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List of rivers by length

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View of the River Nile, from a cruiseboat, between Luxor and Aswan in Egypt.

This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth. It includes river systems over 1,000 kilometers.

Definition of length

There are many factors, such as the source, the identification or the definition of the mouth, and the scale of measurement[1] of the river length between source and mouth, that determine the precise meaning of "river length". As a result, the length measurements of many rivers are only approximations (see also coastline paradox). In particular, there has long been disagreement as to whether the Nile or the Amazon is the world's longest river. The Nile has traditionally been considered longer, but in recent years some Brazilian and Peruvian studies have suggested that the Amazon is longer by measuring the river plus the adjacent Pará estuary and the longest connecting tidal canal.[2][3][4][5]

Even when detailed maps are available, the length measurement is not always clear. A river may have multiple channels, or anabranches. The length may depend on whether the center or the edge of the river is measured. It may not be clear how to measure the length through a lake. Seasonal and annual changes may alter both rivers and lakes. Other factors that can change the length of a river include cycles of erosion and flooding, dams, levees, and channelization. In addition, the length of meanders can change significantly over time due to natural or artificial cutoffs, when a new channel cuts across a narrow strip of land, bypassing a large river bend. For example, due to 18 cutoffs created between 1766 and 1885 the length of the Mississippi River from Cairo, Illinois, to New Orleans, Louisiana, was reduced by 218 miles (351 km).[6]

These points make it difficult, if not impossible, to get an accurate measurement of the length of a river. The varying accuracy and precision also makes it difficult to make length comparisons between different rivers without a degree of uncertainty.

List of rivers longer than 1000 km

One should take the aforementioned discussion into account when using the data in the following table. For most rivers, different sources provide conflicting information on the length of a river system. The information in different sources is between parentheses.

Continent color key
Africa Asia Australia Europe North America South America
River Length (km) Length (miles) Drainage area (km²)[citation needed] Average discharge (m³/s)[citation needed] Outflow Countries in the drainage basin[citation needed]
1. Nile – Kagera[n 1] 6,853
(6,650)
4,258
(4,132)
3,254,555 2,800 Mediterranean Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Egypt, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan
2. Amazon – Ucayali – Apurímac[n 1] 6,992
(6,400)
4,345
(3,976)
7,050,000 209,000 Atlantic Ocean Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guyana
3. Yangtze[citation needed]
(Chang Jiang; Long River)
6,300
(6,418)
3,917
(3,988)
1,800,000 31,900 East China Sea China
4. MississippiMissouriJefferson 6,275
3,902
2,980,000 16,200 Gulf of Mexico United States (98.5%), Canada (1.5%)
5. YeniseiAngaraSelenge 5,539
3,445
2,580,000 19,600 Kara Sea Russia (97%), Mongolia (2.9%)
6. Yellow River
(Huang He)
5,464
3,395
745,000 2,110 Bohai Sea China
7. ObIrtysh 5,410 3,364 2,990,000 12,800 Gulf of Ob Russia, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia
8. Paraná – Río de la Plata

[8]

