Longview, Texas

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Longview, Texas
City of Longview
From top to bottom, left to right: Longview Public Library, Veteran's Monument, United States Post Office, VeraBank (Formerly Citizens National Bank), First Presbyterian Church, Petroleum Building, and First Baptist Church
From top to bottom, left to right: Longview Public Library, Veteran's Monument, United States Post Office, VeraBank (Formerly Citizens National Bank), First Presbyterian Church, Petroleum Building, and First Baptist Church
Nickname(s): 
Balloon Race Capital of Texas
Motto(s): 
Real East Texas
Location of Longview in Gregg and Harrison counties in the U.S. state of Texas
Location of Longview in Gregg and Harrison counties in the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the U.S.
Map of the U.S.
Longview, Texas
Location of Longview in the contiguous United States
Map of the U.S.
Map of the U.S.
Longview, Texas
Longview, Texas (the United States)
Coordinates: 32°30′33″N 94°45′14″W / 32.50917°N 94.75389°W / 32.50917; -94.75389Coordinates: 32°30′33″N 94°45′14″W / 32.50917°N 94.75389°W / 32.50917; -94.75389
Country United States
State Texas
CountiesGregg, Harrison
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • City CouncilMayor Andy Mack
Temple Carpenter III
Nona Snoddy
Wray Wade
Kristen Ishihara
David Wright
Steve Pirtle
 • City ManagerKeith Bonds
Area
 • City55.93 sq mi (144.85 km2)
 • Land55.83 sq mi (144.59 km2)
 • Water0.10 sq mi (0.26 km2)
Elevation
371 ft (113 m)
Population
 • City80,455
 • Estimate 
(2019)[3]
81,631
 • Density1,462.21/sq mi (564.57/km2)
 • Metro
204,746
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central (CST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
75601–75606
Area code(s)903 and 430
FIPS code48-43888[4]
GNIS feature ID1374716[5]
Websitewww.longviewtexas.gov

Longview is the 47th largest city in the state of Texas. The city is mostly located in Gregg County, of which it is the county seat; a small part of Longview extends into the western part of neighboring Harrison County. Longview is located in East Texas, where Interstate 20 and U.S. Highways 80 and 259 converge just north of the Sabine River. According to the 2010 U.S. census, the city had a population of 80,455.[2] The estimated population in 2019 was 81,653.[6][7] Longview is the principal city of the Longview Metropolitan Statistical Area, comprising Gregg, Upshur, and Rusk Counties. The population of the metropolitan area as of 2017 census estimates is 217,481.[8]

Longview was established in 1870 in what was at the time southern Upshur County. The town incorporated in 1871. After Gregg County was created in 1873, Longview was voted the county seat. Today, Longview is considered a major hub city for the region, as is the nearby city of Tyler. In 2014, Forbes magazine ranked Longview as the sixth fastest-growing small city in the United States.[9] Companies with significant presence in Longview are Eastman Chemical, Trinity Rail Group, AAON Coil Products and Komatsu Mining. Colleges and universities in the area include LeTourneau University, Kilgore College and the University of Texas at Tyler's Longview University Center.

History[edit]

Longview was founded in 1870 by Ossamus Hitch Methvin, Sr.[10] In 1870, Methvin sold 100 acres (40 ha) to the Southern Pacific Railroad for one dollar to persuade them to build their line in the direction of land he owned. Later that year, he sold another 100 acres (40 ha) for $500 in gold. He hoped the coming of the railroad would increase the value of the rest of his land.

Methvin coined the name of the town when he stated, "What a long view!" from his home. In June 1871, Longview was incorporated as the first town in Gregg County.[11][10]

In 1884 the Mobberly Hotel opened for business servicing railroad travelers and served as the center of social gatherings for Longview. The hotel featured cherry wood furniture with carved bed posts, marble top washstand, linen table cloths, electric crystal chandeliers and a fireplace in every room. Mobberly was located in the junction part of town near the train depot. The hotel was destroyed by fire on June 13, 1965.

In the Longview race riot in July 1919, a reporter for The Chicago Defender was in Longview looking into the mysterious death of a black man named Lemuel Walters. An armed white mob attacked a home where the reporter, S.L. Jones, was staying and attempted to batter their way in. A gunfight began between the attackers and the men in the house. Eventually, Jones made a getaway. The white men then began to burn buildings in the black section of the town.[12]

In 1942, construction began on the Big Inch pipeline in Longview. From 1943 to 1945, the pipeline transported over 261,000,000 barrels of crude oil to the East Coast.[10] At the time of construction, Big Inch and its smaller twin, Little Inch, comprised the longest petroleum pipeline ever built in the world. Both were integral in supplying the United States war effort in World War II.

