Longevity myths are traditions about long-lived people (generally supercentenarians), either as individuals or groups of people, and practices that have been believed to confer longevity, but for which scientific evidence does not support the ages claimed or the reasons for the claims. While literal interpretations of such myths may appear to indicate extraordinarily long lifespans, many scholars believe such figures may be the result of incorrect translation of numbering systems through various languages coupled by the cultural and/or symbolic significance of certain numbers.
The phrase "longevity tradition" may include "purifications, rituals, longevity practices, meditations, and alchemy" that have been believed to confer greater human longevity, especially in Chinese culture.
- 1 Extreme longevity claims in religion
- 2 Ancient extreme longevity claims
- 3 Medieval era
- 4 Modern extreme longevity claims
- 5 Practices
- 6 See also
- 7 Gallery
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
Extreme longevity claims in religion
Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)
Some apologists explain these extreme ages as ancient mistranslations that converted the word "month" to "year", mistaking lunar cycles for solar ones: this would turn an age of 969 years into a more reasonable 969 lunar months, or 78½ years of the Metonic cycle. Donald Etz says that the Genesis 5 numbers were multiplied by ten by a later editor.
These interpretations introduce an inconsistency as the ages of the first nine patriarchs at fatherhood, ranging from 62 to 230 years in the manuscripts, would then be transformed into an implausible range such as 5 to 18½ years. Others say that the first list, of only 10 names for 1,656 years, may contain generational gaps, which would have been represented by the lengthy lifetimes attributed to the patriarchs. Nineteenth-century critic Vincent Goehlert suggests the lifetimes "represented epochs merely, to which were given the names of the personages especially prominent in such epochs, who, in consequence of their comparatively long lives, were able to acquire an exalted influence."
Those biblical scholars that teach literal interpretation give explanations for the advanced ages of the early patriarchs. In one view man was originally to have everlasting life, but as sin was introduced into the world by Adam, its influence became greater with each generation and God progressively shortened man's life. In a second view, before Noah's flood, a "firmament" over the earth (Genesis 1:6–8) contributed to people's advanced ages.
- Around 1912, the Maharishi of Kailas was said by missionary Sadhu Sundar Singh to be an over-300-year-old Christian hermit in a Himalayan mountain cave with whom he spent some time in deep fellowship. Singh said the Maharishi was born in Alexandria, Egypt, and baptized by the nephew of St. Francis Xavier.
- Scolastica Oliveri is said to have lived in Bivona, Italy, 1448–1578 (age 129/130), according to the archive of Monastero di San Paolo in Bivona located in Palermo.
Chapter 2 of Falun Gong by Li Hongzhi (2001) states, "A person in Japan named Mitsu Taira lived to be 242 years old. During the Tang Dynasty in our country, there was a monk called Hui Zhao [慧昭, 526–815] who lived to be 290 [288/289] years old. According to the county annals of Yong Tai in Fujian Province, Chen Jun [陈俊] was born in the first year of Prehistoric period (14776 BC) under the reign of Prehistoric period. He died in the Tai Ding time of the Yuan Dynasty (1324 AD), after living for 16100 years."
Like Methuselah in Judaism, Bhishma among the Hindus is believed to have lived to a very advanced age and is a metaphor for immortality. His life spans four generations and considering that he fought for his great-nephews in the Mahabharata War who were themselves in their 70s and 80s, it is estimated that Bhishma must have been between 130 and 370 years old at the time of his death.
- Devraha Baba (?–1990) was rumored to be over 700 years old.
- Trailanga Swami reportedly lived in Kashi since 1737; the journal Prabuddha Bharata puts his birth around 1607 and his age 279 (almost 280), upon his death in 1887. His birth is also given as 1527 (age 359/360).[need quotation to verify]
- The sadhaka Lokenath Brahmachari reportedly lived 1730–1890 (age 159/160).
- Shivapuri Baba, also known as Swami Govindanath Bharati, was a Hindu saint who purportedly lived from 1826 to 1963, making him allegedly 137 years old at the time of his death. He had 18 audiences with Queen Victoria.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2016)
Extreme lifespans are ascribed to the Tirthankaras, for instance, Neminatha was said to have lived for over 10,000 years before his ascension, Naminatha was said to have lived for over 20,000 years before his ascension, Munisuvrata was said to have lived for over 30,000 years before his ascension, Māllīnātha was said to have lived for over 56,000 years before his ascension, Aranatha was said to have lived for over 84,000 years before his ascension, Kunthunatha was said to have lived for over 200,000 years before his ascension, and Shantinatha was said to have lived even for over 800,000 years before his ascension.
- Babaji is said to be an "Unascended Master" purportedly many centuries old and is claimed to live in the Himalayas. The Hindu guru Paramhansa Yogananda claimed to have met him and was supposedly one of his disciples.
- Ashwatthama, one of the heroes of Mahabharatha, is said to have lived for over 6,000 years and is said to be still alive.
Ancient extreme longevity claims
- Fu Xi (伏羲) was supposed to have lived for 197 years.
- Lucian wrote about the "Seres" (a Chinese people), claiming they lived for over 300 years.
- Zuo Ci who lived during the Three Kingdoms Period was said to have lived for 300 years.
- In Chinese legend, Peng Zu was believed to have lived for over 800 years during the Yin Dynasty (殷朝, 16th to 11th centuries BC).
- In traditional Daoism, the Eight Immortals are said to exist, and legendary have lived for over 14,000 years before their ascensions.
A book Macrobii ("Long-livers") is a work devoted to longevity. It was attributed to the ancient Greek author Lucian, although it is now accepted that he could not have written it. Most examples given in it are lifespans of 80 to 100 years, but some are much longer:
- Tiresias, the blind seer of Thebes, over 600 years.
- Nestor lived over 300 years.
- Members of the "Seres" over 300 years.
- Emperor Jimmu (traditionally, 13 February 711 BC – 11 March 585 BC) lived 126 years according to the Kojiki. These dates correspond to 126 years, 27 days, on the proleptic Julian and Gregorian calendars. However, the form of his posthumous name suggests that it was invented in the reign of Kanmu (782–806), or possibly during the time in which legends about the origins of the Yamato dynasty were compiled into the Kojiki.
- Taejo of Goguryeo (46/47 – 165) is claimed to have reigned in Korea for 93 years beginning at age 7. After his retirement, the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa give his age at death as 118, while the Book of the Later Han states he died in 121 at age 74.
- Zahhak, 1,000 years.
- Jamshid, 700 years.
- Fereydun, 500 years.
- Askani, 200 years.
- Kay Kāvus, 150 years.
- Manuchehr, 120 years.
- Lohrasp, 120 years.
- Goshtasp, 120 years.
In Roman times, Pliny wrote about longevity records from the census carried out in 74 AD under Vespasian. In one region of Italy many people allegedly lived past 100; four were said to be 130, others even older. The ancient Greek author Lucian is the presumed author of Macrobii (long-livers), a work devoted to longevity. Most of the examples Lucian gives are what would be regarded as normal long lifespans (80–100 years).
- Tiresias, the blind seer of Thebes, was alive for over 600 years (Lucian).
- Nestor lived over 300 years (Lucian).
- According to one tradition, Epimenides of Crete (7th, 6th centuries BC) lived nearly 300 years.
In the only ten-king tablet recension of this list three kings (Alalngar, [...]kidunnu, and En-men-dur-ana) are recorded as having reigned 72,000 years each. The major recension assigns 43,200 years to the reign of En-men-lu-ana, and 36,000 years each to those of Alalngar and Dumuzid.
The first 18 Hùng kings of Vietnam were reported to live at least over 200 years each. Their reigns lasted from 2879 BC to 258 BC.
- Kinh Dương Vương – 260 years old – Reign: 215 years.
- Lạc Long Quân (Hùng Hiền Vương) – 506 years old – Reign: 400 years.
- Hùng Quốc Vương – 260 years old – Reign: 221 years.
- Hùng Diệp Vương – 646 years old – Reign: 300 years.
- Hùng Hy Vương – 599 years old – Reign: 200 years.
- Hùng Huy Vương – 500 years old – Reign: 87 years.
- Hùng Chiêu Vương – 692 years old -Reign: 200 years.
- Hùng Vi Vương – 642 years old – Reign: 100 years.
- Hùng Định Vương – 602 years old – Reign: 80 years.
- Hùng Uý Vương – 512 years old – Reign: 90 years.
- Hùng Chinh Vương – 514 years old -Reign:107 years.
- Hùng Vũ Vương – 456 years old – Reign: 96 years.
- Hùng Việt Vương – 502 years old – Reign: 105 years.
- Hùng Ánh Vương – 386 years old – Reign: 99 years.
- Hùng Triều Vương – 286 years old -Reign: 94 years.
- Hùng Tạo Vương – 273 years old – Reign: 92 years.
- Hùng Nghị Vương – 217 years old – Reign: 160 years.
- Hùng Duệ Vương – 221 years old – Reign: 150 years.
- Billafunda (Siddha) Sayadaw U.Kowida (born in 908).
- Welsh bard Llywarch Hen (Heroic Elegies) died c. 500 in the parish of Llanvor, traditionally about age 150.
Modern extreme longevity claims
This list includes modern claims of longevity of 130 and older.
|Name||Alleged birthday||Death||Alleged age||Country||Notes|
|Abdel Wali Numan||1865||2007||142||Yemen|||
|Ajko Omerovitch||1804||1934-12||133–134||Bosnia and Herzegovina|||
|Alhaji Abdu Sikola||1880||2015-04-26||134–135||Nigeria|||
|Ali Al-Alakmi||1871||2018||146–147||Saudi Arabia|||
|Ali bin Abdullah bin Ezab||1866||2006-12-14||159–160||United Arab Emirates|||
|Ali Mohammed Hussein||1862||1997||134–135||Lebanon|||
|Bashir Al Saalmi||1873||2010||136–137||Oman|||
|Bir Narayan Chaudhary||1856||1998||141–142||Nepal|
|Charlie Smith||1842||1979||136–137||United States|
|Chesten Marchant||1511||1676||164–165||United Kingdom|
|Colestein Veglin||1261–1260||? (arrested in 1876)||615||United States|
|Mrs. Eckleston||1548||1691||143||United Kingdom|
|Gabriel Umeh Enemuo||1864||2015-04-28||150–151||Nigeria|||
|Henry Jenkins||1501||1670-12||168–169||United Kingdom|
|Johanna Ramatse||1883-01-01||2017-05-31||134||South Africa|||
|Josefa Molina Lantz||1831-04-30||2006||174–175||Venezuela|||
|Joseph Surrington||1637||1797||159–160||United Kingdom|||
|Li Ching Yuen||1677 / 1736||1933||196–197 / 255–256|| Republic of China
|Margaret Patten||1601–1602||1739||137||United Kingdom|||
|Maritina Vangatala||1879||Living?||138–139||Solomon Islands|||
|Maria Olivia da Silva||1880-02-28||2010-07-08||130||Brazil|||
|Mohammed bin Masoud||1861||2014-02-27||152–153||Oman|||
|Mohammed bin Zarei||1858–1859||2013||153–155||Saudi Arabia|||
|Moloko Temo||1874-07-04||2009-09-03||135||South Africa|||
|Mubarak Rahmani Messe||1874||2014-01-11||140||Algeria|
|Mzee Barnabas Kiptanui Arap Rop||1879||2012-03-08||132–133||Kenya|||
|Opanyin Kwaku Addae||1851-12-25||2011||159–160||Ghana|||
|Pa Aki Onoforere||1839||2009||169–170||Nigeria|||
|Peter Torton||1539||1724||185||United Kingdom|||
|Sarhat Rashidova||1875||2007||131|| Russian Empire
|Shirali Muslimov||1805-03-26||1973-09-04||168|| Azerbaijan
|Sylvester Magee||1841-05-29||1971-10-15||130||United States|||
|Thomas Cam||1381||1588||207||United Kingdom|
|Thomas Damme||1494–1495||1649||154||United Kingdom|
|Thomas Parr||1482–1483||1635||152||United Kingdom|
|Thomas Newman||1388–1389||1542||153||United Kingdom|
Dutch East Indies
|Waebido Ayohayi||1886||Living?||131–132||Thailand||(RTGS from Thai: แวบีเดาะ อาเยาะหะยี) (born 1886)|
|William Edwards||1499–1500||1668-02-24||168||United Kingdom|
|Wordu Grace Wamanda||1869-05||2014-10||145||Nigeria|||
- Albrecht von Haller allegedly collected examples of 62 people ages 110–120, 29 ages 120–130, and 15 ages 130–140. Switzerland
- A 1973 National Geographic article on longevity reported, as a very aged people, the Burusho–Hunza people in the Hunza Valley of the mountains of Pakistan.