4,880
3,030
2,582,672 18,000 Río de la Plata Brazil (46.7%), Argentina (27.7%), Paraguay (13.5%), Bolivia (8.3%), Uruguay (3.8%)
9. CongoChambeshi
(Zaïre)
4,700
2,922
3,680,000 41,800 Atlantic Ocean Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Cameroon, Zambia, Burundi, Rwanda
10. AmurArgun
(Heilong Jiang)
4,444 2,763 1,855,000 11,400 Sea of Okhotsk Russia, China, Mongolia
11. Lena 4,400
2,736
2,490,000 17,100 Laptev Sea Russia
12. Mekong
(Lancang Jiang)
4,350 2,705 810,000 16,000 South China Sea China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam
13. MackenzieSlavePeaceFinlay 4,241
2,637
1,790,000 10,300 Beaufort Sea Canada
14. Niger 4,200
2,611
2,090,000 9,570 Gulf of Guinea Nigeria (26.6%), Mali (25.6%), Niger (23.6%), Algeria (7.6%), Guinea (4.5%), Cameroon (4.2%), Burkina Faso (3.9%), Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Chad
15. MurrayDarling 3,672[9] 2,282
1,061,000 767 Southern Ocean Australia
16. TocantinsAraguaia 3,650 2,270 950,000 13,598 Atlantic Ocean, Amazon Brazil
17. Volga 3,645 2,266 1,380,000 8,080 Caspian Sea Russia
18. Shatt al-Arab – Euphrates 3,596
2,236
884,000 856 Persian Gulf Iraq (60.5%), Turkey (24.8%), Syria (14.7%)
19. MadeiraMamoréGrandeCaineRocha 3,380 2,100 1,485,200 31,200 Amazon Brazil, Bolivia, Peru
20. Purús 3,211 1,995 63,166 8,400 Amazon Brazil, Peru
21. Yukon 3,185 1,980[6] 850,000 6,210 Bering Sea United States (59.8%), Canada (40.2%)
22. Indus 3,180 1,976 960,000 7,160 Arabian Sea Pakistan (93%), India, China
23. São Francisco 3,180*
(2,900)
1,976*
(1,802)
610,000 3,300 Atlantic Ocean Brazil
24. Syr Darya – Naryn 3,078 1,913 219,000 703 Aral Sea Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
25. Salween
(Nu Jiang)
3,060 1,901 324,000 3,153[10] Andaman Sea China (52.4%), Myanmar (43.9%), Thailand (3.7%)
26. Saint Lawrence – Great Lakes 3,058 1,900[6] 1,030,000 10,100 Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada (52.1%), United States (47.9%)
27. Rio Grande 3,057 1,900[6] 570,000 82 Gulf of Mexico United States (52.1%), Mexico (47.9%)
28. Lower Tunguska 2,989 1,857 473,000 3,600 Yenisei Russia
29. BrahmaputraTsangpo 2,948* 1,832* 1,730,000 19,200[11] Ganges India (58.0%), China (19.7%), Nepal (9.0%), Bangladesh (6.6%), Disputed India/China (4.2%), Bhutan (2.4%)
30. DanubeBreg


(Donau, Dunăre, Duna, Dunav, Dunaj)

2,888* 1,795* 817,000 7,130 Black Sea Romania (28.9%), Hungary (11.7%), Austria (10.3%), Serbia (10.3%), Germany (7.5%), Slovakia (5.8%), Bulgaria (5.2%), Croatia (4.5%),
31. Zambezi
(Zambesi)
2,693* 1,673* 1,330,000 4,880 Mozambique Channel Zambia (41.6%), Angola (18.4%), Zimbabwe (15.6%), Mozambique (11.8%), Malawi (8.0%), Tanzania (2.0%), Namibia, Botswana
32. Vilyuy 2,650 1,647 454,000 1,480 Lena Russia
33. Araguaia 2,627 1,632 358,125 5,510 Tocantins Brazil
34. GangesHooghlyPadma


(Ganga)

