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Lotte Reiniger

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Lotte Reiniger
Reiniger in 1939
Charlotte Reiniger

(1899-06-02)2 June 1899
Died19 June 1981(1981-06-19) (aged 82)
Occupation(s)Silhouette animator, film director
Years active1918–1979
Notable workThe Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926)
Girl of the Golden West (1942)
SpouseCarl Koch

Charlotte "Lotte" Reiniger (2 June 1899 – 19 June 1981) was a German film director and the foremost pioneer of silhouette animation. Her best known films are The Adventures of Prince Achmed, from 1926, the oldest surviving feature-length animated film, and Papageno (1935). Reiniger is also noted for having devised, from 1923 to 1926, the first form of a multiplane camera,[1] one of the most important devices in pre digital animation.[2] Reiniger worked on more than 40 films throughout her career.[3]


Early life[edit]

Lotte Reiniger was born in the Charlottenburg district of Berlin on 2 June 1899 to Carl Reiniger and Eleonore Lina Wilhelmine Rakette.[4] Here, she studied at Charlottenburger Waldschule, the first open-air school, where she learned the art of scherenschnitte, the German art of silhouette, inspired by the ancient Chinese art of paper cutting and silhouette puppetry.[5] As a child, she became fascinated with this Chinese art of paper cutting of silhouette puppetry, and even built her own puppet theatre so that she could put on shows for her family and friends.[1] Throughout this time in her life is when she began to develop a love of theater and cultivated her then dreams of becoming a play actress. Reiniger translated her love of acting to her silhouette puppetry in order to create her unique and fanciful recreations of her favorite plays and fairytales.[6]

As a teenager, Reiniger developed a love of cinema, first with the films of Georges Méliès for their special effects, then the films of the actor and director Paul Wegener, a German actor, writer, and film director known for his pioneering role in German expressionist cinema and The Golem (1920). In 1915, her love of theater led Reiniger to her future mentor and colleague when she attended a lecture by Wegener that focused on the fantastic possibilities of animation.[1] Reiniger eventually convinced her parents to allow her to enroll in the acting group to which Wegener belonged, the Theatre of Max Reinhardt. She began by making costumes and props and working backstage for Wegener's play productions.[7] She started making silhouette portraits of her classmates and the actors around her, which intrigued Paul Wegener and led to her future collaborations with the director. Soon enough she was making elaborate title cards for Wegener's films, many of which featured her silhouette animations.[8][circular reference][9]

Adulthood and success[edit]

In 1918, Reiniger animated wooden rats and created the animated intertitles for Wegener's Der Rattenfänger von Hameln (The Pied Piper of Hamelin). The success of this work got her admitted into the Institut für Kulturforschung (Institute for Cultural Research), an experimental animation and short-film studio. It was here that she met her future creative partner and husband (from 1921), Carl Koch, as well as other avant-garde artists including Hans Cürlis, Bertolt Brecht, and Berthold Bartosch.[10] She began animating films of her own.

The first film Reiniger directed was Das Ornament des verliebten Herzens (The Ornament of the Enamoured Heart, 1919), a five-minute piece involving two lovers and an ornament that reflects their moods. The film was an early showcase for Reiniger's style of expression through movement. The film was very well received,[1] and its success opened up many new connections for Reiniger in the animation industry,[7] not just in Germany but internationally as well.[9] She continued to work on short films and advertisements during this time.[11]

Cinderella (1922)

She made six short films over the next few years, all produced and photographed by her husband, including the fairytale animation Aschenputtel (1922), based on the Brothers Grimm telling of Cinderella.[12] These shorts were interspersed with advertising films (the Julius Pinschewer advertising agency sponsored a large number of abstract animators during the Weimar period) and special effects for various feature films—most famously a silhouette falcon for a dream sequence in Part One of Die Nibelungen by Fritz Lang. During this time, she found herself at the centre of a large group of ambitious German animators, including Bartosch, Hans Richter, Walter Ruttmann and Oskar Fischinger.[10]

