Los Alamos, New Mexico
|Los Alamos, New Mexico|
A westward aerial view of Los Alamos.
|Nickname(s): Atomic City; The Hill;|
Site Y; Secret City (past)
|Motto(s): Where discoveries are made|
Location of Los Alamos, New Mexico
|• Total||11.1 sq mi (28.1 km2)|
|• Land||11.1 sq mi (28.1 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||7,320 ft (2,231 m)|
|• Density||1,102/sq mi (427.7/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−7 (Mountain (MST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−6 (MDT)|
|ZIP codes||87544, 87547|
|GNIS feature ID||0901357|
Los Alamos (Spanish: Los Álamos, meaning "The Cottonwoods" or "The Poplars") is a town in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, United States that is recognized as the birthplace of the atomic bomb––the primary objective of the Manhattan Project by Los Alamos National Laboratory during World War II. The town is located on four mesas of the Pajarito Plateau, and has a population of 12,019. It is the county seat and one of two population centers in the county known as census-designated places (CDPs); the other is White Rock.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Culture
- 5 Economy and infrastructure
- 6 City and regional partnerships
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Los Alamos is built on the Pajarito Plateau between White Rock Canyon and the Valles Caldera. The first settlers on the plateau are thought to be Keres speaking Native Americans around the 10th century. Around 1300, Tewa settlers immigrated from the Four Corners Region and built large cities but were driven out within 50 years by Navajo and Apache raids and by drought. Both the Keres and Tewa towns can be seen today in the ruins of Bandelier National Monument and Tsankawi.
The land of the plateau was then divided up for homesteading. Most residents of the plateau built simple log cabins that they only lived in during warm weather to feed livestock, with the homesteaders moving down to the warmer Rio Grande Valley. Homesteader Harold H. Brook sold part of his land and buildings to Detroit businessman Ashley Pond II in 1917 which began the Los Alamos Ranch School, named after the aspen trees that blossomed in the spring.
In 1942, during World War II, the Department of War began looking for a remote location for the Manhattan Project. The school was closed when the government used its power of eminent domain to take over the Ranch School and all the remaining homestead that same year. The Ranch School was paid $225 per acre; the homesteaders were paid between $7 and $15 per acre. All information about the town was highly classified until the bombing of Hiroshima.
All incoming truckloads were labeled as common items to conceal the true nature of their contents, and any outbound correspondence by those working and living in Los Alamos was censored by military officials. At the time, it was referred to as "The Hill" by many in Santa Fe, and as "Site Y" by military personnel. The mailing address for all of Los Alamos was PO Box 1663, Santa Fe, NM. After the Manhattan Project was completed, White Rock was abandoned until 1963 when people began to re-inhabit and rebuild new homes and buildings.
On November 10, 2015, the National Park Service and the U.S. Department of Energy announced the establishment of Manhattan Project National Historical Park in Los Alamos, along with units in Hanford, Washington and Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Los Alamos is located approximately 35 mi (56 km) to the northwest of Santa Fe. The elevation at the post office is 7,320 feet (2,230 m) and total land area is 11.14 square miles (28.9 km2)
The Los Alamos Townsite and White Rock are located on flat mesa tops separated by steep canyons. This location was chosen for its relative inaccessibility to help protect the secret activities of the Manhattan Project.
The town of Los Alamos was built on four mesas—Barranca Mesa, North Mesa, Los Alamos Mesa and South Mesa—along with the connecting communities at the base of the mountain. LANL occupies half of South Mesa, Two Mile Mesa, Frijoles Mesa, Mesita de Buey and several nearby areas in the region (in the valleys and at the base of the mountain). White Rock lies at the top of White Rock Canyon.
Much of Los Alamos County is within the Española Ranger District of the Santa Fe National Forest.
|Climate data for Los Alamos, New Mexico (1942-2006)|
|Record high °F (°C)||65
|Average high °F (°C)||40
|Daily mean °F (°C)||29
|Average low °F (°C)||19
|Record low °F (°C)||−18
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||0.9
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||12.0
|Average precipitation days||5||6||7||6||7||7||13||15||8||6||5||5||90|
|Source #1: Western Regional Climate Center - Temperature |
|Source #2: Western Regional Climate Center - Precipitation |
Wildlife and Vegetation
Los Alamos' geographical location causes its wildlife and vegetation to be diverse compared to surrounding areas in the state. "The variation in elevation creates precipitation and temperature gradients that support a wide diversity of plant communities..." There are six different plant communities within the county; each is home to unique flora and fauna. Ponderosa pine trees are the most common trees at the elevation of Los Alamos (7,000 and 8,000 feet (2,100 and 2,400 m)). Common shrubs in the area include sagebrush, Gambel oak, and wild rose.
