Lou Thesz

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Lou Thesz
1953 St.Paul Armory Wrestling Program - Lou Thesz.jpg
Birth nameAloysius Martin Thesz
Born(1916-04-24)April 24, 1916
Banat, Michigan
DiedApril 28, 2002(2002-04-28) (aged 86)
Orlando, Florida
Cause of deathComplications from triple bypass
Children3
Professional wrestling career
Ring name(s)Lou Thesz
Billed height6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)[1]
Billed weight225 lb (102 kg)[1]
Billed fromSt. Louis, Missouri[1]
Trained byAd Santel[1]
Ed Lewis[1]
George Tragos[1]
Ray Steele[1]
Warren Bockwinkel
Debut1932[2]
RetiredDecember 26, 1990[2]

Aloysius Martin "Lou" Thesz (April 24, 1916 – April 28, 2002) was an American professional wrestler. An officially six-time world champion, he held the NWA World Heavyweight Championship three times for a combined total of 10 years, three months and nine days (3,749 days) – longer than anyone else in history. Considered to be one of the last true shooters in professional wrestling,[2][3][4] Thesz is widely regarded as one of the greatest wrestlers of all time.[5][6] In Japan, Thesz was known as a 'God of Wrestling' and was called Tetsujin, which means 'Ironman', in respect for his speed, conditioning and expertise in catch wrestling.[7]

In addition to being a member of its inaugural class, he helped establish the George Tragos/Lou Thesz Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame and is a charter member of several other halls of fame, including: WCW, Wrestling Observer Newsletter, Professional Wrestling and WWE's Legacy Wing.

Early life and wrestling background[edit]

Born in Banat, Michigan in 1916,[2] Thesz's family moved to St. Louis when he was a young boy.[2] His working-class immigrant parents Martin, a shoemaker of Hungarian and German descent, and Katherine Schultz, also of German descent, hailed from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Thesz and his sisters grew up speaking German at home and he did not start learning English until he entered kindergarten at age five. In addition to public school, he also had to attend German school every Saturday until he was eight.[8]

His father was a national Greco-Roman wrestling champion in his native Hungary and introduced Lou to the sport as a young boy. At eight years old, Lou began training in Greco-Roman wrestling under his father, which provided the fundamentals for his later success. That same year he saw his first professional wrestling match. As a youngster, Thesz grew up admiring Ed "Strangler" Lewis, Joe Stecher, Stanislaus Zbyszko and John Pesek.

While in high school, he was a successful folkstyle wrestling competitor on his school team. He also trained in boxing as a teenager. Thesz dropped out of high school by age 14 and began training in freestyle wrestling at Cleveland High School due to his father knowing the wrestling coaches. He quickly became an accomplished freestyle wrestler, winning local amateur championships, which caught the eye of Tom Packs, a professional wrestling promoter in St. Louis.[8] Packs sent Lou to George Tragos for further coaching.

George Tragos was a three-time Olympic wrestler and feared catch wrestler (known as a 'hooker' in Thesz's time) who competed for Greece and later became a wrestling coach for the University of Missouri. Tragos took a liking to Thesz and respected his willingness to work hard and follow instruction. He trained under the watchful eye of Tragos for four years at the Business Men's Gym in St. Louis.[9] Tragos specifically taught Thesz submission wrestling and how to wrestle from the bottom. Thesz remembered Tragos saying, "any fool can start on top. If you start at the bottom, you learn to wrestle." Ray Steele also served as a coach and mentor to Thesz during this time.[10][11] Thesz's gruelling training under Tragos and Steele, consisting of competitive wrestling and drills for up to 6-10 hours a day, helped develop his remarkable conditioning and the ability to wrestle for hours on end.