Reiniger's first feature film, The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926)

In 1923, she was approached by Louis Hagen, who had bought a large quantity of raw film stock as an investment to fight the spiraling inflation of the period. He asked her to make a feature-length animated film. Reiniger later recalled, "We had to think twice. This was a never heard of thing. Animated films were supposed to make people roar with laughter, and nobody had dared to entertain an audience with them for more than ten minutes. Everybody to whom we talked in the industry about the proposition was horrified."[7] The resulting film was The Adventures of Prince Achmed, based on One Thousand and One Nights. Completed in 1926, The Adventures of Prince Achmed is believed to be the oldest surviving feature-length animated film, debuting over a decade prior to Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. (It was predated by Argentine director Quirino Cristiani's The Apostol, released in 1917, but no copies of this film are known to survive.)[13] Although it failed to find a distributor for almost a year, once premiered in Paris (thanks to the support of Jean Renoir), it became a critical and popular success.[14]

Reiniger developed a predecessor to the multiplane camera for certain effects. As described in Reiniger's book Shadow Puppets, Shadow Theatres, and Shadow Films,[15] she placed backlit planes of glass in front of a camera with a manual shutter to achieve a layered effect. Again, she presaged Disney; only in the 1930s would Disney and Ub Iwerks develop the version of the multiplane camera that would become a mainstay of traditional animation. In addition to Reiniger's silhouette characters, Prince Achmed featured dream-like backgrounds by Walter Ruttmann (her partner in the Die Nibelungen sequence) and Walter Türck, and a symphonic score by Wolfgang Zeller. Additional effects were added by Carl Koch and Berthold Bartosch.[16]

Following the success of Prince Achmed, Reiniger was able to make a second feature. Doktor Dolittle und seine Tiere (Doctor Dolittle and his Animals, 1928) was based on the first of the English children's books by Hugh Lofting. The film tells of the doctor's voyage to Africa to help heal sick animals. It is currently available only in a television version with new music, voice-over narration, and a high framerate. The score of this three-part film was composed by Kurt Weill, Paul Hindemith and Paul Dessau.[17]

A year later, Reiniger co-directed her first live-action film with Rochus Gliese, Die Jagd nach dem Glück (The Pursuit of Happiness, 1929), a tale about a shadow-puppet troupe. The film starred Jean Renoir and Berthold Bartosch and included a 20-minute silhouette performance by Reiniger. The film was completed just as sound came to Germany, and release of the film was delayed until 1930 to dub in voices by different actors.[17]

Reiniger attempted to make a third animated feature, inspired by Maurice Ravel's opera L'enfant et les sortilèges (The Child and the Bewitched Things, 1925), but was unable to clear all of the individual rights to Ravel's music, the libretto (by the novelist Colette), and an unexpected number of copyright holders. When Ravel died in 1937, the clearance became even more complex and Reiniger finally abandoned the project, although she had designed sequences and animated some scenes to convince potential backers and the rights-holders.[17]

Reiniger worked on several films with British poet, critic, and musician Eric Walter White, who wrote an early book-length essay on her work.[18]

Flight from Germany and later life[edit]

With the rise of the Nazi Party, Reiniger and Koch decided to emigrate (both were involved in left-wing politics),[17][19] but found that no other country would give them permanent visas. As a result, the couple spent the years 1933–1944 moving from country to country, staying as long as visas would allow. With the release of sound film, Reiniger and her husband began to work with music in relation to animation.[7] They worked with film-makers Jean Renoir in Paris and Luchino Visconti in Rome. They managed to make 12 films during this period, the best-known being Carmen (1933) and Papageno (1935), both based on popular operas (Bizet's Carmen and Mozart's Die Zauberflöte). When World War II commenced they stayed with Visconti in Rome until 1944, then moved back to Berlin to take care of Reiniger's sick mother.[20] Under the rule of Hitler, Reiniger was forced to make propaganda films for Germany. One of these films is called Die goldene Gans (The Golden Goose, 1944). She had to work under stringent and limiting conditions to please the German state, which is why some of her work in this time period may appear creatively stifled.[7]

