Padmasana or Lotus Position (Sanskrit: पद्मासन [pɐd̪mɑːs̪ɐn̪ɐ], IAST: padmāsana) is a cross-legged sitting asana originating in meditative practices of ancient India, in which each foot is placed on the opposite thigh. It is an established asana, commonly used for meditation, in the Yoga, Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist contemplative traditions. The asana is said to resemble a lotus, to encourage breathing properly through associated meditative practice, and to foster physical stability.
Padmāsana means "Lotus [throne] position" and is also a term for actual thrones, often decorated with lotus foliage motifs, on which figures in art sit. The Hindu (Vedic) and Jain Goddess of Prosperity, Sri Lakshmi, sits atop a lotus flower.
In Chinese Buddhism, the lotus position is also called the "vajra position" (Skt. vajrāsana, Ch. 金剛座 jīngāngzuò). The traditions of Tibetan Buddhism also refer to the lotus position as the "vajra position."
From the common sitting down on the floor (Indian Style, Cross-legged) position (asana), one foot is placed on top of the opposite thigh with its sole facing upward and heel close to the abdomen. The other foot is then lifted up slowly and placed on the opposite thigh in a symmetrical way.
The knees are in contact with the ground. The torso is placed in balance and alignment such that the spinal column supports it with minimal muscular effort. The torso is centered above the hips. To relax the head and neck, the jaw is allowed to fall towards the neck and the back of the neck to lengthen. The shoulders move backwards and the ribcage lifts. The tongue rests on the roof of the mouth.
The eyes may be closed, the body relaxed, with awareness of the overall asana. Adjustments are made until balance and alignment are experienced. Alignment that creates relaxation is indicative of a suitable position for the asana. The asana should be natural and comfortable, without any sharp pains.
In most cases, a cushion (zafu) or mat (zabuton) is necessary in order to achieve this balance. One sits on the forward edge of the cushion or mat in order to incline one's pelvis forward, making it possible to center the spine and provide the necessary support. Only the most flexible people can achieve this asana without a support under their pelvis (and likewise does the Dalai Lama explicitly advise).
In half lotus, अर्धपद्मासन (ardha padmāsana), one leg is bent and resting on the floor, the other leg is bent with the foot in lotus position. It is an easier meditation position than full lotus.
Other meditation asanas are indicated until sufficient flexibility has been developed to sit comfortably in the Lotus. Sciatica, sacral infections and weak or injured knees are contra-indications to attempting the asana.
The lotus position may be impossible to achieve if the knees naturally point in when the feet point straight ahead, as this is an indication that the joints on the opposite ends of the femurs and tibiae are rotated relative to each other.
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- Padmāsana (पद्मासन) with detail explanation
- Detailed non-commercial article with references, updated 24.06.2006: 
- How to sit in Ardha Padmasana
- How to sit in padmasana or sukhasana when not flexible