Longwave

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For other uses, see Longwave (disambiguation).
The tuning dial on a 1946 Dynatron Merlin T.69 console radio receiver, showing long-wave wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres, corresponding to frequencies between 375 and 150 kHz

In radio, longwave, also written as long wave (in British and American parlance)[1][2] or long-wave,[3] and commonly abbreviated LW,[2] refers to parts of the radio spectrum with relatively long wavelengths. The term is a historic one, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of long (LW), medium (MW) and short (SW) radio wavelengths. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.

In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its meaning varies across the world. Most commonly, it refers to radio wavelengths longer than 1000 metres;[2] frequencies less than 300 kilohertz (kHz),[1][4][not in citation given][better source needed] including the International Telecommunications Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF) (30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF) (3–30 kHz) bands. Sometimes, part of the medium frequency (MF) band (300–3000 kHz) is included.[5][not in citation given][better source needed]

In Europe, Africa and large parts of Asia (International Telecommunication Union Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting (in addition to the medium wave band), the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band.

The International Telecommunication Union Region 1 longwave broadcast band falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30–300 kHz). Broader definitions of longwave may extend below and/or above it. In the US, the Longwave Club of America is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band",[6]i.e., all frequencies below 535 kHz. (Lower frequencies correspond to longer wavelengths.) they are also part of the chs national curriculum.

Non-broadcast use[edit]

Non-directional beacons[edit]

Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.

Time signals[edit]

There are stations in the range 40–80 kHz that transmit time signals to radio clocks. For example:

Long-waves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the earth, rather than mediumwaves or shortwaves, whose signals can travel as skywaves, ‘bouncing’ off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day, which makes the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter (and the coded time was correct), and when the signal is received by the clock (when the coded time is slightly late), depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, which is also very nearly constant. Since the time lag is essentially the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station.

Military communication[edit]

The military of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.

LowFER[edit]

In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays, 136 kHz and the 160–190 kHz range is used in the United States for Part 15 LowFER amateur and experimental stations, and the 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.

Historic[edit]

Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz.[7]

Broadcasting[edit]

Long-wave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. The long-wave broadcasters are located in west, north, central and south-east Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia, Algeria and Morocco.

Typically, a larger geographic area can be covered by a long-wave broadcast transmitter compared to a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to limited ground conductivity at lower frequencies.[8]

Carrier frequencies[edit]

Long-wave carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz; ranging from 153 to 279 kHz, except for a French language station Europe #1 in Germany. This station did keep to correctly spaced channels spacing for 4 months—only 7 years ago, and all Mongolian transmitters are spaced at 10 kHz.

Until the 1970s, some long-wave stations in northern and eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union, operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz.[9]

Some stations, for instance Droitwich transmitting station in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock. They can be therefore used as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.

In January 2014, Russia closed all of its LW broadcast transmitters, except for one in Caucasus, which was subsequently shut down in 2015.[10]

Long distance reception[edit]

Because long wave signals can travel very long distances, some radio amateurs and shortwave listeners engage in an activity called DXing. DXers attempt to listen in to far away transmissions, and they will often send a reception report to the sending station to let them know where they were heard. After receiving a report, the sending station may mail the listener a QSL card to acknowledge this reception.

The longest distance over which a long wave signal has been received is 18,451 kilometres (11,465 mi). It occurred on 27 July 2015, when Mike Thayne of England, received Radio NL on 358 kHz from New Zealand.[11]

List of long-wave broadcasting transmitters[edit]

Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of long-wave broadcasting stations

List of stations currently operating[edit]

  Denotes non-standard frequency (not divisible by 9)

[12] [13] [14] [15]

freq.
(kHz)
station
name
language country location aerial
type
power
(kW)
coordinates notes
153 Radio Antena Satelor Romanian  Romania Brașov T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 250 metres 200 45°45′22.27″N 25°36′26.77″E / 45.7561861°N 25.6074361°E / 45.7561861; 25.6074361 (Bod Transmitter, mast 1)
45°45′13.16″N 25°36′25.15″E / 45.7536556°N 25.6069861°E / 45.7536556; 25.6069861 (Bod Transmitter, mast 2)
 
NRK P1 Norwegian  Norway Ingøy Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast 362 m tall, fed at the top, ex-Omega equipment 100 71°4′17″N 24°5′14″E / 71.07139°N 24.08722°E / 71.07139; 24.08722 (Ingøy long-wave transmitter) The transmitter is important for the fishing fleet in the Barents Sea
Chaîne 1 Arabic  Algeria Kenadsa Three 357 metres tall guyed masts 500 Active with very low modulation and power[16]
162 France Inter French  France Allouis Two guyed lattice steel masts, height: 350 m, fed on the top 1000
/
2000
47°10′10.45″N 2°12′16.75″E / 47.1695694°N 2.2046528°E / 47.1695694; 2.2046528 (Allouis transmitter, mast 1)
47°10′25.34″N 2°12′16.81″E / 47.1737056°N 2.2046694°E / 47.1737056; 2.2046694 (Allouis transmitter, mast 2)
Time signal phase-modulated; the transmitter is planned to go off air at the end of 2016
164 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian  Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 259 metres tall cable-stayed steel truss mast[17] 500 47°47′54.67″N 107°11′14.7″E / 47.7985194°N 107.187417°E / 47.7985194; 107.187417 (Ulaanbaatar transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
171 Médi 1 Arabic and French  Morocco Nador Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres tall 1600 35°02′50.65″N 2°55′22.81″W / 35.0474028°N 2.9230028°W / 35.0474028; -2.9230028 (Nador transmitter, mast 1)
35°02′30.27″N 2°55′16.16″W / 35.0417417°N 2.9211556°W / 35.0417417; -2.9211556 (Nador transmitter, mast 2)
35°02′9.89″N 2°55′9.52″W / 35.0360806°N 2.9193111°W / 35.0360806; -2.9193111 (Nador transmitter, mast 2)
 
183 Europe 1 French  Germany Felsberg-Berus Directional aerial, four ground insulated steel lattice masts 270 m, 276 m, 280 m and 282 m tall; spare aerial: two ground insulated steel lattice masts, height: 234 m 2000 Main antenna:
49°17′4.2″N 6°40′57.73″E / 49.284500°N 6.6827028°E / 49.284500; 6.6827028 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 1)
49°16′55.86″N 6°40′46.16″E / 49.2821833°N 6.6794889°E / 49.2821833; 6.6794889 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 2)
49°16′47.55″N 6°40′34.48″E / 49.2798750°N 6.6762444°E / 49.2798750; 6.6762444 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 3)
49°16′39.18″N 6°40′22.72″E / 49.2775500°N 6.6729778°E / 49.2775500; 6.6729778 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 4)
Spare antenna:
49°17′8.93″N 6°39′31.71″E / 49.2858139°N 6.6588083°E / 49.2858139; 6.6588083 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 1)
49°17′1.54″N 6°39′23.6″E / 49.2837611°N 6.656556°E / 49.2837611; 6.656556 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 2)
DRM tests after 00:00 UTC
189 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Icelandic  Iceland Gufuskalar near Hellissandur Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height: 412 m 300 64°54′26″N 23°55′19.5″W / 64.90722°N 23.922083°W / 64.90722; -23.922083 (Hellissandur long-wave mast)
198 BBC Radio 4 English  United Kingdom Droitwich (SFN) T-aerial on two guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres 500 52°17′46.9″N 2°6′24.32″W / 52.296361°N 2.1067556°W / 52.296361; -2.1067556 (Droitwich mast 1)
52°17′40.4″N 2°6′20.62″W / 52.294556°N 2.1057278°W / 52.294556; -2.1057278 (Droitwich mast 2)
All four transmitters carry Radio teleswitch PSK data; Droitwich relays BBC World Service from 01:00 to 05:20 UTC
Burghead (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 154 m 50 57°41′57.9″N 3°28′4.78″W / 57.699417°N 3.4679944°W / 57.699417; -3.4679944 (Burghead Transmitter, main mast)
Westerglen (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 m 55°58′33″N 3°48′58.8″W / 55.97583°N 3.816333°W / 55.97583; -3.816333 (Westerglen mast)
Dartford Tunnel (SFN) 0.004
207 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Icelandic  Iceland Eiðar near Egilsstaðir Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 221 m 100 65°22′22.93″N 14°20′27.29″W / 65.3730361°N 14.3409139°W / 65.3730361; -14.3409139 (Eiðar long-wave mast)
SNRT Al Idaâ Al-Watania Arabic  Morocco Azilal Demnate 304.8 metres tall guyed mast 400
209 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian  Mongolia Choibalsan Cable-stayed steel truss mast, height: 275.84 metres 75 48°00′17.27″N 114°27′17.6″E / 48.0047972°N 114.454889°E / 48.0047972; 114.454889 (Choibalsan transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Dalanzadgad 43°31′54.43″N 104°24′41.4″E / 43.5317861°N 104.411500°E / 43.5317861; 104.411500 (Dalanzadgad transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Olgii Omnidirectional antenna, 352.5 metres high guyed mast 30 48°57′24.52″N 89°58′13.15″E / 48.9568111°N 89.9703194°E / 48.9568111; 89.9703194 (Olgii transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
216 Radio Monte Carlo Info French  Monaco Roumoules Directional aerial, three 300 metre high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metre high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial 700
/
1400
43°47′41.45″N 6°8′48.41″E / 43.7948472°N 6.1467806°E / 43.7948472; 6.1467806 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 1)
43°47′34.56″N 6°8′59.09″E / 43.7929333°N 6.1497472°E / 43.7929333; 6.1497472 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 2)
43°47′27.7″N 6°9′9.85″E / 43.791028°N 6.1527361°E / 43.791028; 6.1527361 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 3),