- Swedish death registers contain detailed information on thousands of centenarians going back to 1749; the maximum age at death reported between 1751 and 1800 was 147.
- Cases of extreme longevity in the United Kingdom were listed by James Easton in 1799, who covered 1712 cases documented between 66 BCE and 1799, the year of publication; Charles Hulbert also edited a book containing a list of cases in 1825.
- A periodical The Aesculapian Register, written by physicians and published in Philadelphia in 1824, listed a number of cases, including several purported to have lived over 130. The authors said the list was taken from the Dublin Magazine.
- Deaths officially reported in Russia in 1815 listed 1068 centenarians, including 246 supercentenarians (50 at age 120–155 and one even older). Time magazine considered that, by the Soviet Union, longevity had elevated to a state-supported "Methuselah cult". The USSR insisted on its citizens' unrivaled longevity by claiming 592 people (224 male, 368 female) over age 120 in a 15 January 1959 census and 100 citizens of Russia alone ages 120 to 156 in March 1960. Such later claims were fostered by Georgian-born Joseph Stalin's apparent hope that he would live long past 70. Zhores A. Medvedev, who demonstrated that all 500-plus claims failed birth-record validation and other tests, said Stalin "liked the idea that [other] Georgians lived to be 100".
- An early 1812 Russian Petersburgh Gazette reports a man between ages 200 and 225 in the diocese of Ekaterinoslaw (now Dnipro, Ukraine).
The idea that certain diets can lead to extraordinary longevity (ages beyond 130) is not new. In 1909, Élie Metchnikoff believed that drinking goat's milk could confer extraordinary longevity. The Hunza diet, supposedly practiced in an area of northern Pakistan, has been claimed to give people the ability to live to 140 or more. There has been no proof that any diet has led humans to live longer than the genetically-recognized maximum however Caloric restriction diets have increased lifespans of rodents significantly.
- Nicolas Flamel (early 1330s – c. 1418) was a 14th-century scrivener who developed a reputation as alchemist and creator of an "elixir of life" that conferred immortality upon himself and his wife Perenelle. His arcanely inscribed tombstone is preserved at the Musée de Cluny in Paris.
- Fridericus (Ludovicus) Gualdus (Federico Gualdi), author of "Revelation of the True Chemical Wisdom", lived in Venice in the 1680s. His age was reported in a letter in a contemporary Dutch newspaper to be over 400. By some accounts, when asked about a portrait he carried, he said it was of himself, painted by Titian (who died in 1576), but gave no explanation and left Venice the following morning. By another account, Gualdus left Venice due to religious accusations and died in 1724. The "Compass der Weisen" alludes to him as still alive in 1782 and nearly 600 years old.
Fountain of Youth
The Fountain of Youth reputedly restores the youth of anyone who drinks of its waters. Herodotus attributes exceptional longevity to a fountain in the land of the Ethiopians. The lore of the Alexander Romance and of Al-Khidr describes such a fountain, and stories about the philosopher's stone, universal panaceas, and the elixir of life are widespread.
After the death of Juan Ponce de León, Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés wrote in Historia General y Natural de las Indias (1535) that Ponce de León was looking for the waters of Bimini to cure his aging.
- Ni, Maoshing (2006). Secrets of Longevity. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-4949-4.
Chuan xiong ... has long been a key herb in the longevity tradition of China, prized for its powers to boost the immune system, activate blood circulation, and relieve pain.
- Fulder, Stephen (1983). An End to Ageing: Remedies for Life. Destiny Books. ISBN 978-0-89281-044-4.