Ad Santel would then provide Thesz with a very tough and thorough education in catch wrestling, furthering Tragos' teaching. German-born Santel was known for his feud with the Kodokan judo school.[12] Thesz studied under Santel for up to five days every week during a 5-month summer wrestling tour in California and remembered it being the "most intensive training period of my life". The training he received under Santel would help establish Thesz as one of the most dangerous grapplers in the world.[13]

Thesz later met legendary former champion Ed "Strangler" Lewis in St. Louis and was encouraged to challenge Lewis to a friendly contest. Despite losing the 15 minute contest, Lewis was impressed by Thesz's skills and Lewis later became his manager and trainer.[14] As his trainer, Lewis taught Thesz extremely painful and potentially crippling submission holds that would help him when facing opponents that refused to lose.[15]

Many years later during a wrestling tour of England, he also briefly trained at the notorious Snake Pit catch wrestling gym in Wigan.[14] Thesz was drafted into the army in 1944, despite a legitimate injury to his knee and multiple medical deferments. Owing to his wrestling background, he taught hand-to-hand combat defense for medics before being discharged in 1946.[8]

Professional wrestling career[edit]

Lou Thesz against The French Angel in the ring, 1940

Thesz made his professional wrestling debut in 1932, at the age of 16, whilst continuing to train in competitive catch wrestling under Tragos and Steele.[16] Thesz learned the performance aspects of the sport and competed in the 'semi-pro' circuit for the first couple of years of his career. By 1937, Thesz had become one of the biggest stars in the St. Louis territory, and on December 29 he defeated Everett Marshall for the American Wrestling Association World Heavyweight Championship,[17][18] the first of many world heavyweight titles, which also made Thesz became the youngest world heavyweight champion in history, at the age of 21.[1] There is speculation that this match may have been a shoot match.[19] Thesz dropped the title to Steve "Crusher" Casey in Boston six weeks later. He won the National Wrestling Association World Heavyweight Championship in 1939, once again defeating Marshall, and again in 1948, defeating Bill Longson.

In 1948, the National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) was formed, the purpose being to create one world champion for all the various wrestling territories throughout North America. Orville Brown, the reigning Midwest World Heavyweight Championship holder, was named the first champion. Thesz, at the time, was head of a promotional combine that included fellow wrestling champions Longson, Bobby Managoff, Canadian promoter Frank Tunney and Eddie Quinn, who promoted in the St. Louis territory where NWA promoter Sam Muchnick was running opposition. Quinn and Muchnick ended their promotional war, and Thesz' promotion was absorbed into the NWA. Part of the deal was a title unification match between Brown and Thesz, who held the National Wrestling Association's World Heavyweight Championship. Unfortunately, just weeks before the scheduled bout, Brown was involved in an automobile accident that ended his career, and he was forced to vacate the championship and the NWA awarded the title to the No. 1 contender, Thesz. Thesz was chosen for his skill as a "hooker" to prevent double crosses by would-be shooters who would deviate from the planned finish for personal glory.

Between 1949 and 1956, Thesz set out to unify all the existing world titles into the National Wrestling Alliance World Heavyweight Championship. In 1952, he defeated Baron Michele Leone in Los Angeles for the California World Heavyweight title and became the closest any wrestler had been to being undisputed world heavyweight wrestling champion since Danno O'Mahony in 1936. Thesz finally dropped the title to Whipper Billy Watson in 1956, and took several months off to recuperate from an ankle injury. He regained the title from Watson seven months later.

Thesz pictured in the 1950s

1957 was an important year for Thesz; on June 14, the first taint to Thesz' claim of undisputed champion occurred in a match with gymnast-turned-wrestling star, Edouard Carpentier. The match was tied at two falls apiece when Thesz claimed a legitimate back injury and forfeit the last fall, thus Carpentier was declared the winner; however, the NWA chose not to recognize the title change, deciding a championship could not change hands due to injury. Despite the NWA's decision, there were some promotions who continued to recognize Carpentier's claim to the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. That same year, Thesz became the first wrestler to defend the NWA World Heavyweight Championship in Japan, wrestling Rikidōzan in a series of 60-minute draws. Their bouts popularized professional wrestling in Japan, gaining the sport mainstream acceptance. Realizing he could make more money in the land of the rising sun, Thesz petitioned to the NWA promoters to regularly defend the championship belt in Japan, but his request was turned down, and Thesz asked to drop the title to his own hand picked champion, Dick Hutton, rather than Thesz's real-life rival and the more popular choice, Buddy Rogers. Thesz would embark on a tour of Europe and Japan, billing himself as the NWA International Heavyweight Champion; this title is still recognized as a part of All Japan Pro Wrestling's Triple Crown Heavyweight Championship.