Backup antenna:
43°47′36.29″N 6°9′30.61″E / 43.7934139°N 6.1585028°E / 43.7934139; 6.1585028 (Roumoules transmitter, long-wave backup mast)
Transmitter located in France, in operation from 5:30 to 23:00 CET
225 Polskie Radio Jedynka Polish  Poland Solec Kujawski Directional aerial, two guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 m and 289 m 1000 53°1′21.01″N 18°15′32.63″E / 53.0225028°N 18.2590639°E / 53.0225028; 18.2590639 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 330 metres tall mast)
53°1′12.83″N 18°15′44.06″E / 53.0202306°N 18.2622389°E / 53.0202306; 18.2622389 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 289 metres tall mast)
Earlier Konstantynów was used ( 52°22′3.91″N 19°48′7.04″E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E / 52.3677528; 19.8019556 (Konstantynów radio mast (destroyed)) )
227 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian  Mongolia Altai Cable-stayed steel truss mast 75 46°19′25.52″N 96°15′31.2″E / 46.3237556°N 96.258667°E / 46.3237556; 96.258667 (Altai transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
234 RTL French  Luxembourg Beidweiler Directional aerial, three guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 m high, with vertical cage aerials 1500
/
2000
49°43′42.57″N 6°19′4.29″E / 49.7284917°N 6.3178583°E / 49.7284917; 6.3178583 (Beidweiler radio mast)
49°43′49.2″N 6°19′15.02″E / 49.730333°N 6.3208389°E / 49.730333; 6.3208389 (Beidweiler radio mast)
49°43′55.81″N 6°19′25.67″E / 49.7321694°N 6.3237972°E / 49.7321694; 6.3237972 (Beidweiler radio mast)
Spare transmitter site Junglinster ( 49°43′0.35″N 6°15′28.9″E / 49.7167639°N 6.258028°E / 49.7167639; 6.258028 (Junglinster Radio Tower)
49°43′6.56″N 6°15′40.27″E / 49.7184889°N 6.2611861°E / 49.7184889; 6.2611861 (Junglinster Radio Tower)
49°43′12.75″N 6°15′51.44″E / 49.7202083°N 6.2642889°E / 49.7202083; 6.2642889 (Junglinster Radio Tower) )
243 DR Langbølge Danish  Denmark Kalundborg Semi-directional Alexanderson antenna 153/333 degrees, two grounded 118 m steel lattice radiating towers with interconnecting top wire capacitance 50 55°40′39.27″N 11°4′8.6″E / 55.6775750°N 11.069056°E / 55.6775750; 11.069056 (Kalundborg Transmitter long-wave tower 1)
55°40′32.91″N 11°4′14.33″E / 55.6758083°N 11.0706472°E / 55.6758083; 11.0706472 (Kalundborg Transmitter long-wave tower 2)
Transmitting in time slots only
252 Chaîne 3 Arabic  Algeria Tipaza Omnidirectional aerial, single guyed lattice steel mast, height 355 m 750
/
1500
36°33′58.14″N 2°28′50.3″E / 36.5661500°N 2.480639°E / 36.5661500; 2.480639 (Tipaza long-wave transmitter) Half transmitter power during night
RTÉ Radio 1 English  Ireland Clarkstown Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 m 100
/
300
53°27′46″N 6°40′39″W / 53.46278°N 6.67750°W / 53.46278; -6.67750 (Clarkstown long-wave mast) The only AM transmitter for RTÉ Radio 1, power is decreased at night to 100 kW, it is tentatively scheduled to cease broadcasting on 1 May 2017[18]
270 ČRo Radiožurnál Czech  Czech Republic Topolná Directional aerial (maximum of radiation in east-west direction), two grounded 257 m high guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials 50 49°7′32.88″N 17°30′45.97″E / 49.1258000°N 17.5127694°E / 49.1258000; 17.5127694 (Topolná transmitter, mast 1)
49°7′18.85″N 17°30′41.78″E / 49.1219028°N 17.5116056°E / 49.1219028; 17.5116056 (Topolná transmitter, mast 2)
Broadcasting from Monday to Friday 5:00-24:00 CET and 6:00-24:00 CET at weekends
279 TR1 Watan Radio Turkmen  Turkmenistan Ashgabat Cable-stayed steel truss mast 150 37°51′14.89″N 58°21′57.99″E / 37.8541361°N 58.3661083°E / 37.8541361; 58.3661083 (Ashgabat transmitter)  

