William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield

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The Viscount Nuffield
WilliamMorris(c.1920).jpg
wife Elizabeth Anstey
Full name
William Richard Morris
Father Frederick Morris
Mother Emily Ann Pether
Born 10 October 1877[1]
Worcester, England
Died 22 August 1963 (aged 85)
Nuffield, Oxfordshire, England
Occupation Motor manufacturer and philanthropist
Founder of Nuffield Foundation
Nuffield College, Oxford
Morris Motors

William Richard Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield GBE CH FRS[1] (10 October 1877 – 22 August 1963) was an English motor manufacturer and philanthropist. He was the founder of Morris Motors Limited and is remembered as the founder of the Nuffield Foundation, the Nuffield Trust and Nuffield College, Oxford. He took his title from the village of Nuffield in Oxfordshire, where he lived.

Background[edit]

Morris was born in 1877 at 47 Comer Gardens, a terraced house in the Comer Gardens area of Worcester, about 2 miles (3 km) north-west of the centre of Worcester, England. He was the son of Frederick Morris and his wife Emily Ann, daughter of Richard Pether.[1] When he was three years old his family moved to 16 James Street, Oxford.[citation needed]

Career[edit]

Before motor car manufacture[edit]

The Morris Garage
Morris's 1910 building on his site in Longwall Street, Oxford.

Upon leaving school at the age of 15 Morris was apprenticed to a local bicycle-seller and repairer. Nine months later, after his employer refused him a pay increase, aged 16 he set up a business repairing bicycles in a shed at the back of his parents' house. This business being a success he opened a shop at 48 High Street and began to assemble as well as repair bicycles, labelling his product with a gilt cycle wheel and The Morris. Morris raced his own machines competing as far away as south London. He did not confine himself to one distance or time and at one point was champion of Oxford (City and County), Berkshire and Buckinghamshire for distances varying between one and fifty miles.[2]

He began to work with motorcycles in 1901, designing the Morris Motor Cycle, and in 1902 acquired buildings in Longwall Street from which he repaired bicycles, operated a taxi service, sold, repaired and hired cars. He held the agency for Arrol-Johnston, Belsize, Humber, Hupmobile, Singer, Standard and Wolseley cars. In 1910 he built new premises in Longwall Street - described by a local newspaper as The Oxford Motor Palace - changed his business's name from The Oxford Garage to The Morris Garage and still had to take more premises in Queen Street.[2] The Longwall Street site was redeveloped in 1980, retaining the original frontage, and is now used as student accommodation by New College.[3]

Motor car manufacture[edit]

Morris bullnose.

In 1912 he designed a car, the bullnose Morris and using bought-in components (including engines and axles from USA) began to build them at a disused military training college in Cowley, Oxford. The outbreak of World War I saw the nascent car factory largely given over to the production of munitions - including 50,000 minesinkers for the North Sea Minefield - but in 1919 car production revived rising from 400 cars in that year to 56,000 in 1925. Morris pioneered the introduction to the United Kingdom of Henry Ford's techniques of mass production. During the period 1919–1925 he built or purchased factories at Abingdon, Birmingham, and Swindon to add to those in Oxford.

In February 1927, in competition against — amongst others — its creator, Herbert Austin, Morris paid £730,000 for the assets of the collapsed Wolseley Motors Limited which became his personal property. Wolseley were at this stage in fairly advanced development of an overhead camshaft 8 hp car, which he launched as the first Morris Minor in 1928. The original MG Midget, launched in 1929, was based on the Minor.

When major component suppliers had difficulties he purchased them on his own account. His American engines were now made under licence for him by Hotchkiss in Coventry. When in 1923 they were unwilling to expand production Morris bought their business and called it Morris Engines Limited. It would become Morris engines branch when he later sold it to Morris Motors. Again when back-axle manufacturer E. G. Wrigley and Company ran into financial difficulties he bought and reconstituted it as Morris Commercial Cars Limited to manufacture an expanded truck and bus offering. Following the same policy he bought the manufacturer of SU Carburettors in 1926.

Impressed by American all-steel bodies he persuaded Edward G. Budd of Budd Corporation to enter a joint venture with him called Pressed Steel Company which erected their large factory at Cowley opposite Morris's own and with a connecting bridge in 1926. But the two business tycoons had each met their match. Eventually in 1930 the High Court ended their disagreements by obliging Morris to surrender his and his colleagues' membership of the Pressed Steel board and all Morris holdings and Morris lost all the capital he had invested in the venture.

In 1938, Morris purchased the bankrupt Riley (Coventry) and Autovia companies from the Riley family and quickly sold them to his own Morris Motors Limited, with the addition of Wolseley Motors Limited later that year. After he was ennobled as Baron Nuffield the whole gallery of all his personal enterprises – he was the most famous industrialist of his age[4] – became known as the Nuffield Organisation.

World War II[edit]

The Supermarine Spitfire was a technically advanced aircraft. Though ordered by the Air Ministry in March 1936 by early 1938 no single plane had been made. Lord Nuffield had offered his own expertise, and that of his Organisation, to design and construct a vast new factory at Castle Bromwich, to his own ideas of industrial planning, claiming he would build 4 times as many planes there as any other factory in the country. Although the Treasury initially opposed the idea[5], having concerns about his control over the design of the project and its costs, the huge "NUffield Project" was approved at a cost of £1.125million by the Air Secretary and Morris, now Lord Nuffield, placed in charge of it. Within a year, with the factory still not built, the costs had increased to £4.15 million mainly due to constant changes in site layout and design. Nuffield had claimed he could produce 60 Spitfires a week but by May 1940, the height of the Battle of France, not one Spitfire had been built at Castle Bromwich. That month Lord Beaverbrook was placed in charge of all aircraft production, Lord Nuffield was sacked and the plant handed over to Vickers, Supermarine's parent company.[6] Vickers had inherited such a confused construction programme that even by 1942 building work was still going on and the project's accounts were not finally signed off by the Treasury until March 1944[7]. As early as 1942, cracks in the brickwork of the principal building were discovered by Vickers, due to differential expansion of the various types of bricks used in the different stages of construction. Possibly as a result of this debacle, in 1941 Lord Nuffield invited Mrs Dorothee Martin (Dorothee Pullinger) to join his organisation to advise him on his war work[8].

