 m height 25 51°46′44.37″N 55°06′23.01″E / 51.7789917°N 55.1063917°E / 51.7789917; 55.1063917 (Orenburg transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Khabarovsk 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 164 m 150 48°30′43.48″N 135°07′02.24″E / 48.5120778°N 135.1172889°E / 48.5120778; 135.1172889 (Chabarovsk transmitter) ; 48°30′48.75″N 135°07′18.15″E / 48.5135417°N 135.1217083°E / 48.5135417; 135.1217083 (Chabarovsk transmitter) closed
279
Radio Rossii  Russia Gorno-Altaisk Omnidirectional antenna, 143m high guyed lattice steel mast 50 51°58′1.12″N 85°54′54.68″E / 51.9669778°N 85.9151889°E / 51.9669778; 85.9151889 (Gorno-Altaisk transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Selenginsk Omnidirectional aerial, 260 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna (ARRT-antenna) 150 52°02′17.52″N 106°56′25.6″E / 52.0382000°N 106.940444°E / 52.0382000; 106.940444 (Selenginsk transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Vestochka near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 258 m high 1000 46°50′35″N 142°53′44″E / 46.84306°N 142.89556°E / 46.84306; 142.89556 (Vestochka transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Yekaterinburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 256 m height, fed at the top 150 56°53′22.46″N 60°41′30.22″E / 56.8895722°N 60.6917278°E / 56.8895722; 60.6917278 (Yekaterinburg longwave transmitter) closed
Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of longwave broadcasting stations


See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "long wave". Cambridge Online Dictionary. Cambridge Univ. Press, UK. 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  2. ^ "long wave". MacMillan Online Dictionary. MacMillan Publishers. 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  3. ^ Graf, Rudolf F. Graf (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics, 7th Ed. US: Newnes. p. 437. ISBN 0750698667. 
  4. ^ The World Book Dictionary. US: World Book, Inc. 2003. p. 1232. ISBN 0716602997. 
  5. ^ "About LWCA". Longwave Club of America. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  6. ^ SAQ Transmission.Radiostation Grimeton SAQ. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  7. ^ Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between 10 kHz and 30 MHz. ITU-R Recommendation P.368-9
  8. ^ Guide to Broadcasting Stations (17th ed.). Butterworth. 1973. p. 18. ISBN 0-592-00081-8. 
  9. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-news-from-elsewhere-25683656
  10. ^ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Langwellenrundfunk
  11. ^ World Radio TV Handbook
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ http://structurae.net/structures/ulan-bator-longwave-transmission-mast
  15. ^ http://www.irishpost.co.uk/news/rte-radio-postpones-longwave-radio-closure-until-2017
  16. ^ http://www.wiadomosci24.pl/artykul/bez_radia_w_raszynie_105054.html

External links[edit]