Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse

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Louis I
Ludwik I, Wielki Książę Hesji-Darmstadt.JPG
Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
Reign 14 August 1806 – 6 April 1830
Successor Louis II
Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Reign 6 April 1790 – 14 August 1806
Predecessor Louis IX
Born (1753-06-14)14 June 1753
Prenzlau, Brandenburg
Died 6 April 1830(1830-04-06) (aged 76)
Darmstadt, Hesse
Spouse Princess Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
Issue Grand Duke Louis II
Princess Louise
Prince George
Prince Frederick
Prince Emil
Prince Gustav
House Hesse-Darmstadt
Father Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Mother Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
Grand Ducal Family of
Hesse and by Rhine
Wappen-HD (1902-1918).svg
Louis I
Louis II
Louise, Princess Louis of Anhalt-Köthen
Prince Georg
Prince Friedrich
Prince Emil
Prince Gustav

Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse (14 June 1753 in Prenzlau – 6 April 1830 in Darmstadt) was Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (as Louis X) and later the first Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine.


Louis was the son of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and succeeded his father in 1790. He presided over a significant increase in territory for Hesse-Darmstadt during the imperial reorganizations of 1801-1803, most notably the Duchy of Westphalia, hitherto subject to the Archbishop of Cologne. Allied to Napoleon, Louis in 1806 was elevated to the title of a Grand Duke of Hesse and joined the Confederation of the Rhine, leading to the dissolution of the Empire. At the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, Louis had to give up his Westphalian territories, but was compensated with the district of Rheinhessen, with his capital Mainz on the left bank of the Rhine. Because of this addition, he amended his title to Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine.

In 1844, a 33-meter column called Langer Ludwig (meaning Long Louis), was set up In his commemoration in the middle of the Luisenplatz, the largest square of Darmstadt.

Marriage and family[edit]

In 1776, he became engaged to Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg, eldest daughter of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg. The engagement was broken off so that Sophia Dorothea could marry Louis's recently widowed brother-in-law Tsarevich Paul Petrovich, son and heir of Catherine II "the Great", Empress of Russia. He received a monetary compensation when the engagement was broken.

On 19 February 1777, Louis married his first cousin, Princess Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt ( 15 February 1761 – 24 October 1829), a daughter of Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt. Together, they had eight children:

  • Louis, later Grand Duke Louis II of Hesse (26 December 1777 – 16 June 1848). Married Wilhelmine of Baden and had issue.
  • Louise (16 January 1779 – 18 April 1811). Married Louis of Anhalt-Köthen and had issue.
  • George (31 August 1780 – 17 April 1856). Married, morganatically, Caroline Török de Szendrö and had issue.
  • Frederick (14 May 1788 – 16 March 1867)
  • Stillborn twin daughters (11 May 1789).
  • Emil (3 September 1790 – 30 April 1856)
  • Gustav (18 December 1791 – 30 January 1806)


16. Louis VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
8. Ernest Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
17. Princess Elisabeth Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
4. Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
18. Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
9. Princess Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach
19. Countess Sophia Margaret of Oettingen-Oettingen
2. Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
20. Johann Reinhard II, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg
10. Johann Reinhard III, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg
21. Countess Palatine Anna Magdalena of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler
5. Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg
22. John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
11. Princess Dorothea Friederike of Brandenburg-Ansbach
23. Margravine Johanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach
1. Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
24. Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler
12. Christian II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
25. Countess Palatine Magdalene Catherine of Zweibrücken
6. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
26. Johann Jacob, Count of Rappoltstein
13. Countess Katharina Agathe of Rappoltstein
27. Wild- and Rhinegravine Anna Claudia of Salm-Kyrburg
3. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
28. Gustav Adolph, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
14. Louis Crato, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
29. Countess Eleonore Klara of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
7. Countess Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken
30. Henry Frederick, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
15. Countess Philippine Henriette of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
31. Countess Juliana Dorothea of Castell-Remlingen

External links[edit]

Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse
Cadet branch of the House of Hesse
Born: 14 June 1753 Died: 6 April 1830
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis IX
Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Title abolished
New title Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
Succeeded by
Louis II