Post-war[edit]

Morris Minor
by Alec Issigonis.

Morris Motors Limited merged with Austin Motor Company in 1952 in the new holding company, British Motor Corporation (BMC), of which Nuffield was chairman for its first year.[9]

Morris retired as a director of BMC on 17 December 1952 at the age of 75, taking on the title of honorary president instead. He was succeeded as chairman by Leonard Lord.[10] As honorary president, he attended his office regularly and advised his colleagues.[1]

Honours[edit]

Morris was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 1918, created a baronet, of Nuffield in the County of Oxford, in 1929[11] and raised to the peerage as Baron Nuffield, of Nuffield in the County of Oxford, in 1934.[12] In 1938 he was further honoured when he was made Viscount Nuffield, of Nuffield in the County of Oxford.[13] He was also made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1939,[1] a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1941[14] and a Companion of Honour (CH) in 1958. He was appointed Honorary Colonel of 52nd (London) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery on 4 June 1937 and continued that role with its postwar successor, 452 HAA Regiment.[15][16]

Personal life and philanthropy[edit]

Grave slab of Lord Nuffield at Holy Trinity Church, Nuffield.

Morris married Elizabeth Anstey on 9 April 1903 — they had no children, and he disbursed a large part of his fortune to charitable causes. In 1937 he gave £50,000 to fund the expansion of the Sea Cadet Corps. In 1937 Lord Nuffield donated £60,000 to Birmingham University for the Nuffield building, to house a cyclotron.[17] In December 1938 he offered to give an iron lung (see Both respirator) made in his factory to any hospital in Britain and the Empire that requested one; over 1700 were distributed. He also founded the Nuffield Foundation in 1943 with an endowment of £10 million in order to advance education and social welfare. He also founded Nuffield College, Oxford. On his death the ownership of his former Oxfordshire home, Nuffield Place and its contents, passed to the Nuffield College who opened it to the public on a limited basis. Although a sale had been mooted,[18][19][20][21] it has now passed to the National Trust and is open to the public on a regular basis.[22] He is also commemorated in the Morris Motors Museum at the Oxford Bus Museum. Morris also has a building named after him at Coventry University, at Guy's Hospital London and a theatre at the University of Southampton.[23] His home in James Street now has a blue plaque.[24] He died in August 1963, aged 85. The baronetcy and two peerages died with him as he was childless. He was cremated, and his ashes lie in Nuffield churchyard, beside his wife's.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Holder, D. W. (1966). "William Richard Morris, First Viscount Nuffield 1877-1963". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 12: 387–326. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1966.0018. 
  2. ^ a b Jarman, Lytton P.; Barraclough, Robin I. The Bullnose and Flatnose Morris. Newton Abbot, UK: David and Charles. p. [page needed]. ISBN 0 7153 6665 3. 
  3. ^ Jenkins, Stephanie. "Old Morris Garages, 21 Long Wall Street". Oxford History. Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  4. ^ Overy, R. J. (2004). "Morris, William Richard, Viscount Nuffield (1877–1963)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35119. Retrieved 30 May 2013.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  5. ^ National Archives AVIA 15/3750 May 1938
  6. ^ McKinstry, Leo (17 November 2007). "How labour unrest nearly lost us the Battle of Britain". The Spectator. p. 19. Retrieved 2 January 2015. 
  7. ^ National Archives AVIA 15/3751
  8. ^ "Mrs Martin". The Woman Engineer. 5. 1941. 
  9. ^ "Lord Nuffield's Retirement". The Times (52498). London. 18 December 1952. p. 6. 
  10. ^ "Nuffield Retires and Plans a Cruise". Dundee Courier. 18 December 1952. Retrieved 2 January 2015 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  11. ^ "No. 33482". The London Gazette. 2 April 1929. p. 2235. 
  12. ^ "No. 34015". The London Gazette. 16 January 1934. p. 386. 
  13. ^ "No. 34477". The London Gazette. 28 January 1938. p. 578. 
  14. ^ "No. 35184". The London Gazette. 6 June 1941. p. 3286. 
  15. ^ Monthly Army List
  16. ^ Burke's Peerage.
  17. ^ "A proud history". University of Birmingham: Birmingham Energy Institute. 
  18. ^ "William Morris and the Joy of Giving". The Daily Telegraph. 26 April 2011. 
  19. ^ "William Morris the humble lifestyle of Britain's greatest philanthropist". The Daily Telegraph. 27 April 2011. 
  20. ^ "Press release". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. 
  21. ^ See also "Save Nuffield Place". Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2009. 
  22. ^ "Nuffield Place". National Trust. 
  23. ^ "History". Nuffield Theatre. 
  24. ^ "Blue Plaque on Lord Nuffield's former home in James Street". 
  25. ^ "Lord Nuffield (William Morris) - History of Hedington". headington.org.uk. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Early products
Nuffield Trust and Foundation websites
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Nuffield
1938–1963
Extinct
Baron Nuffield
1934–1963