Mary's Birthday (1951), a public information film by Reiniger

In 1949, Reiniger and Koch moved to London, where she made a few short advertising films for John Grierson and his General Post Office Film Unit (later to be renamed the "Crown Film Unit").[17] In 1949, Reiniger and Koch moved to London and worked for John Grierson and his General Post Office Film Unit. By 1953, Reiniger had founded Primrose Production with Louis Hagen Jr., the son of the financier of Prince Achmed. With this company, she made over a dozen short silhouette films based on Grimms’ Fairy Tales for the BBC and Telecasting America. Reiniger continued to work on and off over the years, her last film being 'The Rose and the Ring,' released in 1979.

In the early 1950s, Reiniger lived in London and worked at Beconsfield Studios in Buckinghamshire.[citation needed] During this time, she became friends with Freddy Bloom, the chair of the National Deaf Children's Society and editor of quarterly magazine called TALK, for which she designed a logo that was used until the 1990s.

With Louis Hagen Jr. (the son of Reiniger's financier of Prince Achmed in Potsdam), they founded Primrose Productions in 1953 and, over the next two years, produced more than a dozen short silhouette films based on Grimms' Fairy Tales for the BBC and Telecasting America.[20] Reiniger also provided illustrations for the 1953 book King Arthur and His Knights of the Round Table by Roger Lancelyn Green.[21]

After a period of seclusion after her husband's death in 1963, renewed interest in her work resulted in Reiniger's return to Germany. She later visited the United States, and began making films again soon after. She made three more films, the last of which, Die vier Jahreszeiten, (The Four Seasons) was completed the year before she died.[22]

Reiniger in 1970

Reiniger was awarded the Filmband in Gold of the Deutscher Filmpreis in 1972; in 1979 she received the Great Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany.[20] Reiniger died in Dettenhausen, Germany, on 19 June 1981, at the age of 82.[10]

Art style[edit]

Reiniger's art style was developed from her love of paper animation and the theater. Reiniger had a distinct art style in her animations that was very different from other artists in the time period of the 1920s and the 1930s, particularly in terms of characters.

Reiniger working on a cutout in 1922

In the 1920s especially, characters tended to rely on facial expressions to express emotions or action, while Reiniger's characters relied on gestures to display emotions or actions. Reiniger's cutout animations had a fluid quality that expressed characters' emotions and actions in a way that was not possible through traditional silent film. This was due the unique way she shaped and animated her characters through the paper cutout techniques that she developed through practice. Because paper animations were forced to rely on gestures and action due to the nature of the medium, Reiniger was able to convey emotion that facial expressions or sound film could not imitate.[9] Because of this, Reiniger's characters are not usually anatomically correct, but they are able to express a fluidity which is very important to her style of expressionism. Although there are other animators in that time period that used these techniques, Reiniger stands out because she is able to accomplish this style using cutout animation.[23] Reiniger's figures resemble stop-motion animation in the way that they move.[24]

She also utilized the technique of metamorphosis often in her animations. This focus on transformation greatly benefits her tendency to work with fairytale stories. The Adventures of Prince Achmed specifically adapts fantastic elements to take advantage of animation to show things that could not be shown in reality.[10] Reiniger considered animation's separation from the laws of the material plane to be one of the greatest strengths of the medium.[25][26]

Reiniger's style also translated well to her usually chosen subject, Fairytales. At the time film did not have the technological advancements to create magical special effects, thus many fairytales that showcased extravagant magical events were not as desirable for filmmakers. However, through animation, such whimsical effects were possible through her paper animations. Her detailed settings and colourful backgrounds also translated well into her love of fairytale stories.[9]


Lotte Reiniger’s work was influenced by several sources. Following her escape from Germany, her travels throughout Europe continued to shape the course of her work. While in Greece she studied the Greek puppet show Karagiozis. Karagiozis is a traditional character in Greek folklore whose stories are performed through puppetry and traditionally with shadow puppets. The influence of Karagiozis can be seen in Reiniger’s work where the subject of many of her films are long established fairy tale stories that have been enjoyed by generations of children and adults alike.[27]