Taoist devotion to immortality is important to us for two reasons. The techniques may be of considerable value to our goal of a healthy old age, if we can understand and adapt them. Secondly, the Taoist longevity tradition has brought us many interesting remedies.
- Number Manipulation for Profit, or Just for Fun? by Paul Y. Hoskisson "Number Manipulation for Profit, or Just for Fun?". maxwellinstitute.byu.edu. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved December 27, 2012.[who?]
- Kohn, Livia (2001). Daoism and Chinese Culture. Three Pines Press. pp. 4, 84. ISBN 978-1-931483-00-1.
- Hill, Carol A. (2003-12-04). "Making Sense of the Numbers of Genesis" (PDF). Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith. 55: 239.
- Etz, Donald V. (1994). "The Numbers of Genesis V 3–31: A Suggested Conversion and Its Implications". Vetus Testamentum. 43 (2): 171–87. doi:10.1163/156853393X00034.
- Morris, Henry M. (1976). The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. p. 159.
Such an interpretation would have made Enoch only five years old when his son was born!
- "Notes on Genesis 5:5". Zondervan NIV Study Bible. 2002. pp. 12–13.
Three kings in a Sumerian list (which also contains exactly ten names) are said to have reigned 72,000 years each.
- Goehlert, Vincent (November 1887). "Statistical Observations upon Biblical Data". The Old Testament Student. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 7 (3): 76–83. doi:10.1086/469948.
- Romans 5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:
- Pilch, John J. (1999). The Cultural Dictionary of the Bible. Liturgical Press. pp. 144–146.
- Vail, Isaac Newton (1902). The Waters Above the Firmament: Or The Earth's Annular System. Ferris and Leach. p. 97.
- Thompson, Phyllis (2005). Sadhu Sundar Singh: A Biography of the Remarkable Indian Disciple of Jesus. Armour Publishing. pp. 77, 80–3. ISBN 978-981-4138-55-0.
- "Scolastica Oliveri".
- "慧昭 (526–815)".
- Li Hongzhi (April 2001). "Falun Gong". Falun Gong (4th trans. ed.). Archived from the original on 2000-01-18.
- Daczynski, Vincent J. (2004). "Amazing Longevity: Devraha Baba – 250+ Years Old". Paranormal Phenomenon: Amazing Human Abilities.
- McDermott, Rachel Fell (2001). Mother of My Heart, Daughter of My Dreams. Oxford University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-19-513435-3.
- Varishthananda, Swami (November 2007). "Varanasi: The City of Saints, Sages, and Savants" (PDF). Prabuddha Bharata. 112 (11): 632–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-02.
- Medhasananda, Swami (2003). Varanasi At the Crossroads. Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. p. 1042. ISBN 81-87332-18-2.
- al-Kittani, Abdul Hayye (1888–1962). Fahres-ul-Faharis wal Athbat. 2. p. 928. In "Chains of Narration" (PDF). Minhaj-al-Quran International (UK). 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-01-24.
- Jain, Vijay K. (2015), Acarya Samantabhadra's Svayambhustotra: Adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankara, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-7-6
- Crème, Benjamin Maitreya’s Mission Amsterdam:1997 Share International Foundation Page 680
- Worshiping the Three Sage Kings and Five Virtuous Emperors - The Imperial Temple of Emperors of Successive Dynasties in Beijing. Beijing: Foreign Language Press. 2007. ISBN 978-7-119-04635-8.
- Li, Mengyu (2008). "The Unique Values of Chinese Traditional Cultural Time Orientation: In Comparison with Western Cultural Time Orientation" (PDF). The University of Rhode Island. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Aston, William (1896). Nihongi. K. Paul, Trench, Trübner. pp. 109–137.
- Yang, S. C. The South and North Korean political systems: A comparative analysis (rev. ed.). Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-105-9.
- "Epimenides". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 8. Henry G. Allen. 1890. p. 482.
- Jacobson, Thorkild (1939). The Sumerian King List. University of Chicago Press. pp. 69–77.