2,620[12] 1,628 907,000 12,037[13] Bay of Bengal India, Bangladesh, Nepal, China
35. Amu Darya -- Panj 2,620 1,628 534,739 1,400 Aral Sea Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan
36. Japurá
(Rio Yapurá)
2,615* 1,625* 242,259 6,000 Amazon Brazil, Colombia
37. NelsonSaskatchewan 2,570 1,597 1,093,000 2,575 Hudson Bay Canada, United States
38. Paraguay
(Rio Paraguay)
2,549 1,584 900,000 4,300 Paraná Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina
39. Kolyma 2,513 1,562 644,000 3,800 East Siberian Sea Russia
40. Pilcomayo 2,500 1,553 270,000 Paraguay Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia
41. Upper Ob -- Katun 2,490 1,547 Ob Russia
42. Ishim 2,450 1,522 177,000 56 Irtysh Kazakhstan, Russia
43. Juruá 2,410 1,498 200,000 6,000 Amazon Peru, Brazil
44. Ural 2,428 1,509 237,000 475 Caspian Sea Russia, Kazakhstan
45. Arkansas 2,348 1,459 505,000
(435,122)
1,066 Mississippi United States
46. Colorado (western U.S.) 2,333 1,450 390,000 1,200 Gulf of California United States, Mexico
47. Olenyok 2,292 1,424 219,000 1,210 Laptev Sea Russia
48. Dnieper 2,287 1,421 516,300 1,670 Black Sea Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
49. Aldan 2,273 1,412 729,000 5,060 Lena Russia
50. UbangiUele[14] 2,270 1,410 772,800 4,000 Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo
51. Negro 2,250 1,398 720,114 26,700 Amazon Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia
52. Columbia 2,250 (1,953) 1,398 (1,214) 415,211 7,500 Pacific Ocean United States, Canada
53. Pearl – Zhu Jiang 2,200 1,376 437,000 13,600 South China Sea China (98.5%), Vietnam (1.5%)
54. Red (USA) 2,188 1,360 78,592 875 Mississippi United States
55. Ayeyarwady
(Irrawaddy)
2,170 1,348 411,000 13,000 Andaman Sea Myanmar
56. Kasai 2,153 1,338 880,200 10,000 Congo Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo
57. OhioAllegheny 2,102 1,306 490,603 7,957 Mississippi United States
58. Orinoco 2,101 1,306 1,380,000 33,000 Atlantic Ocean Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana
59. Tarim 2,100 1,305 557,000 Lop Nur P. R. China
60. Xingu 2,100 1,305 Amazon Brazil
61. Orange 2,092 1,300     Atlantic Ocean South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho
62. Northern Salado 2,010 1,249 Paraná Argentina
63. Vitim 1,978 1,229 Lena Russia
64. Tigris 1,950 1,212 Shatt al-Arab Turkey, Iraq, Syria
65. Songhua 1,927 1,197 Amur P. R. China
66. Tapajós 1,900 1,181 Amazon Brazil
67. Don 1,870 1,162 425,600 935 Sea of Azov Russia, Ukraine
68. Stony Tunguska 1,865 1,159 240,000 Yenisei Russia
69. Pechora 1,809 1,124 322,000 Barents Sea Russia
70. Kama 1,805 1,122 507,000 Volga Russia
71. Limpopo 1,800 1,118 413,000 Indian Ocean Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana
72. Chulym 1,799 1,118 134,000 Ob Russia
73. Guaporé (Itenez) 1,749 1,087 Mamoré Brazil, Bolivia
74. Indigirka 1,726 1,072 360,400 1,810 East Siberian Sea Russia
75. Snake 1,670 1,038 279,719 1,611 Columbia United States
76. Senegal 1,641 1,020 419,659 Atlantic Ocean Guinea, Senegal, Mali, Mauritania
77. Uruguay 1,610 1,000 370,000 Atlantic Ocean Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil
78. Murrumbidgee River 1,600 994 Murray River Australia
78. Blue Nile 1,600 994 326,400 Nile Ethiopia, Sudan
78. Churchill 1,600 994 Hudson Bay Canada
78. Khatanga 1,600 994 Laptev Sea Russia
78. Okavango 1,600 994 Okavango Delta Namibia, Angola, Botswana
78. Volta 1,600 994 Gulf of Guinea Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin
84. Beni 1,599 994 283,350 8,900 Madeira Bolivia
85. Platte 1,594 990 Missouri United States
86. Tobol 1,591 989 Irtysh Kazakhstan, Russia
87. JubbaShebelle 1,580* 982* Indian Ocean Ethiopia, Somalia
88. Içá (Putumayo) 1,575 979 Amazon Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador
89. Magdalena 1,550 963 263,858 9,000 Caribbean Colombia
90. Han 1,532 952 Yangstze P. R. China
91. Kura 1,515 941 Caspian Sea Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan
92. Oka 1,500 932 Volga Russia
93. Guaviare 1,497 930 Orinoco Colombia
94. Pecos 1,490 926 Rio Grande United States
95. Upper Yenisei -- Little Yenisei (Kaa-Hem) 1,480 920 Yenisei Russia, Mongolia
96. Godavari 1,465 910 312,812 3,061 Bay of Bengal India
97. Colorado (Texas) 1,438 894 Gulf of Mexico United States
97. Río Grande (Guapay) 1,438 894 102,600 264 Ichilo Bolivia
99. Oder-Warta 1,425 Baltic Sea Poland, Germany
100. Belaya 1,420 882 Kama Russia
100. CooperBarcoo 1,420 880 Lake Eyre Australia