After World War II Longview's population grew from 24,502 to 40,050 in 1960, its growth fueled by migration from rural Gregg County and the annexation of Greggton and Spring Hill.[13]

Geography[edit]

Longview is bordered to the west by the city of White Oak and is surrounded by a number of smaller cities and towns, including Kilgore (southwest), Gladewater (west), Gilmer (northwest), Ore City (north), Harleton (northeast), Hallsville (east), and Lakeport (southeast).

Situated 37 miles (60 km) west-southwest of Longview, Tyler is another regional hub city of comparable size.

Incorporated areas include Spring Hill, Pine Tree, Judson, and Longview Heights.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

Longview has a humid subtropical climate. Winters are mild. Average snowfall is less than 2 inches (5 cm), with usually one or two ice storms each winter. Normal highs are from the 50s–60s. Lows range from the 30s to the 40s. In Longview, the temperature rarely dips below 20 °F and occasionally can get as warm as 80 °F during the winter months. The spring season brings storms as a transition from winter to summer. Temperatures range from the 60s to 80s for the high, and the 40s to the 60s for the low. The average date of the last frost is April 4. Severe thunderstorms are common during this season as cold fronts pass through the area. This is the wettest time of year.

Summers are hot and humid. Temperatures slowly climb from the 90s to over 100 going into the dog days of summer; lows are in the 70s. This is the driest and sunniest time of year. The heat index can climb to around 110 °F.

Fall is marked by the first cold front that knocks the 100-degree temperatures down into the 90s. Foliage begins to change in late October. Temperatures cool down and dew points drop.

Climate data for Longview, Texas (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1902–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 86
(30)
90
(32)
97
(36)
95
(35)
103
(39)
110
(43)
108
(42)
113
(45)
109
(43)
101
(38)
93
(34)
93
(34)
113
(45)
Average high °F (°C) 57.6
(14.2)
62.0
(16.7)
69.5
(20.8)
76.7
(24.8)
83.9
(28.8)
90.2
(32.3)
93.6
(34.2)
94.2
(34.6)
88.8
(31.6)
79.0
(26.1)
67.9
(19.9)
59.5
(15.3)
76.9
(24.9)
Daily mean °F (°C) 46.0
(7.8)
49.8
(9.9)
57.2
(14.0)
64.2
(17.9)
72.8
(22.7)
79.8
(26.6)
83.0
(28.3)
83.0
(28.3)
76.9
(24.9)
66.2
(19.0)
55.4
(13.0)
47.8
(8.8)
65.2
(18.4)
Average low °F (°C) 34.3
(1.3)
37.7
(3.2)
44.9
(7.2)
51.8
(11.0)
61.7
(16.5)
69.5
(20.8)
72.5
(22.5)
71.7
(22.1)
64.9
(18.3)
53.3
(11.8)
43.0
(6.1)
36.2
(2.3)
53.5
(11.9)
Record low °F (°C) −4
(−20)
−5
(−21)
17
(−8)
20
(−7)
37
(3)
52
(11)
56
(13)
53
(12)
38
(3)
25
(−4)
18
(−8)
2
(−17)
−5
(−21)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.27
(108)
4.07
(103)
4.68
(119)
4.34
(110)
4.92
(125)
4.33
(110)
2.50
(64)
2.84
(72)
3.48
(88)
4.33
(110)
3.78
(96)
4.64
(118)
48.18
(1,224)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.4
(1.0)
0.3
(0.76)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.7
(1.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 8.5 8.8 8.8 7.3 8.0 7.3 5.5 5.8 5.7 6.7 7.4 9.0 88.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4
Source: NOAA[14][15]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18801,525
18902,03433.4%
19003,59176.5%
19105,15543.6%
19205,71310.8%
19305,036−11.9%
194013,758173.2%
195024,50278.1%
196040,05063.5%
197045,54713.7%
198062,76237.8%
199070,31112.0%
200073,3444.3%
201080,4559.7%
2019 (est.)81,631[3]1.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[16]

In the 2010 census, Longview had a population of 80,455. The median age was 34. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 56.2% non-Hispanic white, 22.6% non-Hispanic black, 0.5% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 9.5% from some other race, 2.3% from two or more races and 18.0% Hispanic or Latino.[17]

In the census[4] of 2000, 73,344 people, 28,363 households, and 19,116 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,341.8 people per square mile (518.1/km2). The 30,727 housing units averaged a density of 562.1 per square mile (217.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 70.10% White, 22.11% African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 4.92% from other races, and 1.51% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 10.31% of the population.

