Dust jacket from the first edition
|Genre||Fantasy, Non-fiction novel, Adventure novel|
|Media type||Print (hardback & paperback)|
ISBN 978-0060594527 (US)
Lost Horizon is a 1933 novel by English writer James Hilton. The book was turned into a movie, also called Lost Horizon, in 1937 by director Frank Capra. It is best remembered as the origin of Shangri-La, a fictional utopian lamasery high in the mountains of Tibet.
Hugh Conway, a veteran member of the British diplomatic service, finds inner peace, love and a sense of purpose in Shangri-La, whose inhabitants enjoy unheard-of longevity. Among the book's themes is an allusion to the possibility of another cataclysmic world war. It is said to have been inspired at least in part by accounts of travels in Tibetan borderlands, published in National Geographic by the explorer and botanist Joseph Rock. The remote communities he visited, such as Muli, show many similarities to the fictional Shangri-La. The town of Zhongdian, has renamed itself Shangri La (Chinese: 香格里拉 Xiānggélǐlā) because of its claim to be the inspiration for the novel.
The book notes that, having made war on the ground, man would fill the skies with death and all precious things were in danger of being lost, like the histories of Rome (Lost books of Livy). It was hoped that, overlooked by the violent, Shangri-la would preserve them and reveal them later to a receptive world exhausted by war. That was the real purpose of the lamasery: study, inner peace and long life were merely a side benefit to living there. Conway is a veteran of the trench warfare of WWI, with the emotional state frequently cited after that war, a sense of emotional exhaustion or accelerated emotional ageing. This harmonises with the existing residents of the lamasery and he is strongly attracted to life at Shangri-La.
The origin of the eleven numbered chapters of the novel is explained in a prologue and epilogue, whose narrator is a neurologist. This neurologist and a novelist friend, Rutherford, are given dinner at Tempelhof, Berlin, by their old school-friend Wyland, a secretary at the British embassy. A chance remark by a passing airman brings up the topic of Hugh Conway, a British consul in Afghanistan, who disappeared under odd circumstances. Later in the evening, Rutherford reveals to the narrator that, after the disappearance, he discovered Conway in a French mission hospital in Chung-Kiang (probably Chongqing), China, suffering from amnesia. Conway recovered his memory and told Rutherford his story, then slipped away again.
Rutherford wrote down Conway's story; he gives the manuscript to the neurologist and that manuscript becomes the heart of the novel. In May 1931, during the British Raj in India, the 80 white residents of Baskul are being evacuated to Peshawar, owing to a revolution. In the aeroplane of the Maharajah of Chandrapore are Conway, the British consul, aged 37; Mallinson, his young vice-consul; an American, Barnard and a British missionary, Miss Brinklow. The plane is hijacked and flown instead over the mountains to Tibet. After a crash landing, the pilot dies but not before telling the four (in Chinese, which only Conway speaks) to seek shelter at the nearby lamasery of Shangri-La. The location is unclear but Conway believes the plane has "progressed far beyond the western range of the Himalayas towards the less known heights of the Kuen-Lun".
The four are taken there by a party directed by Chang, a postulant at the lamasery who speaks English. The lamasery has modern conveniences, like central heating, bathtubs from Akron, Ohio, a large library, a grand piano, a harpsichord and food from the fertile valley below. Towering above is Karakal, literally translated as "Blue Moon" a mountain more than 28,000 feet high. Mallinson is keen to hire porters and leave but Chang politely puts him off. The others eventually decide they are content to stay: Miss Brinklow wants to teach the people a sense of sin; Barnard, because he is really Chalmers Bryant (wanted by the police for stock fraud) and because he is keen to develop the gold-mines in the valley; and Conway, because the contemplative scholarly life suits him.
