Los caprichos

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No. 43, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, a print from the first edition which is held at the Prado Museum. The work is an etching with aquatint and other intaglio media on laid paper.[1]

Los caprichos are a set of 80 prints in aquatint and etching created by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya in 1797 and 1798, and published as an album in 1799. The prints were an artistic experiment: a medium for Goya's condemnation of the universal follies and foolishness in the Spanish society in which he lived. The criticisms are far-ranging and acidic; he speaks against the predominance of superstition, the ignorance and inabilities of the various members of the ruling class, pedagogical short-comings, marital mistakes and the decline of rationality. Some of the prints have anticlerical themes. Goya described the series as depicting "the innumerable foibles and follies to be found in any civilized society, and from the common prejudices and deceitful practices which custom, ignorance or self-interest have made usual".[2]

The work was an enlightened, tour-de-force critique of 18th-century Spain, and humanity in general. The informal style, as well as the depiction of contemporary society found in Caprichos, makes them (and Goya himself) a precursor to the modernist movement almost a century later. The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters in particular has attained an iconic status.

Goya added brief explanations of each image to a manuscript, now in the Museo del Prado; these help greatly to explain his often cryptic intentions, as do the titles printed below each image.

Goya's series, and the last group of prints in his series The Disasters of War, which he called "caprichos enfáticos" ("emphatic caprices"), are far from the spirit of light-hearted fantasy the term "caprice" usually suggests in art.


Los caprichos were withdrawn from public sale very shortly after their release in 1799, after only 27 copies of the set had been purchased.[3] In 1803, Goya offered the Caprichos' copper plates and the first edition's unsold sets to King Charles IV. Later in life, Goya wrote that he had felt it prudent to withdraw the prints from circulation due to the Inquisition.[4]

Subsequently, the set has been very influential, and not only in the visual arts. Its infuence can be seen, for example, in:

  • Granados' piano suite Goyescas, a work which has entered the standard piano repertory since its 2 parts were premiered in 1911 and 1914 respectively. It includes a number called El amor y la muerte (a title shared with no. 10 of the caprichos)
  • Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco's guitar work 24 caprichos de Goya, Op. 195 (1961)



  1. ^ "The Sleep of Reason".
  2. ^ Simon, Linda, "The Sleep of Reason", The World and I
  3. ^ Goya, 3
  4. ^ Boime, 264


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