Of the 28,363 households, 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.6% were not families. About 27.9% of all households were individuals who lived alone, and 10.7% of all households were 65 years of age or more and living alone. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.06.

The city's population had 26.7% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 years of age or more. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $33,858, and for a family was $42,378. Males had a median income of $33,078 versus $21,400 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,676. About 13.0% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.7% of those under age 18 and 10.6% of those age 65 or over.

Economy[edit]

Longview's tallest building is 10 stories and houses the VeraBank (Formerly Citizens National Bank). When it was built in 1956, it was built to be able to be expanded to 17 stories.
CHRISTUS Good Shepherd Medical Center is located on U.S. Highway 80 in north Longview.
LEDCOnewlogo.png
Looking west on Tyler Street in downtown Longview

Some major sectors of the Longview economy include the East Texas Oil Field, services, technology, and manufacturing. In 2007, Longview added some major chain stores to its north side. The addition of Kohl's, two Starbucks, a new Target, a third Walmart supercenter on the south side, and a handful of hotels. Keeping shoppers in Longview and away from Tyler, Dallas, and Shreveport has been an important strategy for the city. .

In October 2007, Longview was recertified as a Texas Urban Main Street City. There are 89 cities in the Texas Main Street Program, 10 of them are Urban Main Street Cities. In December 2007, Longview was awarded the "Certified Retirement Community" designation by the Texas Department of Agriculture through its "Go Texan" initiative. Longview was also included in 2007 in the "Top 100 Best Cities for Young People."

Longview is one of several cities in East Texas that serves as a center for the "patent troll" industry, due to a perception that the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas is a favorable venue for patent infringement plaintiffs.[18]

LEDCO[edit]

The Longview Economic Development Corporation (LEDCO) is an economic development group managing economic development for the City of Longview. LEDCO was created by the voters of Longview in 1991 under the Development Act of 1979 (Texas revised Civil Statutes article 5190.6 section 4A) for the purpose of creating and retaining primary jobs. The Corporation's independent board of directors is appointed by the mayor and city council. The Corporation owns two business parks in Longview with 1,200 acres (4.9 km2) of land. The Corporation's website maintains information on available sites and buildings, demographic data, psychographic data, maps, aerial photographs, and an area manufacturing database.[19]

Largest employers[edit]

According to the municipal Fiscal Year 2018-2019 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[20] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees Type of Business
1 CHRISTUS Good Shepherd Medical Center 2,532 Medical/Hospital Services
2 Eastman Chemical 1,447 Chemical
3 Longview Independent School District 1,400 Public Schools
4 Longview Regional Medical Center 1,125 Medical/Hospital Services
5 Walmart 1,057 Retail
6 Trinity Rail, LLC 960 Railway Cars
7 City of Longview 912 Government
8 Pine Tree Independent School District 680 Public Schools
9 Komatsu 604 Manufacturing
10 Gregg County 575 Government

Arts and culture[edit]

The Longview Public Library operates two branches:

  • LPL – the main branch located on Cotton St.
  • BBL – Broughton Branch Library located on South Martin Luther King Jr Blvd.


Parks and Recreation:

Longview is home to more than 30 public parks that include 6 Athletic Complexes, 5 Splash Pads, 3 DiscGolf Courses, 2 Public Swimming Pools, and 1 Action Sports Complex.

Longview also houses 3 city recreation centers.

The city has a vast trail system that is being connected to create 10 consecutive miles of connected walking/biking trails.[21]


Arts!Longview Cultural District:

Longview’s cultural district was designated by the Texas Commission on the Arts September 5th, 2019.

The district covers more than 320 acres including downtown Longview and stretches south to LeTourneau University. The area is home to museums, restaurants, parks, live music, theater, and historic buildings. [22]

Founding organizations for Arts!Longview include: ArtsView Children’s Theatre, East Texas Symphonic Band, Gregg County Historical Museum, LeTourneau University Belcher Center, Longview Ballet Theatre, Longview Museum of Fine Art, Longview Symphony, Longview World of Wonders, and Theatre Longview. [23]

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

Longview Municipal Building
Downtown Longview in the historic district

According to the 2007 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's various funds had $75.9 million in revenues, $87.7 million in expenditures, $47.6 million in total assets, $9.0 million in total liabilities, and $12.2 million in cash in investments.[24]

The city manager is Keith Bonds.[25]

State government[edit]

Longview is represented in the Texas Senate by Republican Bryan Hughes, District 1, and in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Jay Dean, District 7.

