Louis Harold Gray
|Louis Harold Gray|
10 November 1905|
Richmond upon Thames, England
|Died||9 July 1965(aged 59)|
|Known for||Bragg–Gray cavity theory
|Notable awards||Fellow of the Royal Society|
|Author abbrev. (botany)|
Louis Harold Gray (10 November 1905 – 9 July 1965) was an English physicist who worked mainly on the effects of radiation on biological systems, inventing the field of radiobiology as he went. A summary of his work is given below. Amongst many other achievements, he defined a unit of radiation dosage which was later named after him as an SI unit, the gray.
- 1933 - Hospital physicist at Mount Vernon Hospital, London
- 1936 - Developed the Bragg-Gray equation, the basis for the cavity ionization method of measuring gamma-ray energy absorption by materials
- 1937 - Built an early neutron generator at Mount Vernon Hospital
- 1938 - Studied biological effects of neutrons using the generator
- 1940 - Developed concept of RBE (Relative Biological Effectiveness) of doses of neutrons
- 1952 - Initiated research into cells in hypoxic tumors and hyperbaric oxygen
- 1953 - Established the Gray Laboratory at Mount Vernon Hospital
- 1953 - 1960 - Under Gray's direction, Jack W. Boag developed pulse radiolysis
- 1962 - Ed Hart, of Argonne National Laboratory, and Jack Boag discovered the hydrated electron using pulse radiolysis at the Gray Laboratory - This discovery initiated a new direction of research that is still very active today and is vital for understanding the effects of radiation on biological tissue, for instance in cancer treatment.
- Loutit, J. F.; Scott, O. C. A. (1966). "Louis Harold Gray 1905-1965". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 12: 195. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1966.0009.
- IPNI. L.H.Gray.
- Louis Harold Gray F.R.S. - a chronology, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute, 29 June 2000, retrieved 2014-04-04
- Slipman, Curtis W.; Chou, Larry H.; Derby, Richard; Simeone, Frederick A.; Mayer, Tom G. (2008), Interventional spine: an algorithmic approach, Elsevier Health Sciences, p. 230–231, ISBN 0-7216-2872-9
- Definition of RBE
- The LH Gray Memorial Trust founded in 1967
- Cancer Research UK and Medical Research Council Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology