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Louis B. Rosenberg

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Louis Barry Rosenberg
Rosenberg in 2022
Alma materStanford University
UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television
ChildrenZoe Rosenberg
Scientific career
FieldsArtificial intelligence, augmented reality, virtual reality, haptic technology
Thesis"Virtual fixtures": perceptual overlays enhance operator performance in telepresence tasks (1994)
Doctoral advisorLarry John Leifer

Louis Barry Rosenberg (born 1969) is an American engineer, researcher, inventor, and entrepreneur.[1] He researches augmented reality, virtual reality, and artificial intelligence. He was the Cotchett Endowed Professor of Educational Technology at the California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. He founded the Immersion Corporation and Unanimous A.I., and he wrote the screenplay for the 2009 romantic comedy film, Lab Rats.

Rosenberg developed artificial swarm intelligence, which is intended to amplify the collective intelligence of networked human groups (2014–2023),[2][3][4] He developed the haptic computer mouse and haptic GUI (1993–1999)[5][6] and did work to develop augmented reality at the Air Force Research Laboratory (1991–1994).[7][8][9]

Early life and family

Rosenberg in 1992 developing early Augmented Reality / Mixed Reality system (US Air Force, Virtual Fixtures project)

Louis Rosenberg was born in 1969.[10] His parents purchased his first computer in 1980 and he began writing programs. He has said, "If I spelled things wrong it would give me a syntax error and let me try again... that's a helpful feature for someone who is dyslexic."[11]

Rosenberg earned a B.S. (1991), M.S. (1993), and Ph.D. (1994) in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford University.[12] His daughter, Zoe Rosenberg, is an animal rights activist.[13]



From 1991 to 1994, Rosenberg was a researcher of virtual and augmented reality at Stanford University,[14] NASA Ames Research Center,[15] and Air Force Research Laboratory (formerly Armstrong Laboratory).[16][17]

In 1993, Rosenberg founded Immersion Corporation, and later served as its CEO until 2000.[18][19]

In 1999, Logitech released the first haptic-enabled computer mouse using FEELit technology he developed with other researchers at Immersion Corporation.[20][21][22] As CEO, he brought the company public on NASDAQ in 1999 and it remains public today trading as "IMMR" as a part of Russell 2000 component.[23][24][25]

In 2002, Rosenberg founded Outland Research, a company that developed augmented reality technology.[26]

In 2005, Rosenberg joined the faculty of California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly), as an assistant professor.[27] Later, he became the Cotchett Endowed Professor of Educational Technology at Cal Poly.[28][29][30]

In 2014, Rosenberg founded Unanimous A.I. on the basis of a novel technology known as Artificial Swarm Intelligence, which is based on the decision-making abilities of biological swarms and is utilized to enhance the collective intelligence of networked human groups.[31][32][33]

Rosenberg has been a vocal critic of the potential risks that virtual reality, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence pose to society in recent years.[34][35] He has written about these technologies for VentureBeat[36] and Big Think.[26]


Virtual Fixtures (Medical Concept 1991)

In 2014, Rosenberg started research in a relatively new sub-field of AI, now known as, artificial swarm intelligence (swarm AI in short), that aims to amplify the intelligence of human groups using AI algorithms modeled on biological swarms.[8][37][38][39][40] In 2014, he founded Unanimous A.I., an artificial intelligence company.[2][41] He has served as the company's CEO since the company was founded.[8]

Rosenberg conducted early research into virtual and augmented reality at NASA's Ames Research Center and at the Air Force Research Laboratory, developing the Virtual Fixtures platform, one of the first prototype augmented reality systems to enable human subjects to interact with mixed reality of real and virtual objects.[18][22][42][43]

From 2018 to 2020, Rosenberg collaborated with researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine on a National Science Foundation funded study conducted on groups of radiologists, which was published in Nature Digital Medicine on "Human–machine partnership with artificial intelligence for chest radiograph diagnosis", related to the symbiosis of human experts and AI deep learning algorithms.[44][45][4][46] With the help of researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he studied applications of Swarm AI in order to create so-called "hive minds" of financial analysts for equity markets.[47][45]

Rosenberg's research has focused on using AI algorithms modeled on biological swarms to support group decision-making in various fields including forecasting, estimation, and diagnosis.[37][38][8]



Rosenberg studied screenwriting at UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television.[48] In 2009, he wrote the screenplay for the short romantic comedy film Lab Rats directed by Sam Washington. The short won awards at the Moondance International Film Festival and the Ventura Film Festival.[49] He also wrote a feature film screenplay entitled The Manuscript in collaboration with another writer, Joe Rosenbaum, which was sold in 2018 for screen adaptation.[50][51]

Selected publications

  • Rosenberg, L.B. (1993). "Virtual fixtures: Perceptual tools for telerobotic manipulation". Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium. Seattle, WA, USA: IEEE. pp. 76–82. doi:10.1109/VRAIS.1993.380795. ISBN 978-0-7803-1363-7. S2CID 9856738.
  • Jackson, Bernie G.; Rosenberg, Louis B. (1995). "Force Feedback and Medical Simulation". Interactive Technology and the New Paradigm for Healthcare: 147–151. doi:10.3233/978-1-60750-862-5-147.
  • Rosenberg, Louis B.; Brave, Scott (April 10, 1996). "Use of force feedback to enhance graphical user interfaces". Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers . 2653: 243–248. Bibcode:1996SPIE.2653..243R. doi:10.1117/12.237444.
  • Graylin, Alvin Wang; Rosenberg, Louis (2024). Our Next Reality: How the AI-powered Metaverse Will Reshape the World. Hodder And Stoughton Limited. ISBN 978-1-3998-1225-2. Retrieved March 21, 2024.


  1. ^ Burrows, Peter (October 21, 1996). "Trying To Stick It To Microsoft". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on September 19, 2022.
  2. ^ a b Oxenham, Simon (December 15, 2016). "Why bees could be the secret to superhuman intelligence". BBC.
  3. ^ Collins, Terry (May 30, 2016). "AI startup taps human 'swarm' intelligence to predict winners". CNET.
  4. ^ a b Liu, Fan (September 27, 2018). "Artificial swarm intelligence diagnoses pneumonia better than individual computer or doctor". Stanford Daily.
  5. ^ Eisenberg, Anne (February 25, 1999). "What's Next; Snuggling Up to Touchly-Feely Mouse". The New York Times.
  6. ^ Noer, Michael (September 21, 1998). "Desktop fingerprints". Forbes.
  7. ^ Witt, Toni (March 19, 2022). "XR pioneer calls for metaverse regulation". VentureBeat.
  8. ^ a b c d J.Ryan, Kevin (June 14, 2018). "This Startup Correctly Predicted the Oscars, World Series, and Super Bowl. Here's What It's Doing Next". Inc.
  9. ^ Robinson, Dan (October 4, 2018). "Meet the tech pioneer behind Unanimous AI – who wants to revolutionise healthcare and betting markets".
  10. ^ "Louis B. Rosenberg in the U.S., Public Records Index, 1950-1993, Volume 1". www.ancestry.com. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  11. ^ Ketchum, Pat (Spring 2007). "Dyslexia To Design: Professor Pioneers New Learning Synergy". Cal Poly Magazine. 11 (1): 24–25. A firm believer in the power of technology to help people learn, he says his career has allowed him to focus on studying human perception, bending the rules, twisting the perspective -and using his personal experiences with dyslexia as a source of insight.
  12. ^ "Louis Rosenberg, PhD 94, MS 93, BS 91 in Mechanical Engineering". Stanford University Alumni.
  13. ^ "Activist". The Tribune. April 27, 2018. pp. A4. Retrieved October 15, 2022.
  14. ^ "VSEL/Telepresence home page". Virtual Space Exploration Lab and related Telepresence projects. March 9, 1994. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  15. ^ "Force Feedback Joystick | NASA Spinoff". NASA Spinoff. 1997. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  16. ^ "Louis Rosenberg". IEEE Xplore. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  17. ^ "Will Augmented Reality Lead the Next Communication Revolution?". BU College of Communication. September 14, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  18. ^ a b "Feel Me". Forbes Archives. March 20, 2000.
  19. ^ Baxter, Brian (September 2, 2021). "Immersion Elevates Legal Head to CEO Amid Patent Battles". Bloomberg Law.
  20. ^ "Mousing with Good Vibrations". Wired. August 11, 1990.
  21. ^ Takahashi, Dean (November 20, 1997). "New Mice Let You Shimmy And Shake Across Your Screen". The Wall Street Journal.
  22. ^ a b "Force Feedback Joystick". NASA Spinoff.
  24. ^ "Equity Market Offerings Set For This Week". The New York Times. November 8, 1999 – via NYTimes.com.
  25. ^ "Ftse Russell". FTSE Russell. March 20, 2024.
  26. ^ a b "Louis Rosenberg". Big Think. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  27. ^ "Mechanical Engineering Highlights". Cal Poly College of Engineering 2005-2006 Annual Report: 17. 2006. Other new faculty included Bently Endowed Professor Julia Wu and Assistant Professor Lou Rosenberg.
