Lotus International Character Set

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The Lotus International Character Set (LICS) is a proprietary single-byte character encoding introduced in 1985 by Lotus Development Corporation. It is based on the 1983 DEC Multinational Character Set (MCS) for VT220 terminals. As such, LICS is also similar to two other descendants of MCS, the ECMA-94 character set of 1985[1] and the ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) character set of 1987.

LICS was first introduced as the character set of Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2 for DOS in 1985.[2][3][4][5] It is also utilized by 2.01,[3][4][5] 2.2,[6][7][8][5] 2.3 and 2.4[9][10][11][12] as well as by Symphony. It was also utilized in a number of third-party spreadsheet products emulating the file format. LICS was superseded by the Lotus Multi-Byte Character Set (LMBCS) introduced by Lotus 1-2-3 Release 3 in 1989.[12]

Character set[edit]

Codepoints 20hex (32) to 7Fhex (127) are identical to ASCII (as well as to LMBCS).[12] For some characters the table also lists dedicated Lotus 1-2-3 compose key sequences to ease character input beyond the Alt Numpad input method.

Legend:

Lotus International Character Set[8]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
 
0_
 
NUL
0000
0
SOH
0001
1
STX
0002
2
ETX
0003
3
EOT
0004
4
ENQ
0005
5
ACK
0006
6
BEL
0007
7
BS
0008
8
HT
0009
9
LF
000A
10
VT
000B
11
FF
000C
12
CR
000D
13
SO
000E
14
SI
000F
15
 
1_
 
DLE
0010
16
DC1
0011
17
DC2
0012
18
DC3
0013
19
DC4
0014
20
NAK
0015
21
SYN
0016
22
ETB
0017
23
CAN
0018
24
EM
0019
25
SUB
001A
26
ESC
001B
27
FS
001C
28
GS
001D
29
RS
001E
30
US
001F
31
 
2_
 
SP
0020
32
!
0021
33
"
0022
34
#
0023
35
++
$
0024
36
%
0025
37
&
0026
38
'
0027
39
(
0028
40
)
0029
41
*
002A
42
+
002B
43
,
002C
44
-
002D
45
.
002E
46
/
002F
47
 
3_
 
0
0030
48
1
0031
49
2
0032
50
3
0033
51
4
0034
52
5
0035
53
6
0036
54
7
0037
55
8
0038
56
9
0039
57
:
003A
58
;
003B
59
<
003C
60
=
003D
61
>
003E
62
?
003F
63
 
4_
 
@
0040
64
aa AA
A
0041
65
B
0042
66
C
0043
67
D
0044
68
E
0045
69
F
0046
70
G
0047
71
H
0048
72
I
0049
73
J
004A
74
K
004B
75
L
004C
76
M
004D
77
N
004E
78
O
004F
79
 
5_
 
P
0050
80
Q
0051
81
R
0052
82
S
0053
83
T
0054
84
U
0055
85
V
0056
86
W
0057
87
X
0058
88
Y
0059
89
Z
005A
90
[
005B
91
((
\
005C
92
//
]
005D
93
))
^
005E
94
vv
_
005F
95
 
6_
 
`
0060
96
a
0061
97
b
0062
98
c
0063
99
d
0064
100
e
0065
101
f
0066
102
g
0067
103
h
0068
104
i
0069
105
j
006A
106
k
006B
107
l
006C
108
m
006D
109
n
006E
110
o
006F
111
 
7_
 
p
0070
112
q
0071
113
r
0072
114
s
0073
115
t
0074
116
u
0075
117
v
0076
118
w
0077
119
x
0078
120
y
0079
121
z
007A
122
{
007B
123
(-
|
007C
124
^/
}
007D
125
)-
~
007E
126
--
DEL ()
007F (2592)
127
 
8_
 
`
xxxx?
128
`␠
´
xxxx?
129
'
^
xxxx?
130
^␠
"
xxxx?
131
"␠
~
xxxx?
132
~␠
                     
 
9_
 
`
xxxx?
144
␠`
´
xxxx?
145
␠'
^
xxxx?
146
␠^
"
xxxx?
147
␠"
~
xxxx?
148
␠~
ı
0131
149
i␠
‗?
2017?
150
_␠