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Longview District Parole Office in Longview.[26]

Federal government[edit]

Longview is part of Texas's 1st congressional district, which is currently represented by Republican Louie Gohmert.

Education[edit]

S.E. Belcher, Jr. Chapel and Performance Center at LeTourneau University

Colleges and universities[edit]

The city of Longview is home to three institutions of higher learning and two trade (cosmetology) schools:

Public school districts[edit]

Longview is served by four school districts.

Media[edit]

TV stations[edit]

The Gregg County (the vast majority) portion of Longview are part of the Tyler-Longview-Lufkin-Nacogdoches Designated Market Area, DMA #110. These in-market television stations are available over the air:

KLGV-LD 36.1 Longview Trinity Broadcasting Network 480i

The five major network stations in the market have local newscasts which all originate from Tyler. KYTX formerly presented a Longview-centered newscast, which ended in 2010. The station does still continue to broadcast Longview news from their Longview newsroom. The once-daily KFXK newscast is at 9:00 PM weekdays.

The market does not have a dedicated PBS affiliate. The acting PBS affiliate, KERA-TV Dallas, is available on cable and Dish Network. KLTS, the PBS affiliate from Shreveport, is available on digital cable and over the air in many parts of the city. DirecTV viewers in the market receive the PBS national feed.

The Harrison County portion of Longview is within the Shreveport-Texarkana market.[27]

Cable television/high-speed Internet[edit]

  • Sparklight Fiber
  • Longview Cable Television
  • AT&T ADSL

Newspaper[edit]

Radio[edit]

Longview and Gregg County are part of the Tyler-Longview Arbitron Radio Market, market #145. These radio stations can be reliably received in most parts of the city:

FM stations[edit]

101.9 K270AW Longview Translator of KDOK Classic Hits
105.7 KYKX Longview Primary Country

AM stations[edit]

Frequency (kHz) Call letters Licensed location Type Format
1370 KFRO Longview Primary Fox Sports Radio

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Airport[edit]

East Texas Regional Airport, 9 miles (14 km) south of the city center, offers service to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport via Envoy Air. The airport continues to grow. In 2007, it was designated a foreign trade zone.[citation needed]

The airport is known by pilots around the region for its large, 10,000-foot (3 km) runway. It served as a backup landing site for U.S. space shuttles.[citation needed]

The Longview airport is home to the flight training program of LeTourneau University. The aeronautical students do classwork at the airport, as well as all their flight training.

Public transportation[edit]

The city's public transit system, Longview Transit, runs daily routes, excluding Sundays and holidays. Its fixed routes provide transportation to key districts throughout the city.[28]

City of Longview Transit (COLT) provides transportation demand-response transportation services for those who are unable to use the regular Longview Transit fixed-route service.[29]

Rail service[edit]

Amtrak passenger rail service is available on the Texas Eagle through a downtown terminal. Longview's Amtrak station is the second-busiest in Texas and the fourth-busiest station along the Texas Eagle route. Daily trains between Chicago and San Antonio stop each morning (Chicago–San Antonio) and each evening (San Antonio–Chicago). Monday, Wednesday and Friday, the Longview station serves the Chicago to Los Angeles trains. The return train, Los Angeles to Chicago, stops in Longview on Sunday, Tuesday, and Friday. It serves about 20–50 passengers per day. From the station, passengers can connect to Nacogdoches, Lufkin, Houston, and Galveston, as well as Shreveport, Louisiana, by motorcoach. A proposal is in the works for a high-speed rail system from Dallas/Fort Worth to Shreveport along the I-20 corridor, bringing passenger rail service to that corridor for the first time since the Texas and Pacific's unnamed successor to the Louisiana Eagle in the late 1960s.[30][31][32]

Longview is served by two freight railroad lines. Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad operates two trains daily through Longview. The Union Pacific Railroad has 25 daily trains through Longview's facilities.

The Longview Economic Development Corporation website provides more details about the transportation infrastructure, including air, rail, trucking, waterways, and highway information.[33]

Roads[edit]

One Interstate freeway and two U.S. highways run through Longview. Four Texas state highways also run into Longview. Two Texas state highway spurs serve to connect highways in Longview.