- Hasel, Gerhard F. (1978). "The Genealogies of Gen. 5 and 11 and Their Alleged Babylonian Background". Andrews University Seminary Studies. Andrews University Press. 16: 366–7. Citing Finkelstein, J. J. (1963). "The Antediluvian Kings: A University of California Tablet". Journal of Cuneiform Studies. 17 (2): 39–51. doi:10.2307/1359063. JSTOR 1359063.
- "Special Report-A man who is 1105 years old–and still alive | The Personal Longevity Program". Personal-longevity.com. 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- Prichard, James C. (1836). Researches into the Physical History of Mankind. 1. London: Houlston and Stoneman. pp. 11–5 ff.
- Hulbert, Charles (1825). "Instances of Human Longevity in Europe". Museum Europæum; or, Select antiquities ... of nature and art, in Europe. pp. 451–7.
- "Un anciano yemení muere a los 140 años" [An elderly Yemeni dies at 140 years] (in Spanish). 20 Minutos.es. July 23, 2007.
- World, Morocco (2015-08-18). "Moroccan Woman Allegedly the Oldest Living Person in the World". Moroccoworldnews.com. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "News in Brief". The Near East and India. London, England: 1030. December 20, 1934.
A dispatch from Sarayevo (Yugoslavia) reported last week the death at age of 130 of a peasant woman named Ajko Omerovitch, of the village of Kolom. She died in the act of drawing water from the River Drina.
- Muhammad, Rakiya A. (2015-04-26). "Nigeria: Sokoto Oldest Man Dies at 135". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "How did the oldest man in Saudi Arabia live for 147 years?". english.alarabiya.net.
- "Secret Dubai diary: World's oldest man dies in UAE". secretdubai.blogspot.fi.
- Reporter, A Staff. "Oldest man in Fujairah dead". www.khaleejtimes.com.
- "WORLD - Lebanese man could be world's oldest at 135". Hurriyetdailynews.com. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "Seed of the Woman - App.I". Custance.org. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "'132-year-old' farm worker dies without world record | Metro News". Metro.co.uk. 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- Chief, Sunil Vaidya, Bureau (5 June 2010). "Oldest Omani man dies at 137".
- "A man from another age Being the oldest-ever is a record Bir Narayan Chaudhary neither wants nor understands". indiatoday. 15 October 1996. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "Bir Narayan Chaudhuri, 141; Nepal's Oldest Man". The Los Angeles Times. 24 April 1996. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-24. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
- "Oldest citizen Charlie Smith dies at 137". Beaver County Times. Beaver, Pa. UPI. 1979-10-07. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "'Oldest' Living American Bounced from Record Book". Schenectady Gazette. AP. 1979-03-21. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Vulliamy, Colwyn Edward (1925). Unknown Cornwall. John Lane. p. 220. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
Cornish people seem to live to great ages, though some of the records of longevity should, perhaps, be treated with a certain reserve. C. S. Gilbert gives a long list of centenarians, and super-centenarians, including a woman named Chester [sic] Marchant who lived in Gwithian, and who, in 1676, according to one Mr. Scawen, reached the astounding age of 164 years.
- Jenner, Henry (2012) . "I. The Story of the Cornish Language". A Handbook of the Cornish Language: Chiefly in Its Latest Stages, with Some Account of Its History and Literature (Reprint ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-108-04702-9. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
It is recorded by Dr. Borlase that Cheston Marchant, who died at Gwithian in 1676 aged 164 (!), could speak nothing but Cornish.
- "The oldest man yet" (PDF). New York Times. July 20, 1876. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 31, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
-  Archived October 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Ethiopia: '160-year-old man' claims to remember 1895", BBC News, 6 September 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2015
- Withnall, Adam. "Is this ‘160-year-old’ Ethiopian man the world’s oldest ever person?", The Independent, 13 September 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- Megersa, Fekadu "Oromia: Dhaqqaboo Eebaa, the oldest ever lived person, died at the age of 163" Ayyaantuu News, 14 May 2015.
- Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick (February–May 1862). "The Old Countess of Desmond". The Dublin Review. London: Thomas Richardson and Son. 51: 78.
- Felix Bocobo's Death Certificate
The earliest known church records in Aliaga, Nueva Ecija can be however traced back to 1871.
