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Los Alamos, New Mexico

Coordinates: 35°53′28″N 106°17′52″W / 35.89111°N 106.29778°W / 35.89111; -106.29778
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Los Alamos, New Mexico
A westward aerial view of Los Alamos
A westward aerial view of Los Alamos
Atomic City; The Hill;
Site Y; Secret City (past)
"Where discoveries are made"
Location of Los Alamos, New Mexico
Location of Los Alamos, New Mexico
Los Alamos, New Mexico is located in New Mexico
Los Alamos, New Mexico
Los Alamos, New Mexico
Location in New Mexico
Los Alamos, New Mexico is located in the United States
Los Alamos, New Mexico
Los Alamos, New Mexico
Location in the contiguous United States
Coordinates: 35°53′28″N 106°17′52″W / 35.89111°N 106.29778°W / 35.89111; -106.29778
Country United States
State New Mexico
CountyLos Alamos
 • Total11.11 sq mi (28.77 km2)
 • Land11.11 sq mi (28.77 km2)
 • Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)
7,320 ft (2,231 m)
 • Total13,179
 • Density1,186.44/sq mi (458.09/km2)
Time zoneUTC−7 (Mountain (MST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (MDT)
ZIP codes
87544, 87547
Area code505
FIPS code35-42320
GNIS feature ID0901357

Los Alamos (Spanish: Los Álamos, meaning The Cottonwoods) is a census-designated place in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, United States, that is recognized as one of the development and creation places of the atomic bomb—the primary objective of the Manhattan Project by Los Alamos National Laboratory during World War II. The town is located on four mesas of the Pajarito Plateau, and had a population of about 13,200 as of 2020.[3] It is the county seat and one of two population centers in the county known as census-designated places (CDPs); the other is White Rock.


Los Alamos is a Spanish place name that typically refers to poplar or cottonwood trees. Alternatively, Los Alamos could refer to the large groves of aspen trees (alamo temblon) that intersperse the coniferous forest on the mountainsides above the townsite, where they are distinctly visible during the autumn months due to their spectacular autumn colors.[4][5]


small guard shack with sign stating that passes must be presented to guards, a nineteen forties era car is parked there
The entrance to Los Alamos was guarded at the Main Gate during the Manhattan Project.
Los Alamos post office, built in 1948

The ruins of permanent Puebloan settlements, such as those located in nearby Bandelier National Monument and Tsankawi, and numerous other sites such as cliff dwellings indicate that the area has been inhabited during various eras since around 1150 AD. The first settlers on the plateau are thought to be Keres speaking Native Americans around the 10th century. Around 1300, Tewa settlers immigrated from the Four Corners Region and built large cities but were driven out within 50 years by Navajo and Apache raids and by drought.

In the late 19th century, homesteaders utilized the land for ranching. Most homesteaders built simple log cabins that they only lived in during warm weather to feed livestock. Many of the homesteaders later moved down to the warmer Rio Grande Valley. In 1917, homesteader Harold H. Brook sold part of his land and buildings to Ashley Pond II, a businessman from Detroit who founded the Los Alamos Ranch School. The area was used to teach young men basic ranching and other outdoor survival skills.

In 1943, during World War II, the United States Department of War exercised eminent domain over the Ranch School and all remaining homesteads in the area so that the relatively isolated location could be used for the secretive Manhattan Project, which ultimately developed the world's first nuclear weapons.[6] Facilities for research and development were quickly built and scientists and engineers from all over the world were assigned to the project; however, all information about the town and project was held secret from the public. Los Alamos was referred to under the code name "Site Y" by military personnel, and was known only as "The Hill" by many in nearby Santa Fe.

Los Alamos was originally built as a closed city accessible from the outside world through only two gates.[7] The specific location of the project was a tightly guarded secret. All employees recruited to work at the Los Alamos site were given a memorandum instructing them to travel to Santa Fe and report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers office at 109 East Palace Avenue.[8] At that location, Dorothy McKibbin provided newcomers with the necessary documentation to get through security checkpoints (initially, letters signed by J. Robert Oppenheimer himself, and later, security passes), along with specific directions to the Hill.[9] The project was further concealed by designating its mailing address as PO Box 1663, Santa Fe, N.M.[10] All incoming truckloads were falsely labeled as common items in order to conceal the true nature of their contents, and any outbound correspondence by those working and living in Los Alamos was censored by military officials.