The influence of traditional Chinese shadow puppetry is also one of the defining characteristics of Reiniger’s work. Chinese puppetry dates back to the Han dynasty but their methods of puppetry are clearly reflected in Reiniger’s techniques.[28] Chinese shadow puppets were historically made using donkey skin and treated to be translucent. They were then mounted using iron wire and bamboo sticks as handles. Reiniger’s puppets were made from tracing paper and cardboard, and sometimes included 20-50 separate pieces that were fused together with lead wire.[29]

Aside from the origins of her technical inspiration, her subjects were often influenced by operatic themes. Music was the driving force behind many of the storylines as well as the movements and actions of the puppets. She used the music of composers such as Mozart, Bizet, and Offenbach, as well as contemporary artists like Paul Dessau and Wolfgang Zeller. Jean Renoir, a good friend of Reiniger's, once described her work as "visual expression of Mozart's music". [30]

Legacy, honors, and preservation[edit]

A plaque commemorating Reiniger at her former home on Knesebeckstraße in Berlin, Germany.

Reiniger's black silhouettes would become a popular aesthetic to reference in films and art. Films and television shows such as Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events,[31] Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows - Part 1,[32] Steven Universe,[33] and Bram Stoker's Dracula all make reference to Reiniger’s style with extended animated silhouette puppet sequences. French animator Michel Ocelot has extensively shown Reiniger’s influence on his work, beginning with the 1989 television series Ciné si, which employs many of the techniques created by Reiniger, along with others of Ocelot’s own invention. Ocelot’s films, such as Princes et princesses, The Three Inventors, and Kirikou and the Sorceress showcase character designs and layouts deeply inspired by Reiniger.[34]

Walt Disney Animation Studios used the multiplane camera extensively in films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and The Old Mill, based on the technology that Reiniger originally developed.[35]

Reiniger's films were the first to move animation from solely comedic narratives. At the time, animated short films rarely had a narrative, and any narrative that they did have was shallow and only present in the film to support the character’s slapstick comedy. Throughout all of her films, both short and feature length, Reininger strives to portray serious narrative through the art of animation. Thus, gaining a much larger respect for the medium in the film industry.[9]

Reiniger served to be one of the first filmmakers in the 20th century to attempt a portrayal of the queer experience with a pair of openly gay lovers in her film The Adventures of Prince Achmed. Although this was censored in the version of the film that was distributed to theaters, Reiniger herself was outspoken on her motivation to destigmatize homosexual realities in the world of film. “I knew lots of homosexual men and women from the film and theater world in Berlin, and saw how they suffered from stigmatization.”[36]

In 2017, the European Animation Awards created the Lotte Reiniger Lifetime Achievement Award in order to recognize individual's for their lifetime contribution to the art of animation in either producing, directing, animating, design, writing, voice acting, sound and sound effects, technical work, music, professional teaching, or for other endeavors which exhibit an outstanding contribution to excellence in animation. The very first recipient of this award was Richard Williams, the animation director of Who Framed Roger Rabbit and author of The Animator's Survival Kit.[37]

The municipal museum in Tübingen holds much of her original materials and hosts a permanent exhibition, "The World in Light and Shadow: Silhouette, shadow theatre, silhouette film".[38] The Filmmuseum Düsseldorf also holds many materials of Lotte Reiniger's work, including her animation table, and a part of the permanent exhibition is dedicated to her.[39] Collections relating to her are also held at the BFI National Archive.[40]

On June 2, 2016, Google celebrated Reiniger's 117th birthday with a Google Doodle about her.[41][42]

The Lottie file format for vector animation, which is considered by many designers to be the best website animation format, is named for Reiniger.[43][44]

In 2024, Reiniger was posthumously awarded the Winsor McCay Award at that year’s Annie Awards in recognition of her “unparalleled achievement and exceptional contributions to animation”.[45]