In 1963, Thesz came out of semi-retirement to win his sixth world heavyweight championship from Buddy Rogers at the age of 46. In 1964, he infamously faced Kintaro Ohki, a student of Rikidōzan, in what turned into a legitimate shoot contest. Originally scheduled for three falls, Ohki shot on Thesz in the first round. Ohki's move to shoot on Thesz ended things fast, as Thesz wounded him to the point that Ohki was stretchered off.[20] He would hold the NWA title until 1966 when, at the age of 49 when he lost it to Gene Kiniski.

Thesz wrestled on a part-time basis over the next 13 years, winning his last major title in 1978, in Mexico, becoming the inaugural Universal Wrestling Alliance Heavyweight Champion at the age of 62, before dropping the championship to El Canek a year later. Thesz officially retired in 1979, after a match with Luke Graham. He remained retired for 11 years, before wrestling his last match on December 26, 1990 in Hamamatsu, Japan at the age of 74, against his protégé, Masahiro Chono.[1] This makes him one of the only male professional wrestlers, along with Abdullah The Butcher, to wrestle in seven different decades.[1]

Later life[edit]

After retiring, Thesz remained involved in the wrestling industry. He later became a special guest referee, promoter and trainer. He was highly critical of modern-day professional wrestling and described it as 'choreographed tumbling', showcasing little to no actual wrestling skills. He commented on the rise of mixed martial arts and favourably compared it to his early days as a competitive catch wrestler.[21] Kit Bauman, co-writer of Thesz's autobiography Hooker, received a magazine mailed by Thesz that included a story on the sport of pankration, an ancient Greek combat sport that blended wrestling and boxing (and considered an early precursor to MMA), with a brief note that Thesz wrote saying, "this sounds like something I would have enjoyed."[8] As an announcer, Thesz was the color commentator for International World Class Championship Wrestling's weekly television show.

He became the commissioner and trainer for the shoot-style promotion Union of Wrestling Force International, and lent the promotion one of his old NWA championship belts, which they recognized as their own world title. With the promotion he spent one week every month in Japan teaching the wrestlers techniques in catch wrestling. He coached several successful professional wrestlers and mixed martial artists including Kiyoshi Tamura, Masahiro Chono and Mark Fleming. However, by 1993 his enthusiasm for the UWFi waned as the company started moving away from its shootfighting style and favoring performers over wrestlers, and he soon severed relations with the company, taking his old championship belt back with him.

In 1992, Thesz became the president of the Cauliflower Alley Club (CAC), an organization recognizing and supporting retired wrestlers, boxers and actors who enjoyed an association with wrestling. He served as CAC's president until 2000. In 1999, he helped establish the George Tragos/Lou Thesz Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame, a hall of fame and museum located within the National Wrestling Hall of Fame and Museum's Dan Gable Museum. Thesz considered Gable, who won the 1972 Olympic gold medal in freestyle wrestling, to be one of his heroes.[22] The hall of fame honors professional wrestlers with a strong amateur wrestling background. Thesz became the first inductee alongside George Tragos, Ed "Strangler" Lewis and Frank Gotch. He served on the Board of Directors and also did part-time coaching on the wrestling mats at the museum.[14]

Personal life[edit]

Thesz was married three times. His first marriage to Evelyn Katherine Ernst on March 22, 1937.[8] Thesz was convalescing from a severe knee injury suffered in 1939 and from 1941 to 1944 worked as a dog breeder and trainer for Dogs for Defense and later as a supervisor for the Todd Houston Shipyard.[8] He divorced his first wife in 1944 and at the shipyard, Thesz met his second wife, Fredda Huddleston Winter, with whom he fathered three children: Jeff Thesz, Robert Thesz and Patrick Thesz.[8] Thesz's second marriage came to an end in 1975.[8] He married Charlie Catherine Thesz and remained with her for the rest of his life. Thesz lived in Norfolk, Virginia for much of his later life and started wrestling school name is Virginia Wrestling Academy in Norfolk, Virginia in 1988. One of Thesz's proteges Mark Fleming became head coach of the academy. He wrote an autobiography, Hooker: An Authentic Wrestler's Adventures Inside the Bizarre World of Professional Wrestling.

Death[edit]

Thesz remained in remarkable physical condition in his older years, however after undergoing triple bypass surgery for an aortic valve replacement on April 9, 2002, he died due to complications weeks later on April 28, four days after his 86th birthday, in Orlando, Florida.[23][24][2][25]

Legacy[edit]

A Jacksonville, Florida poster advertises Thesz

Thesz is strongly considered by many to be the greatest professional wrestler of the 20th century.[26] Among his many accomplishments in the sport, he is credited with inventing a number of professional wrestling moves and holds such as the belly-to-back waistlock suplex (later known as the German suplex due to its association with Karl Gotch), the Lou Thesz press, stepover toehold facelock (STF), and the original powerbomb.

Thesz was the first wrestler to ever hold the NWA International Heavyweight Championship, which became a part of what is now the Triple Crown Heavyweight Championship under All Japan Pro Wrestling.[27][28] Thesz was also the first UWA World Heavyweight Champion for the now defunct Universal Wrestling Association in Mexico, where he won the title after defeating Mil Máscaras on July 26, 1976. Thesz was the first ever TWWA World Heavyweight Champion for the now defunct International Wrestling Enterprise as well.[29] Thesz and "The Outlaw" (Dory Funk Sr.) were the first ever NWA Pacific Coast (Vancouver) Tag Team Champions.[30]

In 1999, his name was given to the George Tragos/Lou Thesz Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame for professional wrestling stars with a successful amateur background at the International Wrestling Institute and Museum in Waterloo, Iowa, where he was an inaugural inductee. In October 1997, Thesz was honored by a ceremony at World Wrestling Federation's (WWF) Badd Blood as being both the youngest and oldest world heavyweight champion at ages 21 and 50, respectively[1] (technically, Verne Gagne holds the record for oldest champ, when he held the AWA World Heavyweight Championship in 1980 at age 54, which was tied by WWF owner Vince McMahon in 1999; Thesz has since been supplanted as the oldest NWA World Heavyweight Champion by former champion Tim Storm (who was born on May 1, 1965), who won the title at age 51 by defeating Jax Dane on October 21, 2016). In 1999, a large group of professional wrestling experts, analysts and historians named Thesz the most influential NWA World Heavyweight Champion of all time.[31] In 2002, Thesz was named the second greatest professional wrestler of all time behind Ric Flair in the magazine article "100 Wrestlers of All Time" by John Molinaro, edited by Dave Meltzer and Jeff Marek.[32]

Former amateur wrestler and NWA World Heavyweight Champion Jack Brisco named Thesz his all-time favorite professional wrestler by saying that "Lou Thesz was my idol. He was a great wrestler, a great example, a class man".[33] WWE wrestler Cesaro named Thesz his "dream" tag team partner and said, "He [Thesz] personifies wrestling. He represents everything that I think it should be. He's a class act, and he was a workhorse for the company, while at the same time being a student of the game. He was completely legit. I would have loved a chance to go one-on-one with him or to work alongside him".[34] Japanese wrestler Rikidōzan, who had several matches with Thesz in Japan, considered Thesz to be the greatest wrestler of all time and lamented that "after the match with the world's greatest wrestler, fights with other run-of-the-mill wrestlers became unappetizing for me".[35]

Three-time NCAA heavyweight champion and NWA World Heavyweight Champion Dick Hutton said that Thesz was the best man he ever met, in any type of wrestling (both competitive and performance).[3] Catch wrestling historian, wrestler and writer Jake Shannon stated that "had a promotion like the Ultimate Fighting Championship been around in their day... men like Karl Gotch, Billy Robinson, Thesz, George Gordienko, Dick Hutton, and Danny Hodge, would not only have participated in it, but most likely dominated it."[16] Martial artist and professional wrestler Gene LeBell has said that he considers Thesz to be one of his 'teachers', saying "Lou Thesz, Karl Gotch and Vic Christy all taught me a lot about grappling... From Thesz I learned how to hurt people. He had a little bit of a sadistic side".[36] LeBell also considers Thesz, Ed "Strangler" Lewis and Karl Gotch as the toughest men he has ever known.[37] Wrestling promoter Sam Muchnick considered Ed "Strangler" Lewis as the greatest legitimate wrestler he had ever seen, with Thesz, Ray Steele, Joe Stecher, Jim Londos and John Pesek "only a few steps behind Lewis."[12] Fellow catch wrestler Billy Robinson considered Thesz to be the greatest professional wrestler of all time, saying "everybody respected professional wrestling because of Lou Thesz. He may not have been the best competitive catch wrestler but he was very good in his time."[38]