List of stations that have closed or are otherwise inactive[edit]

  Closed
freq.
kHz
station
name
country location aerial
type
power
(kW)
coordinates notes
153
Deutschlandfunk  Germany Donebach Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top 500 49°33′40.25″N 9°10′22.76″E / 49.5611806°N 9.1729889°E / 49.5611806; 9.1729889 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 1)  ; 49°33′33.53″N 9°10′50.82″E / 49.5593139°N 9.1807833°E / 49.5593139; 9.1807833 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 2) closed
Radio Mayak  Turkmenistan Ashgabat 650 closed
YuFM  Russia Taldom transmitter Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height 300 56°45′30.04″N 37°37′12.17″E / 56.7583444°N 37.6200472°E / 56.7583444; 37.6200472 (Taldom longwave transmitter, 153 kHz-mast) closed
Radio Rossii Popova near Komsomolsk-na-Amure 1200 50°39′16.75″N 136°54′46.9″E / 50.6546528°N 136.913028°E / 50.6546528; 136.913028 (Popova longwave transmitter) closed
162 TRT Radyo 4  Turkey Agri Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 250 m 1000 39°46′23.11″N 43°02′14.55″E / 39.7730861°N 43.0373750°E / 39.7730861; 43.0373750 (Agri transmitter, Mast 1) ; 39°46′25.86″N 43°02′33.32″E / 39.7738500°N 43.0425889°E / 39.7738500; 43.0425889 (Agri transmitter, Mast 2) inactive
Radio Tashkent 1  Uzbekistan Tashkent 150 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Norilsk Omnidirectional antenna, 205 m high antenna 150 69°22′46″N 87°6′26″E / 69.37944°N 87.10722°E / 69.37944; 87.10722 (Norilsk transmitter) ? closed
Radio Yuldash, Radio Rossii Ufa 54°46′19.73″N 56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
171
 Netherlands Lopik 500 closed
Voice of Russia  Russia Oktyabrsky 257 m metres tall antenna. 1200 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 54°54′42.62″N 21°43′2.32″E / 54.9118389°N 21.7173111°E / 54.9118389; 21.7173111 (Bolshakovo longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Ukraine 1  Ukraine Krasne near Lwów Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150/75 49°54′12.85″N 24°41′15.22″E / 49.9035694°N 24.6875611°E / 49.9035694; 24.6875611 (Krasne longwave transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Raduga Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 250 55°29′16″N 83°41′28″E / 55.48778°N 83.69111°E / 55.48778; 83.69111 (Raduga longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Murmansk Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 69°00′59.07″N 32°55′57.17″E / 69.0164083°N 32.9325472°E / 69.0164083; 32.9325472 (Murmansk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Noginsk Omnidirectional antenna, 242 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°50′0.89″N 38°20′35.18″E / 55.8335806°N 38.3431056°E / 55.8335806; 38.3431056 (Noginsk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Ezhva near Syktyvkar Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 61°49′09.34″N 50°41′26.42″E / 61.8192611°N 50.6906722°E / 61.8192611; 50.6906722 (Zelenets longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Tulagino near Yakutsk Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 6 ring masts 150 62°14′15.01″N 129°48′10.4″E / 62.2375028°N 129.802889°E / 62.2375028; 129.802889 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, central mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′0.85″E / 62.2396722°N 129.8002361°E / 62.2396722; 129.8002361 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°47′51.2″E / 62.2375167°N 129.797556°E / 62.2375167; 129.797556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.27″N 129°48′0.82″E / 62.2353528°N 129.8002278°E / 62.2353528; 129.8002278 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.31″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2353639°N 129.80556°E / 62.2353639; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°48′29.7″E / 62.2375167°N 129.808250°E / 62.2375167; 129.808250 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2396722°N 129.80556°E / 62.2396722; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) closed
177
Deutschlandradio Kultur  Germany Zehlendorf near Oranienburg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts 500 52°47′41.87″N 13°23′9.5″E / 52.7949639°N 13.385972°E / 52.7949639; 13.385972 (Zehlendorf Longwave Mast) closed
180 TRT Radyo 2  Turkey Polatli Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed latice steel mast 1200 39°45′22.46″N 32°25′6.24″E / 39.7562389°N 32.4184000°E / 39.7562389; 32.4184000 (Polatli Longwave Mast) inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Yelizovo near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 53°11′4.92″N 158°24′2.24″E / 53.1847000°N 158.4006222°E / 53.1847000; 158.4006222 (Yelizovo Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, 200 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 51°50′22.5″N 113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) inactive
Kazakh Radio 1  Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 250 closed
Kazakh Radio 1  Kazakhstan Aktyubinsk 150 closed
Kazakh Radio 1  Kazakhstan Chimkent 50 closed
189
Rai Radio 1  Italy Caltanissetta Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m 10 37°29′53.05″N 14°04′04.08″E / 37.4980694°N 14.0678000°E / 37.4980694; 14.0678000 (Caltanissetta transmitter) closed
