Lot (biblical person)

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Lot and his daughters flee from Sodom, his wife turned to salt behind them, and the burning cities, Albrecht Dürer

Lot (/lɒt/; Hebrew: לוֹט, Modern Lot, Tiberian Lôṭ ; "veil" or "covering"[1]) is a person mentioned in the biblical Book of Genesis chapters 11–14 and 19. Notable episodes in his life include his travels with his uncle Abram (Abraham), his flight from the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, during which Lot's wife became a pillar of salt, and the seduction by his daughters so that they could bear children.

Christians, Jews and Muslims revere Lot as a righteous man of God.[2] According to the Bible, Jesus is a descendant of Lot through David's great-grandmother Ruth, who is descended from Moab, Lot's son through one of his daughters.[3]

Lot in Genesis[edit]

Lot's background[edit]

Generation Genealogy of Terah and Lot (Genesis 11:26–32; 19:37–38)
Father Terah
2nd Gen Abram Nahor Haran Sarai
3rd Gen Lot Milcah Iscah
4th Gen 1st Daughter 2nd Daughter
5th Gen Moab Ben-Ammi (Ammon)
See also Haran#Family tree chart

Lot and his father Haran were born and raised in Ur of the Chaldees (Genesis 11:28,31) in the region of Sumeria on the Euphrates River of lower Mesopotamia, roughly four thousand years ago.[4] Haran died in that land before his father Terah. (Genesis 11:28)

Genesis 11:26-32 gives the "generations of Terah", Lot's grandfather, who arranged for their large family to set a course for Canaan where they could reestablish a new home. Among the family members that Lot travelled with was his uncle Abram, (later called Abraham), one of the three patriarchs of Israel.

En route to Canaan, the family stopped in the Paddan Aram region, about halfway along the Fertile Crescent between Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean.[4] They settled at the site called Haran where Lot's grandfather, Terah, lived the rest of his days. He was 205 years old when he died. (Genesis 11:32)

Genesis 12 reveals Abram's obedience to the LORD at the age of 75, in continuing his journey to the land of promise. Though Abram's father, Terah, stayed behind, his nephew Lot went with him.[v.1-4] There is no mention of Lot having a wife yet. They went southwestward[5] into the land of Canaan, to the place of Sichem,[v.5-6] the present day West Bank of Nablus.[4] Later they travelled south to the hills between Bethel and Hai,[v.8] before journeying further toward the south of Canaan.[v.9]

After dwelling in the land of Canaan for a little while, there was a famine, and they journeyed further south into Egypt.[v.10-20] After having dwelt in Egypt for some time, they acquired vast amounts of wealth and livestock, and returned to the Bethel area.[Gen.13:1-5]

Lot in the plain of Jordan[edit]

Depiction of the separation of Abraham and Lot by Wenceslaus Hollar.

Genesis 13 discusses Abram and Lot's return to Canaan after the famine had passed and the lands became fertile again. They traveled back through the Negev to the hills of Bethel.[v.1,3] With their sizeable numbers of livestock and always on the move, both families occupying the same pastures became problematic for the herdsmen who were assigned to each family's herd.[v.6,7] The conflicts between herdsmen had become so troublesome that Abram lovingly recommended to Lot that they should part ways, lest there be conflict amongst "brethren".[v.8,9]

Although Abram gave Lot the choice of going north (the left hand), in which case he would go south (the right hand), or if Lot chose south, Abram would go north, Lot instead looked before him beyond Jordan and saw a well watered plain, and chose that land, for it was like "the garden of the LORD", before the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and the formation of the salt sea. (Genesis 13:9-11) Abram then headed south to Hebron, staying within the land of Canaan. (Genesis 13:12,18)

Lot had encamped on the green Jordan plain among the cities of the plain and initially pitched his tent toward Sodom. About eight years[6] before he moved there, the kings of the five cities had become vassal states of an eastern alliance of four kingdoms under the leadership of Chedorlaomer king of Elam, whom they served for twelve years, but "the thirteenth year they rebelled." (Genesis 14:1–4) The following year the four armies with Chedorlaomer returned and at the Battle of the Vale of Siddim, the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fell in defeat.[v.5–10] Chedorlaomer spoiled the cities and took captives as he departed, including Lot, who by then "dwelt" in Sodom.[v.11,12]

When Abram heard what had happened to his "brother" Lot, he armed a rescue force of three hundred and eighteen of his trained servants and pursued and caught up to the armies of the four kings in the area of Dan.[v.13,14] He divided his forces and attacked at night from more than one direction, and the kings fled northeast. The pursuit continued and the "slaughter of Chedorlaomer", and the other kings was completed at Hobah north of Damascus. Abram brought back "his brother Lot" and all the people and their goods. (v.15–24)

