Louis De Geer (1587–1652)
Louis De Geer (Liège, 17 November 1587 – Amsterdam, 19 June 1652) was a Walloon merchant and industrialist. He is considered the father of Swedish industry for introducing Walloon blast furnaces in Sweden. He produced cannons for the German protestant movement, but also for the Dutch admirals and the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company.
De Geer was born in Liège in the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. He was a brother-in-law of the famous Dutch author P.C. Hooft. In those days Liège was already famous for its iron ore. He set up as a coppersmith in Rouen and in 1611 eventually reached Dordrecht. Having earned a fortune as a banker and industrialist he moved to Amsterdam in 1615. Owing to his extensive travels he received a good education in business.
With the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War the demand for weapons increased enormously. In 1618, De Geer delivered weapons to Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, the Swedish king. Impressed by his business instincts the Swedish government allowed him to lease estates near Finspång, Östergötland in eastern Sweden proper. Before long, De Geer had established a formidable workshop industry there. In 1623 he was active in a Swedish trading company.
The Swedish government continued to support him and De Geer received the monopoly on the copper and iron trade. De Geer, who adopted Sweden as his second home country, immigrated to Sweden in 1627. He hoped to evade paying toll in de Sont. In 1634, he bought "Het Huis met de Hoofden" on the Keizersgracht in Amsterdam. His wife died after the birth of their sixteenth child.
In 1640, De Geer travelled again to Sweden and was ennobled. In his new status he was able to buy 3/4 of the leased farmlands. As of 2011[update] his estate in Stockholm houses the Dutch embassy in Sweden.
Working for Axel Oxenstierna he went to Amsterdam to support the war against Denmark. In 1644, at the start of the Torstenson War against Denmark, he singlehandedly equipped an armada of ships to sail against Denmark. This fleet contained a complete marine, 32 ships with sailors, weaponry and officers. The Swedes were able to conquer Fehmarn in Denmark, thanks to his aid. De Geer is also considered responsible for the Swedish Africa Company. When he founded the company a riot started in Amsterdam in 1649. His family also provided shelter to pacifist and humanist Comenius in his home in Amsterdam. He died in 1652 after falling ill during another voyage to Sweden. He returned to Amsterdam and died there.