Thesz is an inaugural member of several professional wrestling halls of fame, including the Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame and Museum, Wrestling Observer Newsletter Hall of Fame, NWA Hall of Fame, WCW Hall of Fame, and the George Tragos/Lou Thesz Pro Wrestling Hall of Fame which is subsequently named after both one of his trainers along with Thesz himself.[39] On April 2, 2016, Thesz was posthumously inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame as an inaugural member of the "Legacy" wing.

Championships and accomplishments[edit]

Notes[edit]

1 Records are unclear as to where Thesz first won the NWA World Heavyweight Championship and which promotion he was wrestling in when he won it.[50]
2 The World Heavyweight Championship of the National Wrestling Association existed from 1929 through 1949, when it was unified with the used by the National Wrestling Alliance.
3 Thesz's reigns with the title occurred prior to the NWA assuming control of it. In fact, he won the title before the NWA was created.
4 Thesz's also has two reigns with the title before the formation of the NWA and the title being renamed the NWA World Heavyweight Championship.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Shields, Brian; Sullivan, Kevin (2009). WWE Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-7566-4190-0.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Litsky, Frank (May 8, 2002). "Lou Thesz, 86, Skilled Pro Wrestler, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
  3. ^ a b Chapman, Mike (16 November 2018). Wrestling Tough (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics. p. 221. ISBN 978-1492567912.
  4. ^ Dunning, Eric; Malcolm, Dominic (2003). Approaches to the Study of Sport. Taylor & Francis. p. 214. ISBN 9780415262934.
  5. ^ Mooneyham, Mike (March 31, 2013). "Pro wrestling books worth reading; 'The Voice of Mid-Atlantic Wrestling'". The Post and Courier. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  6. ^ "Wrestling History: 2002". Pro Wrestling Illustrated. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  7. ^ "Lou Thesz lives on in the minds of Japanese - May 2, 2002". Puroresu.com. 2002-05-02. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Kenyon, Lou Thesz with Kit Bauman ; edited by J. Michael (2011). Hooker (3rd ed.). Gallatin, Tenn.: Crowbar Press. ISBN 978-0-9844090-4-4.
  9. ^ "Lou Thesz". National Wrestling Hall of Fame. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  10. ^ "Ray Steele". National Wrestling Hall of Fame.
  11. ^ "Catch Wrestling Legends". Snake Pit U.S.A. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  12. ^ a b Matysik, Larry (8 February 2013). The 50 Greatest Professional Wrestlers of All Time: The Definitive Shoot. ECW Press. ISBN 978-1770411043.
  13. ^ Snowden, Jonathan (8 May 2012). Shooters: The Toughest Men in Professional Wrestling. ECW Press. ISBN 9781770410404.
  14. ^ a b c Hartley, Jeremy. "Lou Thesz Interview". Solie's Vintage Wrestling. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  15. ^ LeBell, Gene (2002). The Great Lou Thesz. p. 4.
  16. ^ a b Shannon, Jake. Say Uncle!: Catch-As-Catch-Can Wrestling and the Roots of Ultimate Fighting, Pro Wrestling, & Modern Grappling. ECW Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-1550229615.
  17. ^ a b "AWA World Heavyweight Title (Boston)". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  18. ^ "Title Lineages: AWA (Boston) World Heavyweight Championship - The Home of Historical Wrestling". Prowrestlinghistoricalsociety.com. Archived from the original on 2018-05-12. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  19. ^ "Mark Fleming discusses Lou Thesz with the Granimal". YouTube.
  20. ^ Lutzke, Andrew. "When S*it got Real: Incidents of Pro Wrestling becoming a "Shoot" Vol. 4". Culture Crossfire. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  21. ^ Lovranksi, Dan. "Interview with Lou Thesz". Live Audio Wrestling.