Lot flees Sodom[edit]

Twenty four years after Abram and Lot began their sojourning, the LORD changed Abram's name to Abraham, and gave him the covenant of circumcision.[Genesis 17] Not long afterward, "the LORD appeared" to Abraham, for "three men" came to visit and have a meal with him, and after two left to go to Sodom, "Abraham stood yet before the LORD."[Gen.18:1-22] Abraham boldly pleaded on behalf of the people of Sodom, where Lot dwelt, and obtained assurance the city would not be destroyed if fifty righteous were found there. He continued inquiring, reducing the number to forty five, forty, thirty, twenty, and finally if there were ten righteous in the city, it would be spared.[18:23-33]

Genesis 19:1 ¶ And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground;
2 And he said, Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your ways. And they said, Nay; but we will abide in the street all night.
3 And he pressed upon them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat.

After supper that night before bedtime, the men of the city, young and old, gathered around Lot's house demanding he bring his two guests out that they might "know" them. Lot went out and closed the door behind him and prayed that they not do such wicked things, and offered them his virgin daughters, that had not "known" man, that they might know them instead, and do with as they pleased. His response infuriated the men of Sodom who accused him of being judgmental and they threatened to do worse to him than they would have done to the men.[Gen.19:4–9]

Before they could harm Lot and break into the house, the "men" pulled Lot back in and struck the intruders with blindness, and revealed to Lot that they were angels sent to destroy the place. This allowed a window of opportunity for Lot to make preparations for him and his family to leave. When he went out to his sons in law that married his daughters, to warn them to flee, they treated him as one that mocked.[Gen.19:10–14]

As the day began to dawn, the angels urged him to hasten and leave, and when he yet lingered, the angels took hold of the hands of Lot, his wife and two daughters and transported them beyond the city and set them down, and the angel told Lot: "Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all the plain; escape to the mountain, lest thou be consumed."[Gen.19:15–17] Lot argued that if he went to the mountain some evil would cause his death, and he requested to be allowed to flee instead to the "little" city which was closer. (The city of Bela was later called Zoar because it was little.) His request was accepted, and they headed for Zoar instead.[Gen.19:18–22]

Mount Sodom, Israel, showing the so-called "Lot's Wife" pillar composed, like the rest of the mountain, of halite.

Genesis 19:23 ¶ The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot entered into Zoar.
24 Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven;
25 And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground.
26 But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.

From where Abraham was that morning, in an elevated region, he could see the dense smoke billowing up into the heavens from the ruined cities.[v.27,28]

Instead of both brimstone and fire, Josephus has only lightning as the cause of the fire that destroyed Sodom: "God then cast a thunderbolt upon the city, and set it on fire, with its inhabitants; and laid waste the country with the like burning, as I formerly said when I wrote the Jewish War."[7]

Lot and his daughters[edit]

The account of Lot and his daughters is in Genesis 19:30-38

Genesis 19:30 And Lot went up out of Zoar, and dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters with him; for he feared to dwell in Zoar: and he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters.
31 And the firstborn said unto the younger, Our father is old, and there is not a man in the earth to come in unto us after the manner of all the earth:
32 Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.
33 And they made their father drink wine that night: and the firstborn went in, and lay with her father; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose.
34 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the firstborn said unto the younger, Behold, I lay yesternight with my father: let us make him drink wine this night also; and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.
35 And they made their father drink wine that night also: and the younger arose, and lay with him; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose.
36 Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father.

Lot and His Daughters, Joachim Wtewael, 1620s

The older daughter conceived Moab (Hebrew, lit., "from the father" [meh-Av]), father of the Moabites;[v.37] the younger conceived Ben-Ammi (Hebrew, lit., "Son of my people"), father of the Ammonites.[v.38]

The story, usually called Lot and his daughters, has been the subject of many paintings over the centuries, and became one of the subjects in the Power of Women group of subjects, warning men against the dangers of succumbing to the temptations of women, while also providing an opportunity for an erotic depiction. The scene generally shows Lot and his daughters eating and drinking in their mountain refuge. Usually the background contains a small figure of Lot's wife, and in the distance the city or cities burn.[8]

Lot and His Daughters, Artemisia Gentileschi (1635–1638)[9]

Scholarly appraisal[edit]

The presumptive incest between Lot and his daughters has raised many questions, debates, and theories as to what the real motives were, who really was at fault, and the level of bias the author of Genesis Chapter 19 had. However, such biblical scholars as Jacob Milgrom,[10] Victor P. Hamilton,[11] and Calum Carmichael[12] postulate that the Levitical laws could not have been developed the way they were, without controversial issues surrounding the patriarchs of Israel, especially regarding incest. Carmichael even attributes the entire formulation of the Levitical laws to the lives of the founding fathers of the nation, including the "righteous" Lot (together with Abraham, Jacob, Judah, Moses, and David), who were outstanding figures in Israelite tradition.

