(1R,2S,7S,9S)- 3,3,7-trimethyl- 8-methylenetricyclo- [5.4.0.02,9]undecane
|Jmol 3D model||Interactive image|
|Molar mass||204.36 g/mol|
|Boiling point||254 °C (489 °F; 527 K) (706 mm Hg)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Longifolene is the common (or trivial) chemical name of a naturally occurring, oily liquid hydrocarbon found primarily in the high-boiling fraction of certain pine resins. The name is derived from that of a pine species from which the compound was isolated, Pinus longifolia (obsolete name for Pinus roxburghii Sarg.)
Chemically, longifolene is a tricyclic sesquiterpene. This molecule is chiral, and the enantiomer commonly found in pines and other higher plants exhibits a positive optical rotation of +42.73°. The other enantiomer (optical rotation −42.73°) is found in small amounts in certain fungi and liverworts.
Due to the compact tricyclic structure and lack of functional groups, Longifolene is an attractive target for research groups highlighting new synthetic methodologies. Notable syntheses are by Corey, McMurray, Johnson,< Oppolzer, and Schultz.
|Longifolene total synthesis by Corey.svg|
The Johnson biosynthesis has since been validated as feasible using modern quantum mechanical computational methods. The subsequent cationic cascade mechanism has been shown to go through a non-classical cation intermediate.
The biosynthesis of longifolene begins with farnesyl diphosphate (1) (also called farnesyl pyrophosphate) by means of a cationic polycyclization cascade. Loss of the pyrophosphate group and cyclization by the distal alkene gives intermediate 3, which by means of a 1,3-hydride shift gives intermediate 4. After two additional cyclizations, intermediate 6 produces longifolene by a 1,2-alkyl migration.
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- Shan-Shan Yao； Wen-Fei Guo； YI Lu； Yuan-Xun Jiang, "Flavor Characteristics of Lapsang Souchong and Smoked Lapsang Souchong,a Special Chinese Black Tea with Pine Smoking Process", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No.22, (2005)
- Corey, E. J.; Ohno, Masaji.; Mitra, Rajat B.; Vatakencherry, Paul A. (February 1964). "Total Synthesis of Longifolene". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 86 (3): 478–485. doi:10.1021/ja01057a039.
- Corey, E. J.; Ohno, Masaji; Vatakencherry, Paul A.; Mitra, Rajat B. (March 1961). "TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF d,l-LONGIFOLENE". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 83 (5): 1251–1253. doi:10.1021/ja01466a056.
- McMurry, John E.; Isser, Stephen J. (October 1972). "Total synthesis of longifolene". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 94 (20): 7132–7137. doi:10.1021/ja00775a044.
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- Oppolzer, Wolfgang; Godel, Thierry (April 1978). "A new and efficient total synthesis of (.+-.)-longifolene". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 100 (8): 2583–2584. doi:10.1021/ja00476a071.
- Schultz, Arthur G.; Puig, Salvador (March 1985). "The intramolecular diene-carbene cycloaddition equivalence and an enantioselective Birch reduction-alkylation by the chiral auxiliary approach. Total synthesis of (.+-.)- and (−)-longifolene". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 50 (6): 915–916. doi:10.1021/jo00206a049.
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- Dev, Sukh (1981). "Aspects of longifolene chemistry. An example of another facet of natural products chemistry". Accounts of Chemical Research. 14 (3): 82–88. doi:10.1021/ar00063a004.