Louis Théodore Gouvy
Gouvy was born into a French-speaking family in the village of Goffontaine, in the Sarre, a region along the Franco-Prussian border (now Saarbrücken-Schafbrücke, Germany). The family was of Belgian descent. Gouvy's great-grandfather Pierre came from Goffontaine, a Belgian village near Liège and around 1753 at the time being mayor of Saarlouis named his ironworks factory "Goffontaine", now Saarbrücken. Gouvy is also a village in Belgium, near the border to Luxemburg. Because this region fell under Prussian control shortly before his birth, Théodore Gouvy could not attain French citizenship until the age of 32. He began piano lessons with a private tutor at the age of eight, and was educated in France—Sarreguemines, then Metz—developing a keen interest in Classical Greek culture and in modern languages—not only German, which he spoke fluently, but English and Italian as well. In 1837 he went to Paris to study law, continuing his piano lessons with a pupil of the pianist and composer Henri Herz (1803–1888) and became friendly with Adolphe Adam. This led to further music studies in Paris and Berlin. Unable to pursue music instruction at the Conservatoire de Paris, he took up private courses.
Gouvy was a man of two cultures, divided between France and Germany, from which he drew his inspiration, his characteristics and his force. While to a certain extent he was known and recognized in his lifetime, he fell into obscurity following his death. Gouvy, drawn toward pure instrumental music as opposed to opera, set himself the unenviable task of becoming a French symphonist. It was unenviable because the French, and especially the Parisians, throughout most of the 19th century were opera-mad and not particularly interested in pure instrumental music. It was this disdain for instrumental music in general which led to Gouvy living the last third of his life almost entirely in Germany where he was much appreciated.
During his lifetime, his compositions, and especially his chamber music, were held in high regard and often performed in those countries (Germany, Austria, England, Scandinavia, and Russia) where chamber music mattered. But in France, he never achieved real acclaim. Gouvy was universally acknowledged for being a master of form and for his deft sense of instrumental timbre. Mendelssohn and Schumann were his models and his music developed along the lines one might have expected of those men had they lived longer. Virtually all of his works show that he was a gifted melodist whose music is a joy to hear.
Hector Berlioz wrote in the Journal des Débats of April 13, 1851: "[t]hat a musician of the importance of M. Gouvy is still not very well known in Paris, and that so many gnats bother the public with their tenacious buzzing, it is enough to confuse and inflame the naive spirits that still believe in the reason and the justice of our musical manners".
Berlioz's favorable reviews had little effect, and Gouvy's music continued to be neglected until the end of the 20th century. In 1994, his Requiem, with its vigorous Dies iræ, was revived by the Lorraine Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Jacques Houtmann (who recorded a CD of the work, which appeared the K617 label). Stylistically the composition owes something to Mendelssohn, something to Gounod, and something to Verdi, but remains quietly original despite these influences.
Although his work comprises more than two hundred compositions, including 90 opuses published in his lifetime, it largely remains ignored. In particular, he wrote twenty-four compositions for a full orchestra, including nine symphonies, as well as overtures and variations. Chamber music comprises a large portion of Gouvy's work and accounts in particular for four sonatas in duet form, five trios, eleven quartets, seven quintets, an enormous piano repertoire — for two and four hands — and for two pianos, several scores for wind instrument ensembles, as well as many melodies and Lieder. We also know of five great dramatic cantatas (Aslega, Œdipe à Colone, Iphigénie en Tauride, Électre, and Polyxène), two operas (Le Cid and Mateo Falcone) as well as some large religious works, including a Requiem, a Stabat Mater, a Messe brève, and the cantata Golgotha.
A list of his works was compiled by François-Joseph Fétis and Arthur Pougin. Important part of his compositions has not been published during his life. It is now the major aim of the Institut Théodore Gouvy.
- Symphony No. 1 in E♭ major, Op. 9 (1845)
- Serenade for strings, Op.11
- Symphony No. 2 in F major, Op. 12 (1848)
- Le Giaour Overture, Op.14
- Symphony No. 3 in C major, Op. 20 (1850) (premiered by 1854 in Leipzig)
- Symphony No. 4 in D minor, Op. 25 (1855) (premiered 1856 at Gürzenich)
- Symphony No. 5 in B♭ major, Op. 30 (pub.1868)
- Symphonie brève; variations et rondo pour orchestre in G minor, Op. 58 (1855?)
