|Region||Northeastern France, Belgium|
Lorrain, at the east among other oïl languages
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Lorrain is a language (often referred to as patois) spoken by now a minority of people in Lorraine in France, small parts of Alsace and in Gaume in Belgium. It is a langue d'oïl.
It is classified as a regional language of France and has the recognised status of a regional language of Wallonia, where it is known as Gaumais. It has been influenced by Lorraine Franconian and Luxembourgish, West Central German languages spoken in nearby or overlapping areas.
Linguist Stephanie Russo noted the difference of a 'second' imperfect and pluperfect tense between Lorrain and Standard French. It is derived from Latin grammar that no longer is used in modern French.
The Linguasphere Observatory distinguishes seven variants :
- Argonnais (Argonne, Woëvre, eastern French Ardennes, Meuse, Meurthe-et-Moselle)
- Longovician (Longwy, Longuyon, northern Meurthe-et-Moselle)
- Gaumais (arrondissement of Virton, cantons of Montmédy and Stenay in Meuse and the canton of Carignan in Ardennes)
- Messin (Metz, Metzgau and all of French-speaking Moselle)
- Nancéien (Nancy, southern Meurthe-et-Moselle)
- Spinalian (Épinal, central Vosges)
- Deodatian (Saint-Dié, Hautes-Vosges)
After 1870, members of the Stanislas Academy in Nancy noted 132 variants of Lorrain from Thionville in the north to Rupt-sur-Moselle in the south, which means that main variants have sub-variants.
- (in French) Essai sur le patois lorrain des environs du comté du Ban de la Roche, Jeremias Jacob Oberlin, 1775
- ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (2022-05-24). "Old French (842-ca. 1400)". Glottolog. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Archived from the original on 2022-06-02. Retrieved 2022-10-07.
- ^ a b "Le gaumais". Commune de Meix-devant-Virton en Gaume. Archived from the original on 2022-03-20. Retrieved 2022-10-07.
- ^ Séguy, Jean (1973). "LES ATLAS LINGUISTIQUES DE LA FRANCE PAR RÉGIONS". Langue Française. 18 (18): 65–90. doi:10.3406/lfr.1973.5631. ISSN 0023-8368. JSTOR 41557628.
- ^ Russo, Stephanie C. (May 2017). The imparfait lorrain in the context of grammaticalization (Thesis thesis).