Sveriges Radio P1  Sweden Orlunda 300 58°25′37″N 14°58′38″E / 58.42694°N 14.97722°E / 58.42694; 14.97722 (Orlunda radio transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kostantinogradovka near Blagoveshchensk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1200 50°30′23.58″N 128°18′32.9″E / 50.5065500°N 128.309139°E / 50.5065500; 128.309139 (Blagoveschensk transmitter) closed
Sakartvelos Radio  Georgia Dusheti 250 42°03′1.76″N 44°40′37.56″E / 42.0504889°N 44.6771000°E / 42.0504889; 44.6771000 (Dusheti transmitter) inactive
198
Polskie Radio Parlament/Radio Polonia  Poland Raszyn Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, 335 m high 200 52°4′21.72″N 20°53′2.15″E / 52.0727000°N 20.8839306°E / 52.0727000; 20.8839306 (Raszyn Radio Mast) closed[19]
Chaine 1  Algeria Berkaoui 2000 closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Saint Petersburg - Olgino Omnidirectional aerial, 205 m high guyed steel lattice mast 150 59°59′30.01″N 30°07′38.81″E / 59.9916694°N 30.1274472°E / 59.9916694; 30.1274472 (Olgino Radio Mast) inactive
Radio Mayak  Russia Angarsk Before 2001: T-antenna spun between 2 205 m tall guyed steel lattice mast 250 52°31′51.95″N 103°52′9.46″E / 52.5310972°N 103.8692944°E / 52.5310972; 103.8692944 (Angarsk Radio Mast), possibly 52°26′10.17″N 103°41′1.05″E / 52.4361583°N 103.6836250°E / 52.4361583; 103.6836250 (Irkutsk Radio Mast) closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Avsyunino Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°35′13.75″N 39°09′57.84″E / 55.5871528°N 39.1660667°E / 55.5871528; 39.1660667 (Avsyunino Radio Mast) inactive
Radio Mayak  Russia Ufa 150 54°46′19.73″N 56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
 Kyrgyzstan Krasnaya Rechka near Bishkek 150 42°52′51.9″N 74°59′43.79″E / 42.881083°N 74.9954972°E / 42.881083; 74.9954972 (Krasnorechenka transmitter) closed
207
RNE Radio 5  Spain Logroño Directional antenna, 300 metres tall. >100 closed
Radio Ukraine 1  Ukraine Brovary Omnidirectional antenna, 259.6 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 50°29′48.8″N 30°48′9.2″E / 50.496889°N 30.802556°E / 50.496889; 30.802556 (Brovary Longwave Mast) closed
Jordan Radio  Jordan Al Karanah  ? 31°45′55.47″N 36°28′44.97″E / 31.7654083°N 36.4791583°E / 31.7654083; 36.4791583 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) ; 31°45′29.66″N 36°28′59.11″E / 31.7582389°N 36.4830861°E / 31.7582389; 36.4830861 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Tynda Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 244 m 150 55°05′19.31″N 124°43′9.7″E / 55.0886972°N 124.719361°E / 55.0886972; 124.719361 (Tynda Longwave Mast) closed
Deutschlandfunk  Germany Aholming Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top 500 48°43′50.55″N 12°55′47.04″E / 48.7307083°N 12.9297333°E / 48.7307083; 12.9297333 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 1)  ; 48°43′38.46″N 12°56′2.06″E / 48.7273500°N 12.9339056°E / 48.7273500; 12.9339056 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 2) closed
216
NRK P1  Norway Lambertseter near Oslo 200 closed
Azerbaijan Radio  Azerbaijan Baku 500 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Krasnoyarsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 210 m tall 150 56°02′02.97″N 92°45′32.31″E / 56.0341583°N 92.7589750°E / 56.0341583; 92.7589750 (Krasnoyarsk Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Atamanovka Directional antenna 150 51°50′02″N 113°43′10″E / 51.83389°N 113.71944°E / 51.83389; 113.71944 (Atamanovka Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Birobidzhan 2 guyed masts, 260 m high 30 48°44′19.37″N 132°48′3.95″E / 48.7387139°N 132.8010972°E / 48.7387139; 132.8010972 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) ; 48°44′14.71″N 132°48′32.6″E / 48.7374194°N 132.809056°E / 48.7374194; 132.809056 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) closed
225 TRT GAP  Turkey Van Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed lattice steel mast 600 38°35′11.47″N 43°15′59.17″E / 38.5865194°N 43.2664361°E / 38.5865194; 43.2664361 (Van transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Surgut Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 61°23′35″N 72°53′20″E / 61.39306°N 72.88889°E / 61.39306; 72.88889 (Surgut transmitter) closed
234
Radio Moldova  Moldova Grigoriopol 1000 closed
 Libya Yafran near Tripoli 1000 closed
Radio 1  Russia Krasny Bor transmitter near Sankt-Peterburg Omnidirectional aerial, 271.5 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna 1200 59°39′12.32″N 30°41′50.12″E / 59.6534222°N 30.6972556°E / 59.6534222; 30.6972556 (Krasny Bor transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Koskovo near Murmansk Omnidirectional aerial, 210 m tall guyed mast 250 64°21′35.83″N 41°23′4.01″E / 64.3599528°N 41.3844472°E / 64.3599528; 41.3844472 (Koskovo transmitter) inactive
Radio 1  Russia Novosemeykino near Samara Four 205 metres tall towers insulated against ground arranged in a square 2000 53°22′59.44″N 50°20′13.84″E / 53.3831778°N 50.3371778°E / 53.3831778; 50.3371778 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′59.53″N 50°20′19.23″E / 53.3832028°N 50.3386750°E / 53.3832028; 50.3386750 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.2″N 50°20′13.94″E / 53.382278°N 50.3372056°E / 53.382278; 50.3372056 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.31″N 50°20′19.32″E / 53.3823083°N 50.3387000°E / 53.3823083; 50.3387000 (Novosemeykino transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Raduzhnyy near Magadan Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 59°42′51.14″N 150°11′29.9″E / 59.7142056°N 150.191639°E / 59.7142056; 150.191639 (Raduzhnyy transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Odinsk near Irkutsk Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 52°24′57.43″N 103°42′0.29″E / 52.4159528°N 103.7000806°E / 52.4159528; 103.7000806 (Odinsk transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Koskovo near Arkhangelsk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 64°21′50.92″N 41°24′41.8″E / 64.3641444°N 41.411611°E / 64.3641444; 41.411611 (Koskovo transmitter) closed