  28. ^ Wilson, Nick (February 18, 2017). "San Luis Obispo firm uses bees as inspiration for predicting outcomes". The Tribune. San Luis Obispo, California. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  29. ^ Rosenberg, Louis (June 21, 2004). "The Design of a Constructivist Learning Experience that uses GPS Technology". ED-MEDIA Worldwide Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications Proceedings: Lugano, Switzerland: 4837–4841. NOTE: At the time of publication, the author Louis Rosenberg, was affiliated with Santa Clara University. Currently, January 2008, he is a faculty member of the Department of Graduate Studies in Education in the College of Education at California Polytechnic State University- San Luis Obispo.
  30. ^ "MEʼs Rosenberg honored as one of SLOʼs "Top 20 under 40"". Engineering Advantage: 16. Spring 2007.
  31. ^ "AI-Human "Hive Mind" Diagnoses Pneumonia - IEEE Spectrum". spectrum.ieee.org.
  32. ^ "Unanimous AI launches Swarm, a platform for 'amplifying' business decision-making with AI, in beta". March 5, 2019.
  33. ^ "How 'artificial swarm intelligence' uses people to make better predictions than experts". TechRepublic. January 22, 2016.
  34. ^ "Tech Pioneer Warns Rise Of AI Will Be As Dangerous As Alien Invasion". UNILAD. May 15, 2022.
  35. ^ "AI Weekly: Is AI alien invasion imminent?". May 19, 2022.
  36. ^ Rosenberg, Louis (February 24, 2023). "The profound danger of conversational AI". VentureBeat. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  37. ^ a b Gent, Edd (May 13, 2020). "How AI can help us harness our 'collective intelligence'". BBC.
  38. ^ a b Purdy, Mark; Ray Eitel-Porter, Ray; Klymenko, Max (April 23, 2020). "How Swarm Intelligence Blends Global and Local Insight". MIT Sloan Management Review.
  39. ^ "How 'artificial swarm intelligence' uses people to make better predictions than experts". Tech Republic. January 22, 2016.
  40. ^ "Artificial Swarm Intelligence and The Power of the Human Element". Cal Poly Business. November 21, 2019.
  41. ^ Cuthbertson, Anthony (January 25, 2016). "Swarm Intelligence: AI Algorithm Predicts the Future". Newsweek.
  42. ^ Makhataeva, Zhanat; Varol, Huseyin Atakan (June 2020). "Augmented Reality for Robotics: A Review (Section: A Brief History of AR)". Robotics. 9 (2). MDPI: 21. doi:10.3390/robotics9020021.
  43. ^ "Will Augmented Reality Lead the Next Communication Revolution?". sites.bu.edu. Center for Mobile Communication Studies. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  44. ^ Patel, Bhavik N.; Rosenberg, Louis; Willcox, Gregg; Baltaxe, David; Lyons, Mimi; Irvin, Jeremy; Rajpurkar, Pranav; Amrhein, Timothy; Gupta, Rajan; Halabi, Safwan; Langlotz, Curtis; Lo, Edward; Mammarappallil, Joseph; Mariano, A. J.; Riley, Geoffrey; Seekins, Jayne; Shen, Luyao; Zucker, Evan; Lungren, Matthew P. (February 2019). "Human–machine partnership with artificial intelligence for chest radiograph diagnosis". npj Digital Medicine. 2: 111. doi:10.1038/s41746-019-0189-7. PMC 6861262. PMID 31754637.
  45. ^ a b "SBIR Phase I: MedSwarm, an Artificial Intelligence System for Medical Decision Making". National Science Foundation.
  46. ^ Scudellari, Megan (September 13, 2018). "AI-Human "Hive Mind" Diagnoses Pneumonia A small group of doctors moderated by AI algorithms made a more accurate diagnosis than individual physicians or AI alone". IEEE Spectrum.
  47. ^ "Prepare for the power of the swarm! by Hazel Tang, March 8 2021". Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. March 8, 2021.
  48. ^ Messer, Erin C. (April 9, 2014). "Local publisher Outland Pictures' new graphic novel, 'Monkey Room,' explores the collective unconscious". New Times. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  49. ^ "Dr. Louis B. Rosenberg Bio". Lifeboat Foundation.
  50. ^ Ritman, Alex (February 15, 2018). "Scott Eastwood Joins Thriller 'Manuscript,' Nick Cassavetes to Direct (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter.
  51. ^ "'Paper Trail' grows with SKE". Variety. October 25, 2011.