The great bravery of the 43rd Highlanders (later renumbered the 42nd) and the admirable service which they rendered at the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745, made the Government anxious to avail themselves still further of the military qualities of the Highlanders. Authority, therefore, was given to John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun to raise another Highland regiment under the patronage of the noblemen, chiefs, and gentlemen of that part of the kingdom, whose sons and connections would be appointed officers. The regiment was raised at Inverness and Perth in August 1745 and the Earl of Loudoun served as its colonel throughout its short life.
The regiment fought at the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745 where they were defeated and many were taken prisoner but later released. Three companies of Loudon's Highlanders fought for the British Government against the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, where they were victorious, alongside one company of Highlanders from the 43rd Highlanders, otherwise known as the Black Watch.
The regiment was ranked as the 64th Foot in 1747. It served at the siege of Bergen op Zoom where it distinguished itself and suffered over one thousand casualties out of a complement of 1,450. It was disbanded in 1748.
- John Murray, son of Lord George Murray, in turn son of John Murray, 1st Duke of Atholl, chief of Clan Murray (never actually served)
- Alexander Livingstone Campbell, son to the head of the Ardkinglass branch of Clan Campbell
- John Macleod, younger son of the chief of Clan Macleod
- Sir Harry Munro, 7th Baronet, son of Colonel Sir Robert Munro, 6th Baronet of Foulis, chief of Clan Munro
- Lord Charles Gordon, brother of the Duke of Gordon, chief of Clan Gordon
- John Stewart, son of the Earl of Moray
- Alexander Mackay, son of Lord Reay, chief of Clan Mackay
- Ewen Macpherson of Cluny, chief of Clan Macpherson (later joined the Jacobites)
- John Sutherland of Forse, of Clan Sutherland
- Colin Campbell of Ballimore, from Clan Campbell (killed at Culloden)
- Archibald Macnab, son of the chief of Clan Macnab (died a lieutenant-general in 1791)
- Cohn Campbell of Kilberrie.
- Alexander Maclean.
- John Campbell, of Strachur, who died in 1806, a general in the army, and colonel of the 87th regiment.
- Duncan Robertson of Drumachuine, afterwards of Strowan.
- Patrick Campbell, son of Achallader.
- Donald Macdonald.
- James Macpherson of Killihuntly.
- John Robertson or Reid, of Straloch, who died in 1806, at the age of eighty-five, a general in the army and colonel of the 88th or Connaught Rangers.
- Patrick Grant, younger of Rothiemurchus.
- John Campbell of Ardsliginish.
- Alexander Campbell, brother to Barcaldine,
- Donald Macdonell of Lochgarry.
- Cohn Campbell of Genure. (Later murdered in 1752. See Appin Murder).
- James Stewart of Urrard.
- John Martin of Inch.
- George Munroe of Novar.
- Malcolm Ross, younger of Pitcalnie.
- Hugh Mackay.
- James Fraser.
- David Spalding of Ashintully.
- Archibald Campbell.
- Donald Macneil.
- Alexander Maclagan, son of the minister of Little Dunkeld.
- Robert Bisset of Glenelbert, afterwards commissary-general of Great Britain.
- John Grant, younger of Dalrachnie.
- Pollard, Tony. (2009). Culloden: The History and Archaeology of the last Clan Battle. pp. 71 to 72. ISBN 978-1-84884-020-1.
- Browne, James. (1840). A history of the Highlands and of the Highland clans. Volume 4. Glasgow. pp. 240-241. " ...from 1450, are now reduced to 330 ...".