243 TRT Radyo 4  Turkey Erzurum Omnidirectional antenna, 185 m high guyed lattice steel mast 200 39°59′53.59″N 41°06′40.95″E / 39.9982194°N 41.1113750°E / 39.9982194; 41.1113750 (Erzurum Transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Razdolnoye near Ussuriysk Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 43°32′18″N 131°55′46″E / 43.53833°N 131.92944°E / 43.53833; 131.92944 (Razdoly'ne Transmitter) closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar  Kazakhstan Karaganda Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 254 m height 1000 49°47′32.45″N 73°01′40.15″E / 49.7923472°N 73.0278194°E / 49.7923472; 73.0278194 (Karaganda Transmitter) closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar  Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 1000 closed
252
Yle Radio 1  Finland Lahti 200 60°58′48″N 25°38′39″E / 60.980137°N 25.644195°E / 60.980137; 25.644195 (Lahti longwave transmitter), 60°58′43″N 25°38′57″E / 60.978747°N 25.649155°E / 60.978747; 25.649155 (Lahti longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Tojikston  Tajikistan Dushanbe 150 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kazan Omnidirectional aerial, 152 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 100 55°49′6.3″N 49°10′24.64″E / 55.818417°N 49.1735111°E / 55.818417; 49.1735111 (Kazan longwave mast) closed
261 Radioropa Info  Germany Burg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial on 324 m high guyed, grounded steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground 200 52°17′12.93″N 11°53′50.52″E / 52.2869250°N 11.8973667°E / 52.2869250; 11.8973667 (Burg transmitter, main mast) inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Taldom Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 5 ring masts, height of central mast 275 m 2500 56°43′59.86″N 37°39′47.51″E / 56.7332944°N 37.6631972°E / 56.7332944; 37.6631972 (Taldom transmitter, Central Mast) ; 56°44′10.32″N 37°39′46.53″E / 56.7362000°N 37.6629250°E / 56.7362000; 37.6629250 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′2.54″N 37°39′29.17″E / 56.7340389°N 37.6581028°E / 56.7340389; 37.6581028 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.09″N 37°39′37.2″E / 56.7308583°N 37.660333°E / 56.7308583; 37.660333 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.76″N 37°39′59.6″E / 56.7310444°N 37.666556°E / 56.7310444; 37.666556 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′3.64″N 37°40′5.34″E / 56.7343444°N 37.6681500°E / 56.7343444; 37.6681500 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 260 m high 150 51°50′22.5″N 113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Tyumen Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 150 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Vorkuta Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 50 closed
Radio Horizont  Bulgaria Vakarel One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215 m high 75 42°34′35.18″N 23°41′55.52″E / 42.5764389°N 23.6987556°E / 42.5764389; 23.6987556 (Vakarel Transmitter) closed
270
Radio Rossii  Russia Orenburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 137 m height 25 51°46′44.37″N 55°06′23.01″E / 51.7789917°N 55.1063917°E / 51.7789917; 55.1063917 (Orenburg transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Khabarovsk 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 164 m 150 48°30′43.48″N 135°07′02.24″E / 48.5120778°N 135.1172889°E / 48.5120778; 135.1172889 (Chabarovsk transmitter) ; 48°30′48.75″N 135°07′18.15″E / 48.5135417°N 135.1217083°E / 48.5135417; 135.1217083 (Chabarovsk transmitter) closed
279
Radio Rossii  Russia Gorno-Altaisk Omnidirectional antenna, 143m high guyed lattice steel mast 50 51°58′1.12″N 85°54′54.68″E / 51.9669778°N 85.9151889°E / 51.9669778; 85.9151889 (Gorno-Altaisk transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Selenginsk Omnidirectional aerial, 260 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna (ARRT-antenna) 150 52°02′17.52″N 106°56′25.6″E / 52.0382000°N 106.940444°E / 52.0382000; 106.940444 (Selenginsk transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Vestochka near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 258 m high 1000 46°50′35″N 142°53′44″E / 46.84306°N 142.89556°E / 46.84306; 142.89556 (Vestochka transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Yekaterinburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 256 m height, fed at the top 150 56°53′22.46″N 60°41′30.22″E / 56.8895722°N 60.6917278°E / 56.8895722; 60.6917278 (Yekaterinburg longwave transmitter) closed
BR Pershy Kanal/BR Radyjo Stalitsa  Belarus Sasnovy 353.5 metres tall guyed mast 500 53°24′31″N 28°31′57″E / 53.40861°N 28.53250°E / 53.40861; 28.53250 (Sasnovy transmitter) closed

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

External links[edit]