Black bears (brown-color variation), elk, mule deer, bobcats, gray foxes, skunks and chipmunks are examples of mammals living in the area. "Over 200 species of birds have been reported" in the Pajarito Ornithological Survey conducted by LANL. Among these are broad-tailed hummingbirds, hairy woodpeckers, zone-tailed hawks, common ravens, western bluebirds, and great horned owls.
Wildfires have affected the county, but the most destructive to the townsite was the Cerro Grande Fire of May 2000, which caused an estimated $1 billion in damages and destroyed more than 400 homes. The town was evacuated for eight days. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) built temporary housing on North Mesa for those who were displaced by the fire. Though there was no loss of life, other effects include damage to LANL facilities (nuclear material was not affected), flash-flooding, and erosion.
|Wildfire (year)||Burned area||Cause|
|Water Canyon Fire (1954)||3,000 acres (10 km2)||trash/construction debris fire|
|La Mesa Fire (1977)||15,400 acres (60 km2)||human-caused|
|Dome Fire (1996)||16,500 acres (65 km2)||abandoned campfire|
|Oso Complex Fire (1998)||5,200 acres (20 km2)||arson|
|Cerro Grande Fire (2000)||48,000 acres (195 km2)||controlled burn|
|Las Conchas Fire (2011)||156,000 acres (630 km2)||Power line|
Wildfires have altered plant communities in the area. Plant species are migrating to cover burn areas.
Over two thousand sites in the area have been determined to have been impacted as a result of past activities at LANL. The location of these sites have been identified throughout the county, and are primarily (but not exclusively) on DOE property. Contaminated sites vary widely in significance. Corrective action and environmental restoration has been deemed necessary for certain areas; LANL takes part in this process. Some residents have voiced concern about a lack of public participation and opportunity to comment on the clean-up schedule and funding.
The current population is 12,019 with a population density of 1,078.7 inhabitants per square mile (416.5/km2). The median age is 40 years. 24.8% of the people are under the age of 18, 4.8% are ages 18 to 24, 29.2% are ages 25 to 44, 28.2% are ages 45 to 64, and 12.9% are ages 65 years or older. For every 100 females, there were 101.3 males.
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||14.26%|
|American Indian and Alaska Native||0.8%|
|Black or African American||0.6%|
Los Alamos is demographically unique compared to its surrounding counties and the state as a whole. Over 35% of the population of surrounding counties (Rio Arriba, Santa Fe, and Sandoval) and the state of New Mexico are Hispanic or Latino, while only about 15% of Los Alamosans are Hispanic or Latino. The white and especially the Asian populations of Los Alamos are significantly higher than the rest of New Mexico.
- Hans Bethe, nuclear physicist, awarded 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics
- Richard Feynman, theoretical physicist awarded 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics. Shared with Sin-Itiro Tomonaga and Julian Schwinger.
- Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović, current President of Croatia, graduated from Los Alamos High School in 1986
- J. Robert Oppenheimer, theoretical physicist
- Michelle Lujan Grisham, U.S. Representative
Sports and Recreation
The geography of Los Alamos lends itself to several sports and recreational activities. Skiing is possible on 10,440 ft. Pajarito Mountain between November and April. Snowshoeing is possible at Valles Caldera National Preserve and other locations weather permitting.
Los Alamos is host to the following sporting events:
- Tour de Los Alamos (road cycling race)
- Run the Caldera Marathon
- Pajarito Punishment (mountain-biking race)
- Los Alamos Triathlon
- Jemez Mountain Trail Run
Economy and infrastructure
Income and Poverty
The median household income in Los Alamos is $98,458, and per capita income is $54,067. Income is significantly higher than the rest of New Mexico. Los Alamos has the highest millionaire concentration of any US city with 12.4 percent of households having at least $1 million in assets. Only 6.6% of people are below the poverty line, half the rate of the United States, and one-third the rate of New Mexico. As of January 2015, there were zero homeless individuals.
Families and Housing
There are 5,249 households and an average household size of 2.23 people. There are 5,863 housing units, and the median value of owner-occupied housing units is $281,500. Median gross rent is $921.
31.4% of households have children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% are married couples living together, 6.5% have a female householder with no husband present, and 34.0% are non-families. 29.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 7.6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older.
Los Alamos National Laboratory is the area's largest employer (10,500 employees), and is foundational to the economy of Los Alamos, with an annual budget of about $2.45 billion. Approximately 40% of the laboratory's employees live in Los Alamos, while the remainder commute from Santa Fe, Española, Taos, and Albuquerque.