Not until after the bombing of Hiroshima was information about the Manhattan Project released to the public; being announced by the White House at 11 am on 6 August. A set of press releases were given out over three days.[11]

In the years after World War II, the laboratory was formally established as a research government facility under the civilian control of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, and is now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory. In 1957, the AEC pulled back the security perimeter to the laboratory itself and opened up the town for visits by the general public. The first visitor to enter the town that year without a permit from the federal government was New Mexico Governor Edwin L. Mechem.[12] The AEC was later succeeded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Los Alamos became the shooting location and setting for the 2023 film Oppenheimer.


Los Alamos is located in northern New Mexico between the Rio Grande and the eastern rim of the Valles Caldera on the Pajarito Plateau, approximately 35 mi (56 km) to the northwest of Santa Fe. The elevation at the post office is 7,320 feet (2,230 m) and total land area is 11.14 square miles (28.9 km2).

The Los Alamos Townsite and White Rock are located on flat mesa tops separated by steep canyons, known as potreros. This location was chosen for its relative inaccessibility to help protect the secret activities of the Manhattan Project.

The town of Los Alamos was built on four potreros—Barranca Mesa, North Mesa, Los Alamos Mesa and South Mesa—along with the connecting communities at the base of the mountain. Los Alamos National Laboratory occupies half of South Mesa, Two Mile Mesa, Frijoles Mesa, Mesita de Buey and several nearby areas in the region (in the valleys and at the base of the mountain). White Rock lies at the top of White Rock Canyon.

Much of Los Alamos County is within the Española Ranger District of the Santa Fe National Forest.

cliffs, mesas, pine-filled canyons, and distant mountains
View from the Anderson Overlook.


Los Alamos has a humid continental climate (Dfb)[13][14] with four distinct seasons. Summer days are moderately warm in the 70s and 80s, but reach 90 on only 5 days per year on average.

Climate data for Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1918–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 65
Mean maximum °F (°C) 51.9
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 40.3
Daily mean °F (°C) 30.4
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 20.5
Mean minimum °F (°C) 4.8
Record low °F (°C) −18
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.90
Average snowfall inches (cm) 9.9
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 6.5 6.7 13.0 14.6 8.5 6.5 4.6 5.7 90.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.8 4.3 2.8 1.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 2.0 4.1 19.3
Source: NOAA[15][16]

Wildlife and vegetation[edit]

Los Alamos' geographical location causes its wildlife and vegetation to be diverse compared to surrounding areas in the state. "The variation in elevation creates precipitation and temperature gradients that support a wide diversity of plant communities..."[17] There are six different plant communities within the county; each is home to unique flora and fauna.[17] Ponderosa pine trees are the most common trees at the elevation of Los Alamos (7,000 and 8,000 feet (2,100 and 2,400 m)). Common shrubs in the area include sagebrush, Gambel oak, and wild rose.[17]

Black bears (brown-color variation), elk, mule deer, bobcats, gray foxes, skunks and chipmunks are examples of mammals living in the area.[18] "Over 200 species of birds have been reported" in the Pajarito Ornithological Survey conducted by LANL.[19] Among these are broad-tailed hummingbirds, hairy woodpeckers, zone-tailed hawks, common ravens, western bluebirds, and great horned owls.[19]


Wildfires have affected the county, but the most destructive to the townsite was the Cerro Grande Fire of May 2000, which caused an estimated $1 billion in damages and destroyed more than 400 homes. The CDP was evacuated for eight days. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) built temporary housing on North Mesa for those who were displaced by the fire. Though there was no loss of life, other effects include damage to LANL facilities (nuclear material was not affected), flash-flooding, and erosion.

