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Los Chalchaleros were an Argentinian musical folkloric ensemble consisting of four men. The group was established in 1948 in the northern province of Salta. It was named after a local song-bird, the chalchalero. They left the stages and recording in 2003.
The original group was formed by Victor José Zambrano ("Cocho"), Carlos Franco Sosa, Aldo Saravia, and Juan Carlos Saravia. They gave their first public concert on June 16, 1948. The group is currently formed by Juan Carlos Saravia, Eduardo Román ("Polo"), Ricardo Francisco Figueroa ("Pancho"), and Facundo Saravia. Other components during the group's history include José Antonio Saravia Toledo, Ricardo Federico Dávalos ("Dicky"), and Ernesto Cabeza.
A rodent species discovered in La Rioja Province, Argentina, Salinoctomys loschalchalerosorum (the Chalchalero viscacha rat), from the family Octodontidae, was named after the group. The researcher in charge of the naming (Michael A. Mares from the University of Oklahoma at Norman), states that he named the new species after Los Chalchaleros because his crews had sung their songs during thirty years of field research across Argentina.
- Mares, Michael A. (1 November 2003). "Desert dreams: seeking the secret mammals of the salt pans - Naturalist at Large" (PDF). Natural History: 29–34.