  • 1936 – Venice Film Festival: Mussolini Cup for Best Foreign Film (Nominee)[46]
  • 1972 – German Film Awards: Honorary Award (Winner)[46]
  • 1972– Deutscher Filmpreis


  • 1919 – The Ornament of the Lovestruck Heart
  • 1920 – Amor and the Steady Loving Couple
  • 1921 – The Star of Bethlehem
  • 1922 – Sleeping Beauty
  • 1922 – The Flying Suitcase
  • 1922 – The Secret of the Marquise
  • 1922 – Cinderella
  • 1926 – The Adventures of Prince Achmed (feature)
  • 1927 – The Chinese Nightingale
  • 1928 – Dr. Dolittle and His Animals (3 parts: "The Journey to Africa", "The Monkey Bridge", "The Monkey Illness")
  • 1930 – Ten Minutes of Mozart
  • 1931 – Harlekin
  • 1932 – Sissi
  • 1933 – Carmen
  • 1934 – The Stolen Heart
  • 1935 – The Seemingly Dead Chinese
  • 1935 – The Little Chimney Sweep
  • 1935 – Galathea: The Living Marblestatue
  • 1935 – Die Jagd nach dem Glück (Hunt for Luck)
  • 1935 – Kalif Storch
  • 1935 – Papageno
  • 1936 – Puss in Boots
  • 1937 – The Tocher. Film Ballet
  • 1938 – The HPO – Heavenly Post Office
  • 1944 – The Goose That Lays the Golden Eggs
  • 1951 – Mary's Birthday
  • 1953 – The Magic Horse
  • 1954 – Aladdin and the Magic Lamp
  • 1954 – Caliph Storch
  • 1954 – Cinderella
  • 1954 – Puss in Boots
  • 1954 – Snow White and Rose Red
  • 1954 – The Frog Prince
  • 1954 – The Gallant Little Tailor
  • 1954 – The Grasshopper and the Ant
  • 1954 – The Little Chimney Sweep
  • 1954 – The Sleeping Beauty
  • 1954 – The Three Wishes
  • 1954 – Thumbelina
  • 1955 – Hansel and Gretel
  • 1955 – Jack and the Beanstalk
  • 1961 – The Frog Prince
  • 1974 - The Lost Son
  • 1975 – Aucassin and Nicolette
  • 1979 – The Rose and the Ring
  • 1980 – Die vier Jahreszeiten (The Four Seasons)

