Lopinavir

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Lopinavir
Lopinavir structure.svg
Lopinavir-PDBe-ligand-AB1-from-PDB-xtal-1MUI-Mercury-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
Other namesABT-378
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
MedlinePlusa602015
License data
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityUnknown
Protein binding98-99%
MetabolismLiver
Elimination half-life5 to 6 hours
ExcretionMostly fecal
Identifiers
  • (2S)-N-[(2S,4S,5S)-5-[2-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)acetamido]-4-hydroxy-1,6-diphenylhexan-2-yl]-3-methyl-2-(2-oxo-1,3-diazinan-1-yl)butanamide
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC37H48N4O5
Molar mass628.814 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O=C(N[C@@H](Cc1ccccc1)[C@@H](O)C[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@@H](N2C(=O)NCCC2)C(C)C)Cc3ccccc3)COc4c(cccc4C)C
  • InChI=1S/C37H48N4O5/c1-25(2)34(41-20-12-19-38-37(41)45)36(44)39-30(21-28-15-7-5-8-16-28)23-32(42)31(22-29-17-9-6-10-18-29)40-33(43)24-46-35-26(3)13-11-14-27(35)4/h5-11,13-18,25,30-32,34,42H,12,19-24H2,1-4H3,(H,38,45)(H,39,44)(H,40,43)/t30-,31-,32-,34-/m0/s1 checkY
  • Key:KJHKTHWMRKYKJE-SUGCFTRWSA-N checkY
  (verify)

Lopinavir is an antiretroviral of the protease inhibitor class. It is used against HIV infections as a fixed-dose combination with another protease inhibitor, ritonavir (lopinavir/ritonavir).[1]

It was patented in 1995 and approved for medical use in 2000.[2]

Side effects[edit]

Side effects, interactions, and contraindications have only been evaluated in the drug combination lopinavir/ritonavir.

Pharmacology[edit]

Lopinavir is highly bound to plasma proteins (98–99%).[3]

Reports are contradictory regarding lopinavir penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Anecdotal reports state that lopinavir cannot be detected in the CSF; however, a study of paired CSF-plasma samples from 26 patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir found lopinavir CSF levels above the IC50 in 77% of samples.[4]

Research[edit]

A 2014 study indicates that lopinavir is effective against the human papilloma virus (HPV). The study used the equivalent of one tablet twice a day applied topically to the cervices of women with high-grade and low-grade precancerous conditions. After three months of treatment, 82.6% of the women who had high-grade disease had normal cervical conditions, confirmed by smears and biopsies.[5] In 2020 lopinavir/ritonavir was found not to work in severe COVID-19. In this trial the medication was started typically around 13 days after the start of symptoms.[6]

Lopinavir is found to inhibit MERS-CoV replication in the low-micromolar range in cell cultures.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "FDA Approved Drug Products: Kaletra". Retrieved 30 April 2004.
  2. ^ Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 510. ISBN 9783527607495.
  3. ^ Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir) capsules; (lopinavir/ritonavir) oral solution. Prescribing information. April 2009
  4. ^ Capparelli E, Holland D, Okamoto C, et al. (2005). "Lopinavir concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid exceed the 50% inhibitory concentration for HIV". AIDS. 19 (9): 949–52. doi:10.1097/01.aids.0000171409.38490.48. PMID 15905676. S2CID 3162858.
  5. ^ HIV drug used to reverse effects of virus that causes cervical cancer University of Manchester, 17 February 2014.
  6. ^ Cao, Bin; Wang, Yeming; Wen, Danning; Liu, Wen; Wang, Jingli; Fan, Guohui; et al. (18 March 2020). "A Trial of Lopinavir–Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19". New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (19): 1787–1799. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001282. PMC 7121492. PMID 32187464.
  7. ^ de Wilde, Adriaan H.; Jochmans, Dirk; Posthuma, Clara C.; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; van Nieuwkoop, Stefan; Bestebroer, Theo M.; et al. (August 2014). "Screening of an FDA-Approved Compound Library Identifies Four Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 58 (8): 4875–4884. doi:10.1128/AAC.03011-14. PMC 4136071. PMID 24841269.

External links[edit]

  • "Lopinavir". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.