According to the scholars mentioned above, the patriarchs of Israel are the key to understanding how the priestly laws concerning incest developed. Kinship marriages amongst the patriarchs includes Abraham's marriage to his half-sister Sarai;[Gen.20:11,12] the marriage of Abraham's brother, Nahor, to their niece Milcah;[Gen.11:27–29] Isaac's marriage to Rebekah, his first cousin once removed;[Gen.27:42–43;29:10] Jacob's marriages with two sisters who are his first cousins;[Gen.29:10,Ch.29] and, in the instance of Moses's parents, a marriage between nephew and aunt (father's sister).[Exod.6:20] Therefore, the patriarchal marriages surely mattered to lawgivers and they suggest a narrative basis for the laws of Leviticus, chapters 18 and 20.[13]

The Levitical laws against incest were created, it has been argued, to separate the lifestyle of the Israelite from the lifestyle of the people of Canaan,[Gen.9:22–28] despite any incestual involvements the patriarchs had had in the past.[14] The Levitical laws were needed for a developing nation who needed to be seen as different from the world, cleansed and blameless: The first step starting with circumcision.[Gen.17:1,10;Ch.17] So nothing could be held against the patriarchs for incestuous behavior because this was part of progressive development, from the ways of the world (coming out of Chaldea) to becoming blameless before their God.[Gen.17:1][14]

Some have argued that Lot's behavior in offering of his daughters to the men of Sodom in Genesis 19:8 constitutes sexual abuse of his daughters, which created a confusion of kinship roles that was ultimately played out through the incestuous acts in Genesis 19:30–38.[15]

A number of commentators describe the actions of Lot's daughters as rape. Esther Fuchs suggests that the text presents Lot's daughters as the "initiators and perpetrators of the incestuous 'rape'."[16] Ilan Kutz suggests that today it would be called "drug rape", but concludes that it was actually Lot who abused his daughters, and this was covered up by the biblical narrators.[17]

Family tree[edit]

Terah
Sarah Abraham Hagar Haran
Nahor
Ishmael Milcah Lot Iscah
Ishmaelites 7 sons[18] Bethuel 1st daughter 2nd daughter
Isaac Rebecca Laban Moabites Ammonites
Esau Jacob Rachel
Bilhah
Edomites Zilpah
Leah
1. Reuben
2. Simeon
3. Levi
4. Judah
9. Issachar
10. Zebulun
11. Dinah
7. Gad
8. Asher
5. Dan
6. Naphtali
12. Joseph
13. Benjamin


Religious views[edit]

Jewish view[edit]

In the Bereshith of the Torah, Lot is first mentioned at the end of the weekly reading portion, Parashat Noach. The weekly reading portions that follow, concerning all of the accounts of Lot's life, are read in the Parashat Lekh Lekha and Parashat Vayera. In the Midrash, a number of additional stories concerning Lot are present, not found in the Tanakh, as follows:

  • Abraham took care of Lot after Haran was burned in a gigantic fire in which Nimrod, King of Babylon, tried to kill Abraham.
  • While in Egypt, the midrash gives Lot much credit because, despite his desire for wealth, he did not inform Pharaoh of Sarah's secret, that she was Abraham's wife.

Christian view[edit]

Despite Lot's flaws, Christians view him as a righteous man and draw upon New Testament scriptures that make direct references to his day, such as:

  • In Luke 17:20–32, the Pharisees asked Jesus when the Kingdom of God would come. This triggered a topic that Jesus addressed his disciples about, concerning "the days of the Son of Man". In his discourse, he likened this time to the days of Lot and reminded his followers about what happened to this man's wife, saying, Remember Lot's wife.
  • Simon Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, reminded his readers about Sodom and Gomorrha and spoke of Lot as being a righteous man amongst the wicked:
"2:6 And turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrha into ashes condemned [them] with an overthrow, making [them] an ensample unto those that after should live ungodly; 2:7 And delivered just Lot, vexed with the filthy conversation of the wicked: 2:8 (For that righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing, vexed [his] righteous soul from day to day with [their] unlawful deeds;)"
2 Peter 2:6–8

Islamic view[edit]

Main article: Lot in Islam

Lut (Arabic: لوط‎) in the Quran is considered to be the same as Lot in the Hebrew Bible. He is considered to be a messenger of God and a prophet of God.[19]