Other contributions[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "The life of Lotte Reiniger". Drawn to be Wild. BFI. Archived from the original on 2001-03-03. (an extract from Pilling, Jayne, ed. (1992). Women and Animation: a Compendium. BFI. ISBN 0-85170-377-1.)
  2. ^ "How Disney's Iconic Multiplane Camera Changed Animation | No Film School".
  3. ^ The Art of Lotte Reiniger, parte 1 on YouTube
  4. ^ Dresden, Germany, Marriages, 1876–1922, and Berlin, Germany, Births, 1877–1899 (in German), indexed in Ancestry.com.
  5. ^ Lockwood, Devi (2019-10-16). "Overlooked No More: Lotte Reiniger, Animator Who Created Magic With Scissors and Paper". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-12-05.
  6. ^ Reiniger, Lotte (1935). "Scissors Make Films". International Film Magazine: Sight and Sound. Spring 1936.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Stranger Magic". Sight & Sound. [full citation needed]
  8. ^ "View source for Lotte Reiniger - Wikipedia". en.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2021-12-05.
  9. ^ a b c d e Herausgeber., Bobrowska, Olga, 1987- Herausgeber. Bobrowski, Michał 1981- Herausgeber. Zmudziński, Bogusław 1951- (2019). Propaganda, ideology, animation : Twisted dreams of history. Wydawnictwa AGH. ISBN 978-83-66016-81-1. OCLC 1123033104.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b c d Schönfeld, Christiane (2006). Practicing Modernity: Female Creativity in the Weimar Republic. Konigshausen & Neumann. p. 174.
  11. ^ "Das Ornament des verliebten Herzens | George Eastman Museum". www.eastman.org. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  12. ^ Ludwig, R. "Fairy Tale Flappers: Animated Adaptations of Little Red and Cinderella (1922–1925)". governmentcheese.ca. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  13. ^ Sterritt, David (2020-05-18). "The Animated Adventures of Lotte Reiniger". Quarterly Review of Film and Video. 37 (4): 398–401. doi:10.1080/10509208.2020.1732144. ISSN 1050-9208. S2CID 212997019.
  14. ^ Ratner, Megan (2006). "In the Shadows". Art on Paper. 10 (3): 44–49. JSTOR 24556712.
  15. ^ Reiniger, Lotte (1975). Shadow puppets, shadow theatres, and shadow films. Boston: Plays, Inc. ISBN 0823801985. OCLC 1934547.
  16. ^ Practicing modernity: female creativity in the Weimar Republic. Schönfeld, Christiane., Finnan, Carmel, 1958–. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann. 2006. ISBN 3826032411. OCLC 71336738.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ a b c d e Moritz, William (1996). "Lotte Reiniger". AWN.com. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
  18. ^ White, Eric Walter (1931). Walking Shadows: An Essay on Lotte Reiniger's Silhouette Films. London: Leonard and Virginia Woolf.
  19. ^ Moritz, William (Fall 1996). "Some Critical Perspectives on Lotte Reiniger". Animation Journal. 5 (1): 40–51.
  20. ^ a b c Kemp, Philip. "Reiniger, Lotte (1899–1981)". BFI Screenonline.
  21. ^ Hanks, Robert (October 2021). "Shadow Casting". Apollo. 194 (701): 54–59.
  22. ^ Cavalier, Stephen (2011). The world history of animation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520261129. OCLC 668191570.
  23. ^ "Life and Death in the Shadows: Lotte Reiniger's Die Abenteuer des Prinzen Ahmed". German Life and Letters. [full citation needed]
  24. ^ Osmond, Andrew (February 2009). "Paper, Scissors". Sight and Sound. 19 (2). British Film Industry: 87, 2. ISSN 0037-4806. ProQuest 237118540.
  25. ^ Kaes, Anton; Baer, Nicholas; Cowan, Michael J., eds. (March 2016). The promise of cinema: German film theory, 1907–1933. Oakland. ISBN 978-0520962439. OCLC 938890898.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  26. ^ Donald, Crafton (1993). Before Mickey: the animated film, 1898-1928. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226116670. OCLC 28547443.
  27. ^ "Lotte Reiniger – Women Film Pioneers Project". wfpp.columbia.edu.
  28. ^ http://resources.culturalheritage.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2015/02/osg005-03.pdf
  29. ^ "LOTTE REINIGER'S SILHOUETTES". frontierindia.scriptmania.com.
  30. ^ "BFI Screenonline: Reiniger, Lotte (1899-1981) Biography". www.screenonline.org.uk.
  31. ^ Stables, Kate (August 2005). "Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events". Sight and Sound. 15 (8). British Film Institute: 89. ISSN 0037-4806.
  32. ^ Warner, Marina (2012). Stranger Magic: Charmed States and the Arabian Nights. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 394. ISBN 9780674055308. JSTOR j.ctt2jbtr6. OCLC 758383788.
  33. ^ Jusino, Teresa (30 November 2015). "Some of Comics' Biggest Names Shout-Out Their Favorite Female Creators". The Mary Sue. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
  34. ^ Jouvanceau, Pierre (2004). The Silhouette Film. Genoa: Le Mani. ISBN 88-8012-299-1. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
  35. ^ "The lasting legacy of Lotte Reiniger". www.acmi.net.au. Retrieved 2021-03-16.
  36. ^ Acadia, Lilith (2021-04-03). "'Lover of Shadows': Lotte Reiniger's Innovation, Orientalism, and Progressivism". Oxford German Studies. 50 (2): 150–168. doi:10.1080/00787191.2021.1927377. ISSN 0078-7191. S2CID 235663272.
  37. ^ "The Lotte Reiniger Lifetime Achievement Award 2017". European Animation Awards | Emile Awards. Retrieved 2021-12-05.
  38. ^ "Lotte Reiniger". Stadtmuseum Tübingen. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
  39. ^ Düsseldorf, Landeshauptstadt. "Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf – Über das Filmmuseum". www.duesseldorf.de. Archived from the original on 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-06-24.
  40. ^ White, James (2015-12-21). "Lotte Reiniger and The Star of Bethlehem". BFI. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
  41. ^ "New Google Doodle Celebrates German Animator Lotte Reiniger". TIME. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  42. ^ "Lotte Reiniger's 117th birthday". Retrieved 2016-06-02.
  43. ^ "What is a Lottie animation? - LottieFiles". lottiefiles.com. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  44. ^ "What is the best animation format for websites?". Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  45. ^ Milligan, Mercedes. “51st Annie Awards Nominees: ‘Nimona’ Scores 10 Nods; Several Major Studios Shut Out of the Best Feature Race”. Animation Magazine. Published January 11, 2024. Accessed January 12, 2024.
  46. ^ a b "Lotte Reiniger". IMDb. Retrieved 2021-12-05.