The Las Conchas Fire of June 26, 2011[20] burned about three times as many acres and also prompted evacuation of Los Alamos, but there was no damage to property in Los Alamos.[21] It was the biggest wildfire New Mexico had endured until the Calf Canyon-Hermits Peak fire in 2022.[20][22]

aerial photo of burned trees and homes
Aftermath of the Cerro Grande Fire of 2000
Wildfire (year) Burned area Cause
Water Canyon Fire (1954) 3,000 acres (10 km2)[23] trash/construction debris fire[23]
La Mesa Fire (1977) 15,400 acres (60 km2)[23] human-caused[23]
Dome Fire (1996) 16,500 acres (65 km2) abandoned campfire[24]
Oso Complex Fire (1998) 5,200 acres (20 km2) arson
Cerro Grande Fire (2000) 48,000 acres (195 km2)[25] controlled burn
Las Conchas Fire (2011) 156,800 acres (635 km2)[26] Power line


Calf Canyon - Hermits Peak 341,735 acres (1,385 km2)


controlled burn[28]

Wildfires have altered plant communities in the area. Plant species are migrating to cover burn areas.

Environmental remediation[edit]

Over two thousand sites in the area have been determined to have been impacted as a result of past activities at LANL. The location of these sites have been identified throughout the county, and are primarily (but not exclusively) on DOE property. Contaminated sites vary widely in significance. Corrective action and environmental restoration has been deemed necessary for certain areas; LANL takes part in this process.[29] Some residents have voiced concern about a lack of public participation and opportunity to comment on the cleanup schedule and funding.[30]


2020 census[edit]

The 2020 United States census counted 13,179 people, 5,653 households, and 3,522 families in Los Alamos.[31][32] The population density was 1,186.4 per square mile (458.1/km2). There were 6,026 housing units at an average density of 542.5 per square mile (209.5/km2).[32][33] The racial makeup was 73.15% (9,640) white or European American (67.79% non-Hispanic white), 0.99% (131) black or African-American, 0.74% (98) Native American or Alaska Native, 7.96% (1,049) Asian, 0.09% (12) Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian, 3.95% (520) from other races, and 13.12% (1,729) from two or more races.[34] Hispanic or Latino of any race was 17.35% (2,287) of the population.[35]

Of the 5,653 households, 30.6% had children under the age of 18; 50.4% were married couples living together; 22.0% had a female householder with no spouse or partner present. 32.4% of households consisted of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.[32] The average household size was 2.2 and the average family size was 2.9.[36] The percent of those with a bachelor's degree or higher was estimated to be 50.6% of the population.[37]

22.8% of the population was under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 26.9% from 45 to 64, and 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males.[32] For every 100 females ages 18 and older, there were 97.6 males.[32]

The 2016-2020 5-year American Community Survey estimates show that the median household income was $114,034 (with a margin of error of +/- $9,349) and the median family income was $139,184 (+/- $15,168).[38] Males had a median income of $83,875 (+/- $7,095) versus $57,000 (+/- $11,331) for females. The median income for those above 16 years old was $72,606 (+/- $8,291).[39] Approximately, 3.2% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.2% of those under the age of 18 and 3.6% of those ages 65 or over.[40][41]

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States census, there were 12,019 people with a population density of 1,078.7 inhabitants per square mile (416.5/km2).[42] The median age is 40 years.[citation needed] 24.8% of the people are under the age of 18, 4.8% are ages 18 to 24, 29.2% are ages 25 to 44, 28.2% are ages 45 to 64, and 12.9% are ages 65 years or older.[citation needed] For every 100 females, there were 101.3 males.[citation needed]

Historical population
Source: U.S. Decennial Census[43]


Racial composition 2010[42] 2020[44]
White 85.9% 73.2%
Non-Hispanic 74.8% 67.8%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 14.3% 17.4%
Asian 7.2% 8%
American Indian and Alaska Native 0.8% 0.7%
Black or African American 0.6% 1%

Los Alamos is demographically unique compared to its surrounding counties and the state as a whole. Over 35% of the population of surrounding counties (Rio Arriba, Santa Fe, and Sandoval) and the state of New Mexico are Hispanic or Latino, while only about 20% of Los Alamosans are Hispanic or Latino. The white and especially the Asian populations of Los Alamos are significantly higher than the rest of New Mexico.[42]


Notable people[edit]

J. Robert Oppenheimer, c. 1944

Manhattan Project[edit]