25B2
151
ba

25BC
152
ea
  NBSP
00A0
154
␠␠

2190
155
mg
       
 
A_
 
ƒ
0192
160
ff
¡
00A1
161
!!
¢
00A2
162
c| C| c/ C/
£
00A3
163
l= L= l- L-

201C
164
"^
¥
00A5
165
Y= y= Y- y-

20A7
166
PT pt Pt
§
00A7
167
SO so So sO
¤
00A4
168
XO xo Xo xO
©
00A9
169
CO co Co cO
ª
00AA
170
a_ A_
«
00AB
171
<<
Δ
0394
172
dd DD
π
03C0
173
PI pi Pi

2265
174
>=
÷
00F7
175
:-
 
B_
 
°
00B0
176
^0
±
00B1
177
+-
²
00B2
178
^2
³
00B3
179
^3

201E
180
"v
µ (μ[13])
00B5 (03BC)
181
/u

00B6
182
!P !p
·
00B7
183
^.

2122
184
TM Tm tm
¹
00B9
185
^1
º
00BA
186
o_ O_
»
00BB
187
>>
¼
00BC
188
14
½
00BD
189
12

2264
190
=<
¿
00BF
191
??
 
C_
 
À
00C0
192
A`
Á
00C1
193
A'
Â
00C2
194
A^
Ã
00C3
195
A~
Ä
00C4
196
A"
Å
00C5
197
A*
Æ
00C6
198
AE
Ç
00C7
199
C,
È
00C8
200
E`
É
00C9
201
E'
Ê
00CA
202
E^
Ë
00CB
203
E"
Ì
00CC
204
I`
Í
00CD
205
I'
Î
00CE
206
I^
Ï
00CF
207
I"
 
D_
 
Ð
00D0
208
D-
Ñ
00D1
209
N~
Ò
00D2
210
O`
Ó
00D3
211
O'
Ô
00D4
212
O^
Õ
00D5
213
O~
Ö
00D6
214
O"
Œ
0152
215
OE
Ø
00D8
216
O/
Ù
00D9
217
U`
Ú
00DA
218
U'
Û
00DB
219
U^
Ü
00DC
220
U"
Ÿ
0178
221
Y"
Þ
00DE
222
P-
ß[13]
00DF
223
ss
 
E_
 
à
00E0
224
a`
á
00E1
225
a'
â
00E2
226
a^
ã
00E3
227
a~
ä
00E4
228
a"
å
00E5
229
a*
æ
00E6
230
ae
ç
00E7
231
c,
è
00E8
232
e`
é
00E9
233
e'
ê
00EA
234
e^
ë
00EB
235
e"
ì
00EC
236
i`
í
00ED
237
i'
î
00EE
238
i^
ï
00EF
239
i"
 
F_
 
ð[13]
00F0
240
d-
ñ
00F1
241
n~
ò
00F2
242
o`
ó
00F3
243
o'
ô
00F4
244
o^
õ
00F5
245
o~
ö
00F6
246
o"
œ
0153
247
oe
ø
00F8
248
o/
ù
00F9
249
u`
ú
00FA
250
u'
û
00FB
251
u^
ü
00FC
252
u"
ÿ
00FF
253
y"
þ
00FE
254
p-