- http://dailykashmirimages.com/news-worlds-‘oldest-man-feroz-din-dies-in-uri-65759.aspx Archived 2014-10-18 at the Wayback Machine.
- "World's oldest man, Chief Enemuo dies at 151 in Nigeria (PHOTO)". African Spotlight. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- Wed Nov 25th 2009 (2009-11-25). "News.ebru.tv". News.ebru.tv. Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Kadir Konuksever Diyarbakır (1970-01-01). "BBC.co.uk". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Jeune, Bernard; Vaupel, James W., eds. (1999). "Age Validation of Centenarians in the Luxdorph Gallery". Validation of Exceptional Longevity. Odense Monographs on Population Aging. 6. Petersen, L.-L. B., Jeune, Bernard, contribs. Odense University Press.
- Thoms, William J. (1979) . Human Longevity: Its Facts and Its Fictions (reprint ed.). London; New York City: John Murray; Arno Press. p. 287.
- Marden, Orison Swett (2003) . The Secret of Achievement. Kessinger Publishing. p. 228. ISBN 9780766153011.
- Krünitz, Johann Georg (1806). Oekonomisch-technologische Encyklopädie oder allgemeines System der Stats-, Stadt-, Haus- und Landwirthschaft und der Kunst-Geschichte. 66. Pauli. p. 764.
- By NewsRescue (2014-08-16). "Nigeria Claims World Oldest Man: 170 Year-old Oluwaro of Iloro-Ekiti". NewsRescue.com. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "Córdoba tuvo al hombre más viejo del mundo | EL UNIVERSAL - Cartagena" (in Spanish). El Universal. 2010-03-22. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "World's oldest person dies at age 134 - IOL News".
- "Record Longevity in Swedish Cohorts Born since 1700". www.demogr.mpg.de.
- "World's oldest person turns 175 in Venezuela - www.vcrisis.com". www.vcrisis.com.
- "Afghanistan's oldest woman dies | Pajhwok Afghan News". Pajhwok.com. 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-05. Retrieved 2016-11-11.
- "Li Ching-Yun Dead; Gave His Age As 197". The New York Times. 6 May 1933.
- "Tortoise-Pigeon-Dog". Time Magazine. 1933-05-15. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- "The amazing story of master Li Ching-Yuen".
- The European magazine, and London review, Vol. 25, p. 266, Philological Society (Great Britain)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-24. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
- In the news last week, in brief - Solomon Star Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Oldest Woman-world record set by Maria Olivia da Silva". World Records Academy. 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
- "Brazil's oldest woman dies (in Portuguese)". Jornal de Maringá. Archived from the original on 2010-08-12.
- "Brazilian believed to be world's oldest woman". Associated Press. 2005-03-04. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
- "Binadamu Mwenye Umri wa Miaka 153 Afariki Dunia". tmark-turn.blogspot.ru.
- "'Oldest man on earth' dies at a ripe 154 years of age". Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- "'World's oldest woman' dies". 5 June 2009 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- "World's oldest living person dies at the age of 140". Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- by alangreen (2012-03-08). "Kenya: The death of one of the oldest men in Kipsigis land at the age of 133 he was a veteran of the First World War | Jaluo dot Kom". Blog.jaluo.com. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-24. Retrieved 2015-12-03.
- "Manila Standard - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com.
- "In Malaysia the oldest has died 144 - the summer inhabitant of the country". Rusnewsjournal.com. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "Article" (PDF). www.island.lk. Reuters. 2 August 2003.
- Russ. "Life In Legacy - Week of 09/14/2002". www.lifeinlegacy.com.
- "Ghanaian, 159, could be world's oldest man". Modernghana.com. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "Strange Death Of Nigeria's Oldest Man". Nairaland.com. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- Peter Wilhelm. "Demogr.mpg.de". Demogr.mpg.de. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Советский комитет солидарности стран Азии и Африки, Институт востоковедения (Академия наук СССР), Институт Африки (Академия наук СССР). Asia and Africa today. — Asia and Africa Today, 1990. :Shirali Mislimov, an Azerbaijani peasant, who was the oldest among the Soviet centenarians, died in 1973 at the age of 168. His surviving widow at that time was 120..