  22. ^ "Lou Thesz Remembered". YouTube. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  23. ^ http://www.onlineworldofwrestling.com/bios/l/lou-thesz/
  24. ^ https://sadgeniu.wordpress.com
  25. ^ Alvarez, Bryan: "Figure Four Weekly Newsletter #358", page 1. Cover date May 6, 2002
  26. ^ "Lou Thesz". Puroresu.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  27. ^ "NWA International Heavyweight Title (Japan)". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  28. ^ "Unified Triple Crown Heavyweight Title (Japan)". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  29. ^ "TWWA World Heavyweight Title (IWE)". Wrestling-titles.com. 1968-01-24. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  30. ^ "Pacific Coast Tag Team Title (British Columbia)". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  31. ^ "Nature Boy a natural choice: Experts pick Flair as greatest NWA champ". Canoe.com. Archived from the original on 2016-09-14. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  32. ^ Molinaro, John (2003). The Top 100 Wrestlers of All Time. ISBN 1-55366-305-5.
  33. ^ "SLAM! Wrestling - Jack Brisco Chat". Slam.canoe.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  34. ^ "9 Superstars pick their ultimate dream tag teams". WWE. 2015-01-15. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  35. ^ Shimbun, Asahi. "Lou Thesz lives on in the minds of Japanese". Puroresu.
  36. ^ Jacobs, Mark. "An Interview With "Judo" Gene LeBell". Writing, Fighting and Other Stuff.
  37. ^ Gross, Josh. Ali vs Inoki: The Forgotten Fight That Inspired Mixed Martial Arts and Launched Sports Entertainment. BenBella Books. p. 25. ISBN 978-1942952190.
  38. ^ Robinson, Billy; Shannon, Jake (1 June 2012). Physical Chess: My Life in Catch-as-Catch-Can Wrestling. ECW Press. ISBN 978-0369316493.
  39. ^ "1999 | National Wrestling Hall of Fame". Nwhof.org. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  40. ^ "AWA World Heavyweight Title (Indiana / Ohio / Colorado)". Wrestling-titles.com. 2014-09-30. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  41. ^ "Ventura given Museum's top honour". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. August 4, 2003. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  42. ^ "World Heavyweight Title (Great Britain)". Wrestling-Titles.com. Retrieved 2019-10-05.
  43. ^ "PWI Awards". Pro Wrestling Illustrated. Kappa Publishing Group. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
  44. ^ *Will, Gary; Duncan, Royal (2000). "Texas: NWA Texas Heavyweight Title [Von Erich]". Wrestling Title Histories: professional wrestling champions around the world from the 19th century to the present. Pennsylvania: Archeus Communications. pp. 268–269. ISBN 0-9698161-5-4.
  45. ^ "NWA Texas Heavyweight Title". Wrestling-Titles. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  46. ^ Whalen, Ed (host) (December 15, 1995). "Stampede Wrestling Hall of Fame: 1948-1990". Showdown at the Corral: A Tribute to Stu Hart. Event occurs at 15:38. Shaw Cable. Calgary 7.
  47. ^ "Stampede Wrestling Hall of Fame (1948-1990)". Puroresu Dojo. 2003.
  48. ^ "Misc. WWF Supercards". Prowrestlinghistory.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  49. ^ Bobby Melok (2016-04-02). "Congratulations to the 2016 WWE Hall of Fame Legacy inductees". WWE. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  50. ^ "NWA World Heavyweight Title". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.

Further reading[edit]

  • Dave Meltzer & John F. Molinaro (2002). Top 100 Pro Wrestlers of all Time. Winding Stair Press. ISBN 1-55366-305-5.
  • Mallory Curley (2005). Beatle Pete, Time Traveller. Randy Press (discusses Lou Thesz and wrestling promoter Bill Best at Liverpool Stadium).

External links[edit]