255
Lotus International Character Set
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Standard ECMA-94: 8-bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Set (PDF) (1 ed.). European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA). March 1985 [1984-12-14]. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-01. […] Since 1982 the urgency of the need for an 8-bit single-byte coded character set was recognized in ECMA as well as in ANSI/X3L2 and numerous working papers were exchanged between the two groups. In February 1984 ECMA TC1 submitted to ISO/TC97/SC2 a proposal for such a coded character set. At its meeting of April 1984 SC decided to submit to TC97 a proposal for a new item of work for this topic. Technical discussions during and after this meeting led TC1 to adopt the coding scheme proposed by X3L2. Part 1 of Draft International Standard DTS 8859 is based on this joint ANSI/ECMA proposal. […] Adopted as an ECMA Standard by the General Assembly of Dec. 13–14, 1984. […] 
  2. ^ Schemenaur, P. J. (1986-10-27). "Firm to Debut Clone Version of Lotus 1-2-3 - Program Offers 2.0 Compatibility". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2016-11-29. […] Twin Release 2 keeps the IBM extended character set of Version 1A, rather than Release 2.0's Lotus International Character Set, which […] causes problems with commercial templates designed for Lotus 1-2-3, Release 1A. […] 
  3. ^ a b Attia, Zayn 'Utbah (2015-03-11). "ASCII graphic characters, range names". Computer Tips. Archived from the original on 2016-11-30. Retrieved 2016-11-29. […] Release 1A's capability to use extended graphics characters to dress up a screen was an undocumented feature. These characters allowed you to draw boxes and add special symbols on the screen. With Release 2, Lotus has assigned different meanings to these characters, the Lotus International Character Set, LICS. Any these extended characters must be erased or replaced with regular keyboard characters before the character can appear acceptable on an Release 2 screen. Release 2.01 offers an install option to use extended characters rather than LICS characters. […] 
  4. ^ a b Cobb, Douglas; Cobb, Steven (1988-10-31). "Spreadsheet clinic: How to adjust SuperCalc's financial functions to analyze annuities due, create flashing screen messages in 1-2-3, and access upper-level ASCII characters in Quattro and 1-2-3". PC Magazine: 411. Archived from the original on 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-01. […] Unlike 1-2-3, Quattro uses the ASCII character set. By default, 1-2-3, Release 2.01, uses the Lotus International Character Set (LICS) — the same character set that Release 2.0 always uses […] you can command Release 2.01 to use the ASCII character set, just as Quattro does. […] load the install program, and select Advanced Options […] select TextDisplay […] choose Universal Text Display — ASCII-No LICS […] Now, when you load 1-2-3 using the modified driver set, the @CHAR function will produce upper-level ASCII characters […] (NB. By "Upper-level ASCII", the authors actually meant the 8-bit OEM character set.) 
  5. ^ a b c "Kapitel 4. Kompatibilität mit anderen 1-2-3 Versionen - Zeichensätze" [Chapter 4. Compatility with other 1-2-3 Versions - Character Sets]. Lotus 1-2-3 Version 3.1 Upgrader's Handbuch [Upgrader's handbook] (in German) (1 ed.). Cambridge, MA, USA: Lotus Development Corporation. 1989. pp. 4–10 – 4–11. 302173. 
  6. ^ "HP 95LX". InfoWorld: 72. 1991-12-16. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  7. ^ Matzkin, Jonathan (July 1991). "Hewlett-Packard Co. HP 95LX Palmtop PC". PC Magazine: 216, 220, 222. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  8. ^ a b HP 95LX User's Guide (PDF) (2 ed.). Corvallis, OR, USA: Hewlett-Packard Company, Corvallis Division. June 1991 [March 1991]. pp. E–1 – E–3, F–1 – F–7. F0001-90003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-11-28. Retrieved 2016-11-27. All the HP 95LX applications use […] code page 850 […] except 1-2-3, which uses LICS, the Lotus International Character Set. Most LICS characters are included in code page 850; the few that are not will not display […] If your HP 95LX cannot display […] or if your printer cannot print a LICS character, the HP 95LX uses a fallback presentation for that character […] 
  9. ^ Lee, Yvonne (1993-05-03). "HP 100LX rolled out as successor to palmtop". InfoWorld: 27. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  10. ^ Marshall, Patrick (1993-08-23). "Hewlett-Packard makes a good thing better by packing 100LX with features". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  11. ^ "Questions and Answers about HP Palmtops: Q. What software is built into the 200LX ROM?". The HP Palmtop Paper Online. Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  12. ^ a b c Kamenz, Alfred; Vonhoegen, Helmut (1992). Das große Buch zu Lotus 1-2-3 für DOS (in German) (1 ed.). Data Becker. pp. 131–132, 357–358. ISBN 3-89011-375-3. 
  13. ^ a b c "Anhang 2. Der Lotus Multibyte Zeichensatz (LMBCS)" [Appendix 2. The Lotus Multibyte Character Set (LMBCS)]. Lotus 1-2-3 Version 3.1 Referenzhandbuch [Lotus 1-2-3 Version 3.1 Reference Manual] (in German) (1 ed.). Cambridge, MA, USA: Lotus Development Corporation. 1989. pp. A2–1 – A2–13. 302168.  (While for Lotus 1-2-3 Release 3.1+ for DOS, the manual also contains a few notes on LICS.)

Further reading[edit]