102. Marañón 1,415 879 Amazon Peru
103. Dniester 1,411 (1,352) 877 (840) Black Sea Ukraine, Moldova
104. Benue 1,400 870 Niger Cameroon, Nigeria
104. Ili
(Yili)
1,400 870 Lake Balkhash P. R. China, Kazakhstan
104. WarburtonGeorgina 1,400 870 Lake Eyre Australia
107. Sutlej 1,372 852 Chenab China, India, Pakistan
108. Yamuna 1,370 851 366,223 2,950 Ganges India
108. Vyatka 1,370 851 Kama Russia
110. Fraser 1,368 850 220,000 3,475 Pacific Ocean Canada
111. Mtkvari (Kura) 1,364 848 Caspian Sea Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Turkey, Iran
112. Grande 1,360 845 Paraná Brazil
113. Brazos 1,352 840 Gulf of Mexico United States
114. Cauca 1,350 839 Magdalena Colombia
115. Liao 1,345 836 Bohai Sea P. R. China
116. Yalong 1,323 822 Yangtze P. R. China
117. Iguaçu 1,320 820 Paraná Brazil, Argentina
117. Olyokma 1,320 820 Lena Russia
119. Northern Dvina – Sukhona 1,302 809 357,052 3,332 White Sea Russia
120. Krishna 1,300 808 Bay of Bengal India
120. Iriri 1,300 808 Xingu Brazil
122. Narmada 1,289 801 Arabian Sea India
123. Lomami[15] 1,280 795 Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
124. Ottawa 1,271 790 146,300 1,950 Saint Lawrence Canada
125. Lerma - Rio Grande de Santiago 1,270 789 119,543 Pacific Mexico
126. ElbeVltava 1,252 778 148,268 711 North Sea Germany, Czech Republic
127. Zeya 1,242 772 Amur Russia
128. Juruena 1,240 771 Tapajós Brazil
129. Upper Mississippi 1,236 768 Mississippi United States
130. Rhine 1,233 768 198,735 2,330 North Sea Germany, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Austria, Liechtenstein, Italy (minimal), Belgium, Luxembourg
131. Athabasca 1,231 765 95,300 Mackenzie Canada
132. Canadian 1,223 760 Arkansas United States
133. North Saskatchewan 1,220 758 Saskatchewan Canada
134. Vaal 1,210 752 Orange South Africa
135. Shire 1,200 746 Zambezi Mozambique, Malawi
136. Nen
(Nonni)
1,190 739 Songhua P. R. China
137. Kızıl River 1,182 734 115,000 400 Black Sea Turkey
138. Green 1,175 730 Colorado (western U.S.) United States
139. Milk 1,173 729 Missouri United States, Canada
140. Chindwin 1,158 720 Ayeyarwady Myanmar
141. Sankuru 1,150 715 Kasai Democratic Republic of the Congo
141. Wu 1,150 715 80,300 1,108 Yangtze River China
142. Red (Asia) 1,149 714 143,700 2,640 Gulf of Tonkin China, Vietnam
143. James (Dakotas) 1,143 710 Missouri United States
143. Kapuas 1,143 710 South China Sea Indonesia
145. Desna 1,130 702 88,900 360 Dnieper Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
145. Helmand 1,130 702 Hamun-i-Helmand Afghanistan, Iran
145. Madre de Dios 1,130 702 125,000 4,915 Beni Peru, Bolivia
145. Tietê 1,130 702 Paraná Brazil
145. Vychegda 1,130 702 Northern Dvina Russia
150. Sepik 1,126 700 77,700 Pacific Ocean Papua New Guinea, Indonesia
151. Cimarron 1,123 698 Arkansas United States
152. Anadyr 1,120 696 Gulf of Anadyr Russia
152. Paraíba do Sul 1,120 696 Atlantic Ocean Brazil
154. Jialing River 1,119 695 Yangtze P. R. China
155. Liard 1,115 693 Mackenzie Canada
156. Cumberland 1,105 687 46,830 862 Mississippi United States
157. White 1,102 685 Mississippi United States
158. Huallaga 1,100 684 Marañón Peru
158. Kwango 1,100 684 263,500 2,700 Kasai Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo
158. Draa 1,100 684 Atlantic Morocco
161. Gambia 1,094 680 Atlantic The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea
162. Chenab 1,086 675 Indus India, Pakistan
163. Yellowstone 1,080 671 114,260 Missouri United States
163. Ghaghara 1,080 671 127,950 2,990 Ganges India, Nepal, China
165. Huai River 1,078 670 270,000 1,110 Yangtze River China
166. Aras 1,072 665 102,000 285 Kura Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran
167. Chu River 1,067 663 62,500 none Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan
168. Seversky Donets 1,078 (1,053) 670 (654) Don Russia, Ukraine
169. Bermejo 1,050 652 Paraguay Argentina, Bolivia
169. Fly 1,050 652 Gulf of Papua Papua New Guinea, Indonesia
169. Kuskokwim 1,050 652 Bering Sea United States
172. Tennessee 1,049 652 Ohio United States
173. Vistula 1,047 630 194,424 1,080 Baltic Sea Poland
174. Aruwimi[15] 1,030 640 Congo River Democratic Republic of the Congo
175. Daugava 1,020 634 87,900 678 Gulf of Riga Latvia, Belarus, Russia
176. Gila 1,015 631 Colorado (western U.S.) United States
177. Loire 1,012 629 115,271 840 Atlantic Ocean France
178. Essequibo 1,010 628 Atlantic Ocean Guyana
178. Khoper 1,010 628 Don Russia
180. Tagus
(Tajo/Tejo)
1,006 625 80,100 Atlantic Ocean Spain, Portugal