- Leaf, Alexander (January 1973). "Search for the Oldest People". National Geographic. pp. 93–118.
- Garson, Lea Keil (July 1991). "The Centenarian Question: Old-Age Mortality in the Soviet Union, 1897 to 1970". Population Studies. Population Investigation Committee. 45 (2): 265–278. doi:10.1080/0032472031000145436. JSTOR 2174783. PMID 11622921.
- Novosti Press Agency (1970). "Very Old People in the USSR". The Gerontologist. 10 (2): 151–152. doi:10.1093/geront/10.2.151. PMID 5428833.
- Gerontology Research Group: Oldest American Claimants, grg.org; accessed May 20, 2018.
- Thornbury, Walter (1878). "Shoreditch". Old and New London. 2. Centre for Metropolitan History. pp. 194–195.
- Wright, Geoffrey N. (1996). Discovering Epitaphs. Osprey Publishing. pp. 25–6. ISBN 9780747803249.
- "Census records 157-year-old woman". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 7 June 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- Osborne Doug (7 June 2010). "157 year-old woman discovered alive by Indonesian Census takers". Geek.com. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
- "Censo da Indonésia descobre em Sumatra mulher que diz ter 157 anos" (in Portuguese).
- "На 135-м году жизни скончалась Тути Юсупова". 1 April 2015.
- อลิษา ดาโอ๊ะ. "พบแม่เฒ่า อายุ 131 ปี ที่ อ.ยะรัง จ.ปัตตานี คาดน่าจะเป็นหญิงที่มีอายุมากที่สุดในประเทศไทย". ข่าวภาคใต้ชายแดน. Retrieved 2017-05-30. (in Thai)
- "พบทวดหญิง 5 รัชกาล อายุ 131 ปี เผยสูตรลับสุขภาพแข็งแรง กินแต่ปลากับผักริมรั้ว". Matichon. 2017-05-26. Retrieved 2017-05-30. (in Thai)
- "ย่าทวดมุสลิม 'ถือศีลอดกว่าร้อยปี'". BBC Thai. 2017-06-03. Retrieved 2017-08-02. (in Thai)
- Posted By: Shola O'Neil and Precious Dikewoha (2014-10-03). "Ikwerre buries 'world' oldest woman - The Nation Nigeria". Thenationonlineng.net. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- Dunglison, Robley (1851). Medical Lexicon: A Dictionary of Medical Science. Blanchard & Lea. p. 525.
- Lundström, Hans; Castanova, V. (March 2000). Record Longevity in Swedish Cohorts Born Since 1700.
- Easton, James, Human longevity: recording the name, age, place of residence, and year of the decease of 1712 persons who attained a century and upwards, from A.D.66 to 1799, comprising a period of 1733 years. With anecdotes of the most remarkable. Salisbury: James Easton, 1799.
- The aesculapian register: 1824. Vol. 1, nos. 1-26, June 17-Dec. 9, 1824. P.155
- "No Methuselahs". Time Magazine. 1974-08-12. Retrieved 2009-05-13.
- Vestnik Statistiki. Statistical Herald. April 1961.
- Guinness Book of World Records. 1983. pp. 16–19.
- "Hunza diet". Biblelife.org. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Ferguson, John (1906). Bibliotheca chemica. Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. p. 351. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- Gualdus, Friederich (1989) . Revelation of the True Chemical Wisdom (Alchemy). Muller, Leone, trans. Restoration of Alchemical Manuscripts Society. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- Hally, René. "Tschoudy, Théodore Henry de Metz". Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- Herodotus, Book III: 22–4.
- Fernández de Oviedo, Gonzalo. Historia General y Natural de las Indias, book 16, chapter XI.
- Boia, Lucian (2004). Forever Young: A Cultural History of Longevity from Antiquity to the Present. ISBN 1-86189-154-7.
- Thoms, William J. (1879). The Longevity of Man. Its Facts and Its Fictions. With a prefatory letter to Prof. Owen, C.B., F.R.S. on the limits and frequency of exceptional cases. London: F. Norgate.