  • Interstate 20, an east–west freeway, connects Longview to Dallas, about 125 mi (201 km) to the west and to Shreveport, Louisiana, around 60 mi (97 km) to the east.
  • U.S. Highway 80 runs through the central district of Longview. U.S. Hwy 80 was once a coast-to-coast highway from Tybee Beach near Savannah, Georgia, and ran continuously across the southern part of the United States to San Diego, California. Today, its western terminus is in Dallas, making the length only 1,032 mi (1,661 km).
  • U.S. Highway 259 is a 250-mile-long (400 km) north/south highway providing an alternate route to U.S. 59 between Nacogdoches, Texas, and the Oklahoma/Arkansas border just south of Fort Smith, Arkansas. Before Interstate 20, US 259 went through the center of Longview on a route now designated Texas State Highway 31 and Spur 502.
  • Texas Highway 31 runs 143.3 miles (230.6 km) east/west between Longview and Waco, Texas.
  • Texas Highway 149, 33.9 mi (54.6 km) long, connects Longview with Carthage.
  • Texas Highway 300 is a short (18.62-mile (29.97 km)) highway connecting Longview to U.S. 271 in Gilmer.
  • Texas Highway 281 is a 19.3-mile (31.1 km) loop highway that circumnavigates much of Longview from its east connection at I-20 east of the Gregg/Harrison county line to I-20 in Longview. It runs northward, westward, southward and eastward around the city.
  • Spur 502 connects north/south traffic between U.S. Hwy 80 in central Longview and U.S. Hwy 259 north of Longview.
  • Spur 63 runs north/south through Longview connecting TX Hwy 31 at its Longview terminus with Spur 502 north of TX Loop 281.

Longview is accessed by I-20, which passes 4 miles (6 km) south of the city center. New construction has prompted some major upgrades to the city's system of roads.

Interstate 69 will be passing just east of the Longview area between Longview and Marshall, near or over the current US 59 highway.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Longview city, Texas". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 23, 2017.[dead link]
  3. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^ "Longview, Texas Population 2018 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs)". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved June 30, 2018.
  7. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 (PEPANNRES) – Incorporated Places: Texas". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  8. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area (GCT-PEPANNRES)". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  9. ^ Kotkin, Joel (September 3, 2014). "America's Fastest-Growing Small Cities". Forbes. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
  10. ^ a b c Eugene W. McWhorter, "LONGVIEW, TX (GREGG COUNTY)", Handbook of Texas Online [1], accessed April 12, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  11. ^ Beth Holloway Dodson, "METHVIN, OSSAMUS HITCH, SR.", Handbook of Texas Online <https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fme57>, accessed April 12, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  12. ^ Onion, Rebecca. "Red Summer". Slate. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  13. ^ W., MCWHORTER, EUGENE (June 15, 2010). "LONGVIEW, TX". tshaonline.org. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
  14. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  15. ^ "Station: Longview, TX". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  16. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  17. ^ 2010 general profile of population and housing characteristics of Longview from the U.S. census
  18. ^ Roberts, Jeff (October 14, 2011). "How A Texas Dog Park Became A New Front In America's Patent Wars". Gigaom. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  19. ^ Longview Economic Development Corporation
  20. ^ CAFR FY 18-19, retrieved January 29, 2021 Archived 2020-10-16 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "Facilities | Longview, TX". www.longviewtexas.gov. Retrieved 2021-02-24.
  22. ^ "About Arts!Longview | Visit Longview TX". www.visitlongviewtexas.com. Retrieved 2021-02-25.
  23. ^ "Arts!Longview Founding Organizations | Visit Longview TX". www.visitlongviewtexas.com. Retrieved 2021-02-25.
  24. ^ City of Longview 2007–08 CAFR Retrieved June 7, 2009 Archived October 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ City of Longview, retrieved December 2, 2021 Archived November 28, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "Parole Division Region I." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 15, 2010. Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ "Shreveport/Texarkana Market" (PDF). www.ktbs.com. January 20, 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2012.
  28. ^ City of Longview website Archived November 15, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ Source: City of Longview website Archived October 24, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Streamliner Schedules, Louisiana Eagle, 1952 http://www.streamlinerschedules.com/concourse/track9/louisianaeagle195208.html
  31. ^ Texas & Pacific September 1960 timetable http://streamlinermemories.info/South/T&P60TT.pdf
  32. ^ "Missouri Pacific Lines, Table 2". Official Guide of the Railways. National Railway Publication Company. 101 (1). June 1968.
  33. ^ [2] Archived November 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "Chris Davis Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  35. ^ The official website of Kristy Hawkins
  36. ^ Olano, Joseph A. (14 April 2010). "Retiree speaks of experiences as a Tuskegee Airman". Air Force Print News Today. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  37. ^ Montana Jordan - Young Sheldon Cast Member, retrieved 2021-07-09
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  39. ^ "Lee Lacy Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
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External links[edit]