Notes

  • When the length of a river is followed by an asterisk, it is an average of multiple information sources. If the difference in lengths between given information sources is significant, all lengths are listed. But if the lengths from secondary information sources are similar, they are averaged and that figure has an asterisk.
  • Scientists debate whether the Amazon or the Nile is the longest river in the world. Traditionally, the Nile is considered longer, but recent information suggests that the Amazon may be longer. Differences in the recorded length of the Amazon mainly depend on whether or not it is valid to take a course south of the Ilha de Marajó at the Amazon's mouth. New evidence, (dated 16 June 2007) obtained from a high-altitude scientific venture in the Andes, claims that "the Amazon is longer than the Nile by 100km, with its longest headwater being the Carhuasanta stream originating in the south of Peru on the Nevado Mismi mountain's northern slopes and flowing into the Río Apurímac".[16] However, the origin of the river at Nevado Mismi had already been known more than one decade earlier (see Jacek Palkiewicz), and satellite based measuring from this origin to the Amazon mouth has resulted in not more than 6,400 km.
  • Generally, the most commonly used/anglicised name of the river is used. The name in a native language or alternate spelling may be shown.
The Mississippi River just north of St. Louis.
Saint Lawrence River along the New York-Quebec border.

River systems that may have existed in the past

Amazon-Congo

The Amazon basin formerly drained westwards into the Pacific Ocean, until the Andes rose and reversed the drainage.[17]

The Congo basin is completely surrounded by high land, except for its long narrow exit valley past Kinshasa, including waterfalls around Manyanga. That gives the impression that most of the Congo basin was formerly on a much higher land level and that it was rejuvenated by much of its lower course being removed. Before Gondwanaland broke up due to continental drift, the Congo would likely have flowed into the Amazon.[citation needed]

West Siberian Glacial Lake drainage

This river would have been about 10,000 km (6,200 mi) long, in the last Ice Age. Its longest headwater was the Selenga river of Mongolia: it drained through ice-dammed lakes and the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea.