  • Leona Woods, physicist and constructor of the first nuclear chain reaction leading to the development of the bomb.
  • Harold Agnew, physicist and third director of Los Alamos National Laboratory (1970-1979)
  • Luis Alvarez, nuclear physicist
  • Robert Bacher, nuclear physicist
  • Hans Bethe, German-American nuclear physicist, awarded 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics
  • Norris Bradbury, physicist and second director of Los Alamos National Laboratory (1945-1970). He remained in Los Alamos for the rest of his life.
  • James Chadwick, British physicist and recipient of the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for discovery of the neutron.
  • Charles Critchfield, mathematical physicist. Returned to Los Alamos in 1961 and remained there for the rest of his life.
  • Harry Daghlian, physicist, died from radiation poisoning at Los Alamos in September 1945.
  • Enrico Fermi, Italian-American theoretical and experimental physicist, has been called "architect of the nuclear age."
  • Val Fitch, nuclear physicist and recipient of the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics.
  • Richard Feynman, theoretical physicist, awarded 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics, shared with Sin-Itiro Tomonaga and Julian Schwinger[45]
  • Klaus Fuchs, German theoretical physicist and later atomic spy who supplied information to the Soviet Union.
  • George Kistiakowsky, chemist and designer of shaped implosive charges. He was also an avid skier who used implosive rings to fell trees for development of the Sawyer's Hill ski area near Los Alamos.
  • J. Carson Mark, Canadian mathematician, joined the Manhattan Project in 1945 and was involved with development of thermonuclear weapons. He remained in Los Alamos for the rest of his life.
  • Joseph Laws McKibben, physicist and engineer; designer of the air muscle. Remained in Los Alamos for the rest of his life.
  • Edwin McMillan, physicist and recipient of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
  • J. Robert Oppenheimer, theoretical physicist and first director of the Los Alamos Laboratory.
  • Deak Parsons, Navy Captain (later Rear Admiral); Robert Oppenheimer's second in command.
  • Frederick Reines, theoretical physicist, awarded 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics
  • Bruno Rossi, Italian-American experimental physicist, who developed diagnostic instruments for development of the atomic bomb.
  • Emilio Segrè, Italian physicist and recipient of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics.
  • Louis Slotin, physicist and chemist; died from radiation poisoning at Los Alamos in May 1946.
  • Edward Teller, Hungarian-American theoretical physicist sometimes called "father of the hydrogen bomb."
  • James L. Tuck, British physicist specializing in shaped charges. Returned to Los Alamos in 1949, researching thermonuclear fusion for power generation, for which he developed the Perhapsatron. Retired from LANL in 1972 but remained in Los Alamos for the rest of his life.
  • Stanislaw Ulam, Polish-American mathematician. Remained a consultant with LANL for many years after the Manhattan Project, with a home in nearby Santa Fe for the rest of his life.
  • Robert R. Wilson, physicist and a developer of the cyclotron.

1945 onwards[edit]

Sports and recreation[edit]

The geography of Los Alamos lends itself to several sports and recreational activities. There is an extensive system of trails within the canyons and into the mountains above the town, catering to all skill levels of running, hiking and mountain biking. The Aquatic Center is an indoor, Olympic-length public swimming pool with a therapy pool and lazy river, and a public 18-hole golf course (par 72, 6500 yards) has existed since 1947.

Winter sports include skiing at the community-owned Pajarito Mountain Ski Area on 10,440 ft. Pajarito Mountain[46] between November and April. The county maintains New Mexico's only refrigerated, NHL regulation, outdoor ice skating rink on the sun-shaded floor of Los Alamos Canyon, almost beneath the Omega Bridge. Snowshoeing and cross-country skiing are possible at Valles Caldera National Preserve and other locations, weather permitting.

Los Alamos is host to several sporting events:

  • Tour de Los Alamos (road cycling race)
  • Run the Caldera Marathon
  • Pajarito Punishment (mountain-biking race)
  • Los Alamos Triathlon (Los Alamos Junior Triathlon)
  • Jemez Mountain Trail Run

On November 10, 2015, the National Park Service and the U.S. Department of Energy announced the establishment of Manhattan Project National Historical Park in Los Alamos, along with units in Hanford, Washington and Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

In popular culture[edit]