In Islamic tradition, Lut lived in Ur and was a nephew of Ibrahim (Abraham). He migrated with Ibrahim to Canaan and was commissioned as a prophet to the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah.[20] His story is used as a reference by Muslims to demonstrate Islam's strong disapproval of homosexuality. He was commanded by Allah to go to the land of Sodom and Gomorrah to preach monotheism and to stop them from their lustful and violent acts. Lut's messages were ignored by the inhabitants, prompting Sodom and Gomorrah's destruction. Though Lut left the city, his wife looked behind and was destroyed.[20]

The allegation of drunkenness and incestuous behaviour of Lot is completely rejected in Islam, and he is regarded as one of the messengers of Allah (God) who was an example of moral and spiritual rectitude.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "H3876 לוט – Lot (lote)". Strong's Hebrew Lexicon. studybible.info. 
  2. ^ 2Peter 2:7 And delivered just Lot, vexed with the filthy conversation of the wicked: 8 (For that righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing, vexed his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful deeds;)
  3. ^ Ruth 1:4, 4:13–17, Matthew 1:1, Luke 1:30–33
  4. ^ a b c Drummond, Dorothy Weitz, 2004, Holy land, whose land?: modern dilemma, ancient roots, p.75
  5. ^ Drummond, 2004, p.76, par.2
  6. ^ Years reckoned by comparing Bible marginal (Ussher) dates: Lot's move to Sodom area margin B.C.1918. Battle of Siddim margin B.C.1913, the 14th year, making 1926 the first of the fourteen and 1926-1918=8 years before Lot moved there.
  7. ^ Flavius Josephus, Antiquities, Book 1, Chapter 11, Section 4, Sentence 3. Also:
    "It is related how, for the impiety of its inhabitants, it was burnt by lightning; in consequence of which there are still the remainders of that Divine fire" Josephus, Wars Book 4, Chapter 8, Section 4
  8. ^ Lowenthal, Anne W. (1988), "Lot and His daughters as Moral Dilemma", in The Age of Rembrandt: Studies in Seventeenth-century Dutch Painting, Volume 3 of Papers in Art History from the Pennsylvania State University, eds. Roland E. Fleischer, Susan Scott Munshower, 1988, Penn State Press, ISBN 0915773023, 9780915773022, google books
  9. ^ "Artemisia Gentileschi"; Mary D Garrard; Rizzoli Art Series, 1993. ISBN 0-8478-1652-4
    "The seduction of Lot became a popular topic in Baroque Art: if in general the women are portrayed as seductresses and the mood as ribald, the female artist Artemisia Gentileschi's portrait diverges sharply, showing the women fully clothed and the mood as solemn."
  10. ^ Milgrom. Leviticus 17–22, 1515–1520
  11. ^ Victor P. Hamilton. The Book of Genesis Chapters 18–50
  12. ^ Carmichael. Legend and Incest
  13. ^ Johnson M. Kimuhu. Leviticus: the priestly laws and prohibitions from the perspective of ancient Near East and Africa, Studies in biblical literature: Volume 115, 2008. pg. 31-33
  14. ^ a b Kimuhu. Leviticus Studies, Vol. 115, 2008. pg. 31
  15. ^ Katherine B. Low (Fall 2010). "The Sexual Abuse of Lot's Daughters: Reconceptualizing Kinship for the Sake of Our Daughters". Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion (Indiana University Press) 26 (2): 37–54. Retrieved July 9, 2012. 
  16. ^ Fuchs, Esther (2003). Sexual Politics in the Biblical Narrative: Reading the Hebrew Bible as a Woman. p. 209. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  17. ^ Kutz, Ilan (2005). "Revisiting the lot of the first incestuous family: the biblical origins of shifting the blame on to female family members". BMJ 331: 1507–1508. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  18. ^ Genesis 22:21-22: Uz, Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, and Jidlaph
  19. ^ Quran 26:161
  20. ^ a b Hasan, Masudul (1987). History of Islam, Volume 1. Islamic Publications. p. 26. Retrieved July 9, 2012.  Quote: Lut was a nephew of the Prophet Abraham. He migrated with Abraham from Iraq to Canaan in Palestine. He was commissioned as a prophet to the cities of Sodom and Gomarrah, situated to the east of the Dead Sea. The people of these cities were guilty of unspeakable crimes. They were addicted to homo sexuality and highway robberies. Lut warned the people but they refused to listen to him. He prayed to Allah to punish the people. Lut left the city with his followers at night. As soon as he left, Allah raised a [shower of brim stones?]-end quote, text garbled.
  21. ^ Cave of Prophet Lut

Bibliography[edit]

Calmet, Augustin (1832). Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible. Boston: Crocker & Brewster. p. 737. LCC BS440.C3. Retrieved July 9, 2012. 

External links[edit]