Lobourg

During the last glacial maximum, much of what is now the southern part of the North Sea was land, known to archaeologists as Doggerland. At this time, the Thames, the Meuse, the Scheldt, and the Rhine probably joined before flowing into the sea, in a system known by palaeogeographers as the Loubourg or Lobourg River System.[18] There is some debate as to whether this river would have flowed southwest into what is now the English Channel, or flowed north, emerging into the North Sea close to modern Yorkshire. If the latter hypothesis is true, the Rhine would have attained a length of close to 1,650 kilometres (1,030 mi). The former hypothesis would have produced a shorter river, some 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) in length. Current scientific research favours the former opinion, with the Thames and Rhine meeting in a large lake, the outflow of which was close to the present-day Straits of Dover.[19]

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ a b The Nile is usually said to be the longest river in the world, with a length of about 6,650 km,[5] and the Amazon the second longest, with a length of at least 6,400 km.[4] In recent decades debate has intensified over the true source and therefore the length of the Amazon River.[2][7] Brazilian and Peruvian Studies in 2007 and 2008 added the waterway from the Amazon's southern outlet through tidal canals and the Pará estuary of the Tocantins and then concluded that the Amazon has a length of 6,992 km and was longer than the Nile, whose length was calculated as 6,853 km.[3] However, as of 2010 the length of both rivers remains open to interpretation and continued debate.[4]
References
  1. ^ for more on this, see coastline paradox
  2. ^ a b "Amazon river 'longer than Nile'". BBC News. 16 June 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Studies from INPE indicate that the Amazon River is 140km longer than the Nile". Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c "Amazon River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  5. ^ a b "Nile River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d J.C. Kammerer (1 September 2005). "Largest Rivers in the United States". US Geological Survey. Retrieved 25 January 2015. 
  7. ^ Roach, John. "Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say". National Geographic. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  8. ^ "Río de la Plata". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  9. ^ "Longest Rivers". Geoscience Australia. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  10. ^ Syvitski, James P. M., Vörösmarty, Charles J., Kettner, Albert J., Green, Pamela. "Impact of Humans on the Flux of Terrestrial Sediment to the Global Coastal Ocean". Archived from the original on 2006-09-19. Retrieved 2006-02-27. 
  11. ^ Alam, Mohd Shamsul (2012). "River and Drainage System". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 
  12. ^ Parua, Pranab Kumar (3 January 2010). The Ganga: water use in the Indian subcontinent. Springer. p. 272. ISBN 978-90-481-3102-0. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  13. ^ Ganges–Farakka
  14. ^ Bossche, J.P. vanden; G. M. Bernacsek (1990). Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa, Volume 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 338. ISBN 978-92-5-102983-1. 
  15. ^ a b Bossche, J.P. vanden; G. M. Bernacsek (1990). Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa, Volume 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 333. ISBN 978-92-5-102983-1. 
  16. ^ Daily Telegraph, Monday 18 June 2007, page 18
  17. ^ "Amazon river flowed into the Pacific millions of years ago". mongabay.com. Retrieved 2006-02-27. 
  18. ^ Vaikmäe, R., Edmunds, W. M., and Manzano, M., (2001) "Weichselian palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment in Europe: Background for palaeogroundwater formation", in "Palaeowaters in Coastal Europe: Evolution of Groundwater Since the Late Pleistocene" (W. M. Edmunds and C. J. Milne (eds)). London:The Geological Society. p. 177
  19. ^ Bridgland, D. R., and D’Olier, B. (1995) "The Pleistocene evolution of the Thames and Rhine drainage systems in the southern North Sea Basin (abstract)", Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 96, p. 27-45, in Lyell Collection. Retrieved 12 November 2015.

External links