  • Director Christopher Nolan shot scenes from Oppenheimer in Los Alamos in March 2022,[47] filming at select locations including the historic Fuller Lodge, Oppenheimer's house, Civilian's Women's Dormitory[48] and United Church,[49] among others. The production sought approximately 450 local background talent[50] for the film, including real local scientists.[51]
  • Tiger Eyes is a 2012 film based on the 1981 young adult novel of the same name, written by Judy Blume. This was the first major motion picture adaptation from the work of author, whose books have sold more than 82 million copies in 41 countries.[52] Several outdoor scenes were shot in and around Los Alamos.
  • Twins is a 1988 comedy buddy film starring Arnold Schwarzenegger and Danny DeVito, with a plot that begins with their birth in a genetics laboratory in Los Alamos, and revisits it later in the sequence. Filming includes a few outdoor scenes within the city.
  • The Atomic City is a 1952 American film noir spy thriller film about H-bomb secrets, which was the first feature film to be shot at Los Alamos, during the period that the community was still closed to the public at large. Scenes include the East Gate and its tower (some inside the building), and documentary footage of laboratory interiors, with workers’ faces redacted. Filming was also done at the nearby Puye Cliff Dwellings.[53]


  • Manhattan is an American drama television series, based on the Manhattan Project and life in Los Alamos during 1943 and 1944. The TV show, which ran for two seasons from 2014 to 2016, is not intended to be historically accurate, but inspired by history and does reference many aspects of the actual Manhattan Project. Most characters are fictional, but some historical figures such as Robert Oppenheimer are included. Other contributors, such as Enrico Fermi (who arrived at the site in September 1944) and Emilio G. Segrè, do not appear.


Los Alamos Public Schools provides public Kindergarten through High School education (5 elementary schools, 1 middle school, and 1 high school: Los Alamos High School[54]). The graduation rate, as of March 6, 2021, is 93.3%, in comparison to New Mexico's 76.9% rate and America's average rate of 85%.[55]

The University of New Mexico also has a branch campus in Los Alamos.


Los Alamos is the fifth-fastest-growing city in New Mexico, after Albuquerque, Rio Rancho, Las Cruces, and Ruidoso.[citation needed]

Income and poverty[edit]

The median household income in Los Alamos is $98,458, and per capita income is $54,067. Income is significantly higher than the rest of New Mexico.[42] Los Alamos has the highest millionaire concentration of any US city, with 12.4 percent of households having at least $1 million in assets.[56] This is a result of chemists, engineers, and physicists working at LANL since the Manhattan Project.[57] Only 6.6% of people are below the poverty line; one-third the rate of New Mexico.[42] As of January 2015, there were zero homeless individuals.[58]

Families and housing[edit]

There are 5,249 households and an average household size of 2.23 people. There are 5,863 housing units, and the median value of owner-occupied housing units is $281,500. Median gross rent is $921.[42]

31.4% of households have children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% are married couples living together, 6.5% have a female householder with no husband present, and 34.0% are non-families. 29.8% of all households are made up of individuals, and 7.6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older.[citation needed]

Principal employers[edit]

Los Alamos National Laboratory is the area's largest employer with approximately 10,500 employees, and is foundational to the economy of Los Alamos, with an annual budget of about $2.45 billion. Approximately 40% of the laboratory's employees live in Los Alamos, while the remainder commute from Santa Fe, Española, Taos, and Albuquerque. About 66% of the people who work in the national laboratories commute daily to the lab; some take the Atomic City Transit, Rail Runner Express, use the Park and Ride, or carpool with other employees.[59]

Other major employers in Los Alamos include Los Alamos County, Los Alamos Public Schools, Los Alamos Medical Center, Smith's Food and Drug, Enterprise Bank & Trust, and Del Norte Credit Union.[60]


Los Alamos provides several transportation services:[61][62]


Los Alamos is relatively isolated, and can only be accessed from NM 4 from the south and NM 502 from the east.

NM 502 sees significantly more traffic because it connects with US 84/285, which delivers access to several Pueblo communities between Española and Santa Fe. Approximately 10,000 commuters use NM 502 daily. NM 502 begins at Pojoaque, and traverses San Ildefonso Pueblo and the Rio Grande.

Interstate 25 is the nearest major interstate highway, and passes through or near Santa Fe, Albuquerque and Denver.

There are three access roads between White Rock and Los Alamos—Main Hill Road, Jemez Road and Pajarito Road. Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, Pajarito Road has been restricted to LANL badge holders for security reasons.