Further reading[edit]

  • Reiniger, Rike. Berliner Trickfilm-Pionierin Lotte Reiniger: Queere Küsse im Jahr 1929: Berliner Zeitung 12.5.2024[1]
  • Reiniger, Rike. 24 frames/sec - Theater-Feature zu Lotte Reiniger, Pionierin des Trickfilms: Theaterstückverlag München 2023[2]
  • Reiniger, Rike. Wie die Trickfilmpionierin Lotte Reiniger Geschichte schrieb: Berliner Zeitung 1.3.2023[3]
  • Stone, Susan. Lotte Reiniger: Podcast #11 "The Dead Ladies Show", 25.7.2018[4]
  • Bendazzi, Giannalberto (Anna Taraboletti-Segre, translator). Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20937-4 (reprint, paperback, 2001).
  • Cavalier, Steven. The world history of animation // Animation. Berkeley : University of California Press, 2011. ISBN 9780520261129
  • Crafton, Donald. Before Mickey: The Animated Film, 1898–1928. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-11667-0 (2nd edition, paperback, 1993).
  • Giesen, Rolf (2012). Animation Under the Swastika. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-7864-4640-7.
  • Kaes, Anton, Michael Cowan and Nicholas Baer, eds. (2016). The Promise of Cinema: German Film Theory, 1907–1933. Oakland: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-96243-5
  • Moritz, William. "Some Critical Perspectives on Lotte Reiniger." Animation Journal 5:1 (Fall 1996). 40–51.
  • Leslie, Esther. Hollywood Flatlands: Animation, Critical Theory and the Avant-Garde. London: Verso, 2002. ISBN 9781844675043.
  • Reiniger, Lotte. Shadow Theatres and Shadow Films. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1970. Print.
  • Schönfeld, Christiane. (2006). Practicing modernity : female creativity in the Weimar Republic. Würzburg : Königshausen & Neumann. ISBN 3826032411

External links[edit]

  1. ^ "Lotte Reiniger, Berliner Trickfilm-Pionierin: Queere Küsse im Jahr 1929". Berliner Zeitung (in German). 2024-05-12. Retrieved 2024-05-13.
  2. ^ "Theaterstückverlag". theaterstueckverlag.de. Retrieved 2023-11-02.
  3. ^ "Berlin: Wie die Trickfilmpionierin Lotte Reiniger Geschichte schrieb". Berliner Zeitung (in German). 2023-03-01. Retrieved 2023-11-02.
  4. ^ florianduijsens (2018-07-25). "Podcast #11: Lotte Reiniger". The Dead Ladies Show. Retrieved 2023-11-02.