Other major employers in Los Alamos include Smith's Food and Drug, Los Alamos National Bank, Los Alamos Medical Center, National Security Technologies, Los Alamos County, Los Alamos Public Schools, and Del Norte Credit Union.
Los Alamos is relatively isolated, and can only be accessed from NM 4 from the south and NM 502 from the east.
NM 502 sees significantly more traffic because it connects with US 84/285, which delivers access to several Pueblo communities between Española and Santa Fe. Approximately 10,000 commuters use NM 502 daily. NM 502 begins at Pojoaque, and traverses San Ildefonso Pueblo and the Rio Grande.
There are three access roads between White Rock and Los Alamos—Main Hill Road, Jemez Road and Pajarito Road. Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, Pajarito Road has been restricted to LANL badge holders for security reasons.
- Atomic City Transit
- New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) Park-and-Ride
- New Mexico Rail Runner Express
Los Alamos County Airport, located on the eastern edge of Los Alamos, is the only airport in the county. Its main source of activity is from small private aircraft, with intermittent commercial commuter service.
The 47-bed acute-care facility known as Los Alamos Medical Center is the only hospital in Los Alamos and is a LifePoint Health hospital. This hospital provides "complete medical, surgical, obstetrical, pediatric, emergency, and diagnostic services."
Medical Associates of Northern New Mexico (MANNM) is a group of medical providers that offers family medicine, internal medicine, cardiology, nephrology, and endocrinology among its many services.
During the Cold War, workers at LANL were in contact with radiation and other toxins, causing many of these individuals illness. A non-profit organization called Cold War Patriots provides these individuals and their families with information about the health care benefits available to them.
City and regional partnerships
Los Alamos maintains sister city status with the following international location:
In June 2016 a collaboration was initiated between the County of Los Alamos, the Los Alamos Commerce & Development Corporation and the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Feynman Center for Innovation and Community Relations and Partnerships Office, to open a private, non-profit coworking space called ProjectY cowork Los Alamos.
- Bandelier National Monument, National Park Service unit
- Bradbury Science Museum
- Casa Mesita
- Ed Grothus
- Manhattan Project National Historical Park, National Park Service and Department of Energy unit
- "Los Alamos CDP, New Mexico". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau.
- Julyan, Robert Hixson (1998), The Place Names of New Mexico, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, p. 208, ISBN 978-08263-1689-9
- Bowen, Brent M. (May 1990). Los Alamos Climatology. Los Alamos: Los Alamos National Laboratory. pp. 3–5.
- Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos during 2008. Los Alamos National Laboratory. September 2009. p. 32.
- "Period of Record General Climate Summary - Temperature". WRCC. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- "Period of Record General Climate Summary - Precipitation". WRCC. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- Foxx, Teralene; Craig, Martin; Dorothy, Noonan (2016). Plants of the Jemez Mountains, Volume 1. Los Alamos, NM: All Seasons Publishing. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-963-90407-2.
- Findley, James S.; Arthur H., Harris; Don E., Wilson; Clyde, Jones (1975). Mammals of New Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. pp. 289, 293, 319, 327. ISBN 0-8263-0369-2.
- Travis, James R. (October 1992). Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Los alamos County, New Mexico. Los Alamos: Los Alamos National Laboratory. pp. 2–3, 14, 51, 71, 87, 101, 145, 177.
- "Las Conchas Wildfire". Incident Information System. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- "Fuels Inventories in the Los Alamos National Laboratory". Los Alamos National Laboratory. March 1999. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
- Associated Press (April 29, 1996). "N.M. fire threatens Indian sites". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
- "Lessons Learned From the Cerro Grande (Los Alamos) Fire" (PDF). United States General Accounting Office Testimony. US Government Accountability Office. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Las Conchas Wildfire". Incident Information System. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
- "Investigators determine cause of Las Conchas Fire". New Mexico Fire Information. July 3, 2011. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "Environmental Stewardship". LANL.gov. Los Alamos National Security for US Department of Energy. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- o'neil, marie (3 January 2018). "doe/nmed host meeting on legacy waste clean-up". los alamos daily post.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965". www.nobelprize.org.
- Search Results - Los Alamos, New Mexico - ReferenceUSA Current Businesses
- "About Us - Los Alamos Medical Center". www.losalamosmedicalcenter.com.
- "Services - Medical Associates of Northern New Mexico - Cardiology". www.mannm.com.
- Writer, T. S. Last | Journal Staff. "Updated: Coworking spaces blooming in Los Alamos, elsewhere". www.abqjournal.com. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
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