Transit systems[edit]


Los Alamos County Airport, located on the eastern edge of Los Alamos, is the only airport in the county. The main source of activity is from small private aircraft, with intermittent commercial commuter service.

Albuquerque International Sunport is a 100-mile drive south of Los Alamos, and serves most national destinations.

Health care[edit]

The 47-bed acute-care facility known as Los Alamos Medical Center is the only hospital in Los Alamos and is a LifePoint Health hospital. The hospital provides "complete medical, surgical, obstetrical, pediatric, emergency, and diagnostic services"[66] and employs about 300 Northern New Mexicans.[66]

Medical Associates of Northern New Mexico (MANNM) is a group of medical providers that offers family medicine, internal medicine, cardiology, nephrology, radiology, and endocrinology among its many services.[67]

During the Cold War, workers at LANL were in contact with radiation and other toxins, causing many of these individuals illness. A non-profit organization called Cold War Patriots provides these individuals and their families with information about the healthcare benefits available to them.[68]

VLBA node[edit]

The radio telescope located in Los Alamos is one of ten dishes composing the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA).

City and regional partnerships[edit]

Sister city[edit]

Los Alamos maintains sister city status with:


In June 2016 a collaboration was initiated between the County of Los Alamos, the Los Alamos Commerce & Development Corporation and the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Feynman Center for Innovation and Community Relations and Partnerships Office, to open a private, non-profit coworking space called ProjectY cowork Los Alamos,[69] which helped create educational programs and resources for entrepreneurs and remote workers.[70]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
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  4. ^ Pearce, T.M., ed. (1965). New Mexico Place Names: A Geographical Dictionary. UNM Press. ISBN 0-8263-0082-0.
  5. ^ Julyan, Robert Hixson (1998), The Place Names of New Mexico, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, p. 208, ISBN 978-08263-1689-9
  6. ^ "Our History".
  7. ^ Conant, Jennet (2005). 109 East Palace: Robert Oppenheimer and the Secret City of Los Alamos (2005 paperback ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 112. ISBN 9781416585428. Retrieved August 3, 2023.
  8. ^ Conant, Jennet (2005). 109 East Palace: Robert Oppenheimer and the Secret City of Los Alamos (2005 paperback ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 84. ISBN 9781416585428. Retrieved August 3, 2023.
  9. ^ Conant, Jennet (2005). 109 East Palace: Robert Oppenheimer and the Secret City of Los Alamos (2005 paperback ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 59. ISBN 9781416585428. Retrieved August 3, 2023.
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  11. ^ Nichols, Kenneth (1987). The Road to Trinity: A Personal Account of How America's Nuclear Policies Were Made. New York: William Morrow and Company. p. 202. ISBN 0-688-06910-X.
  12. ^ Rothman, Hal (1997). On Rims & Ridges: The Los Alamos Area Since 1880. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. p. 246. ISBN 9780803289666. Retrieved August 3, 2023.
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  14. ^ Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos during 2008. Los Alamos National Laboratory. September 2009. p. 32.
  15. ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  16. ^ "Summary of Monthly Normals 1991-2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
  17. ^ a b c Foxx, Teralene; Craig, Martin; Dorothy, Noonan (2016). Plants of the Jemez Mountains, Volume 1. Los Alamos, NM: All Seasons Publishing. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-963-90407-2.
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  22. ^ a b "These are the largest recorded wildfires in New Mexico history". Las Cruces Sun-News. Retrieved January 19, 2024.
  23. ^ a b c d Balice, R.G.; Oswald, B.P.; Martin, C. (March 1999). Fuels Inventories in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Report). Los Alamos National Laboratory. doi:10.2172/7385. S2CID 140538562. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  24. ^ "N.M. fire threatens Indian sites". Lawrence Journal-World. Associated Press. April 29, 1996. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  25. ^ "Lessons Learned From the Cerro Grande (Los Alamos) Fire" (PDF). United States General Accounting Office Testimony. US Government Accountability Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 28, 2017. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  26. ^ "Las Conchas Wildfire". Incident Information System. Archived from the original on October 16, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
  27. ^ "Investigators determine cause of Las Conchas Fire". New Mexico Fire Information. July 3, 2011. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
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