A seemingly young Manchu woman, Lo-Tsen, is another postulant at the lamasery. She does not speak English but plays the harpsichord. Mallinson falls in love with her, as does Conway, though more languidly. Conway is given an audience with the High Lama, an unheard-of honor. He learns that the lamasery was constructed in its present form by a Catholic monk named Perrault from Luxembourg, in the early eighteenth century. The lamasery has since then been joined by others who have found their way into the valley. Once they have done so, their ageing slows; if they then leave the valley, they age quickly and die. Conway guesses correctly that the High Lama is Perrault, now 250 years old.
In a later audience, the High Lama reveals that he is finally dying and that he wants Conway to lead the lamasery. Mallinson has arranged to leave the valley with porters and Lo-Tsen. They are waiting for him 5 kilometers outside the valley but he cannot traverse the dangerous route by himself, so he convinces Conway to go along and assist him. This ends Rutherford's manuscript. The last time Rutherford saw Conway, it appeared he was preparing to make his way back to Shangri-La. Rutherford completes his account by telling the neurologist that he attempted to track Conway and verify some of his claims of Shangri-La. He found the Chung-Kiang doctor who had treated Conway. The doctor said Conway had been brought in by a Chinese woman who was ill and died soon after. She was old, the doctor had told Rutherford, "Most old of anyone I have ever seen", implying that it was Lo-Tsen, aged drastically by her departure from Shangri-La.
The book, published in 1933, caught the notice of the public only after Hilton's Goodbye, Mr. Chips was published in 1934. Lost Horizon became a huge popular success and in 1939 was published in paperback form, as Pocket Book#1. Because of its number-one position in what became a very long list of pocket editions, Lost Horizon is often mistakenly called the first American paperback book, when in fact paperbacks had been around since the mid-1800s. What made Pocket Book#1 of revolutionary importance was that it was the first "mass-market" paperback; mass market paperbacks allowed people of modest means not only to own books they otherwise could not afford but also to slip the paperback into their pocket for casual reading on the go, hence the name "Pocket Book".
By the 1960s, Pocket Books alone, over the course of more than 40 printings, had sold several million copies of Lost Horizon, helping to make it one of the most popular novels of the 20th Century. US President Franklin D. Roosevelt named the Presidential hideaway in Maryland after Shangri-La. (It has since been renamed Camp David.) Likewise Roosevelt initially claimed the Doolittle Raid came from Shangri-La; this inspired the name of the aircraft carrier USS Shangri-La.
A one-hour adaptation by James Hilton and Barbara Burnham was broadcast on the BBC National Programme at 20:30 on 1 August 1935, with a cast that included Esme Percy as the High Lama, Ben Welden as Barnard, Barbara Couper as Miss Brinklow, Jon Swinley as Conway and Cathleen Cordell as Lo Tsen. It was broadcast again on 2 August 1935, 30 and 31 January 1936, 30 October 1939 and 9 April 1945.
The book has been made into two films:
- Lost Horizon (1937), directed by Frank Capra
- Lost Horizon (1973), directed by Charles Jarrott (musical version)
The book also served as the basis for the unsuccessful 1956 Broadway musical Shangri-La.
- "The Kidnapping"
- "The Inheritance"
Broadcast 20 September to 4 October 1981, it was dramatised by Barry Campbell starring Derek Jacobi as Hugh Conway and Alan Wheatley as the High Lama, and re-broadcast 8 to 10 September 2010 on BBC Radio 7, and again in March 2012, November 2014, and June 2016 on BBC Radio 4 Extra. An earlier recording of the serialised book was transmitted by the BBC Home Service in the early 1960s (featuring Gabriel Woolfe playing the part of Conway.)
Lost Horizon is currently available in paperback format and is now published by Summersdale Publishers Ltd , ISBN 978-1-84024-353-6 in the UK and by Harper Perennial, ISBN 978-0-06-059452-7 in the United States.
- For an example of an early paperback edition, learn more about the Tauchnitz editions.
- "Broadcasting". Arts and Entertainment. The Times (47131). London. 1 August 1935. p. 12.
- "Broadcast Drama". Reviews. The Times (47132). London. 2 August 1935. p. 10.