- Jeanne d'Arc (Concert Overture) (1858)
- Fantaisie symphonique in G minor, Op. 69 (1879)
- Sinfonietta in D major, Op. 80 (1885)
- Symphony No. 6 in G minor, Op. 87 (1889-1892)
- Paraphrases symphoniques, Op. 89 (1886)
- Le Festival Overture
- 4 Pieces for String Orchestra
- Swedish Dance (tirée de l'Otteto), Op. 71
- Tragic March for organ and orchestra
- Variations for Orchestra on Theme of Scandinavia
- Fantasie Pastorale for violin and orchestra
- Hymne et marche triomphale
- Piano Trio No．1 Op．8 (1844)
- Piano Trio No．2 Op．18 (1847)
- String Quartet in E minor (1848)
- String Quartet in D major (1848)
- String Quartet in A minor (1848)
- String Quartet in B major (1855)
- Piano Trio No．3 Op．19 (1855)
- String Quartet No．1 in B♭ major Op．16-1 (1857)
- String Quartet No．2 Op．16-2 (1857)
- Piano Trio No．4 Op．22 (1858)
- Decameron, 10 Pieces for cello and piano Op．28 (1860)
- Piano Trio No．5 Op．33 (1860)
- Piano Quintet in A major Op．24 (ca.1850)
- Serenade(Piano Quartet) Op．31 (1865)
- Duets for violin and piano Op．34
- Duets for violin and piano, Op．50
- String Quintet in E minor (1869)
- String Quintet No．1 in G major Op．55 (1870)
- String Quintet in B minor (1871)
- String Quintet in B♭ major (1872)
- String Quartet No．3 Op．56 No. 1 (1872)
- String Quartet No．4 Op．56 No. 2 (1873)
- Sonata for Violin and Piano in G minor Op．61 (1873)
- String Quintet in D minor (1873) (first version)
- 6 Duets for Cello and Piano (1872-1876)
- String Quartet No．5 Op．68 (1874)
- Sonata in G for clarinet and piano Op．67 (1875)
- Impromptu for Cello and Quartet (1878)
- String Quintet in D minor, 2nd version (1879)
- Octet No．1 Op．71 (1879)
- String Quintet in A minor (1880)
- Le Nonetto (1883)
- Octet No．2 in G minor (1884)
- Sérénade vénitienne in E minor for viola and piano (1875)
- String Quartet in G minor (1886)
- Septuor(Septet) inedit dedicated to Paul Taffanel (1887)
- String Quartet in G major (reconstruction：Pierre Thilloy) (1888)
- Petite Suite Gauloise Op．90 (1888)
- 2 Studies for piano Op．1 (1842)
- 20 Sérénades for piano (1855)
- Divertissement for 2 pianos
- Sonata for Piano Op．29
- Sonata in D minor for piano 4 hands Op．36
- Sonata in C minor for piano 4 hands Op．49 (1869)
- Sonata in F major for piano 4 hands Op．51 (1869)
- Variations on a French Theme for piano 4 hands Op．57
- 6 Morceaux for piano 4 hands Op．59
- Fantaisie in G minor for piano 4 hands op. 69 (1879)
- Scherzo and Aubade for piano 4 hands Op．77
- Ghribizzi Op．83
- 12 Choral Works for Men's voices Op．23 (1860)
- Requiem Op．70 (1874)
- Stabat Mater Op．65 (1875)
- La Religieuse (1875)
- Asléga (1876)
- Le Calvaire (1877)
- Missa Brevis Op．72 (1882)
- Spring (Frühlings Erwachen) Op．73 (1878)
- Oedipus in Colonna Op．75 (1880)
- Iphigénie en Tauride Op．76 (1883)
- Elektra Op．85 (1886)
- Egille Op．86 (1886)
- Polyxéne Op．88 (1894)
- Fortunato (1896)
- Le dernier Hymne d'Ossian
- Der Cid (1853) with libretto in German
- Mateo Falcone
- Gondoliera Op．2 (1842)
- 6 Songs after Moritz Hartmann Op．21 (1857)
- 20 German Poems Op．26
- 40 Poèmes de Ronsard Op．37, Op.41, Op.42, Op.44 (1876)
- Songs and Sonnets by Desportes Op．45 (1867)
- La pléiade francaise Op．48 (1876)
- Que dites-vous, que faites-vous, mignonne? (1866)
- Regrets (1866)
- Herbert Schneider & René Auclair (éd.) Théodore Gouvy 1819–1898. Bericht über den Internationalen Kongress / Actes du Colloque international. Saarbrücken / Hombourg-Haut'. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-487-13541-0.
- Wolfgang Birtel, "Zu Persönlichkeit und Werk des „saarländischen“ Komponisten Theodor Gouvy (1819-1898)", in Mitteilungen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für mittelrheinische Musikgeschichte, 38 (1979), p. 463-472.
- Dratwicki, Alexandre (éd.). "Théodore Gouvy: cantates, œuvres symphoniques et musique de chambre", book-record (3 CDs), Ediciones singulares/Palazetto Bru-Zane (Centre de musique romantique française), 2013.
- Otto-Adolf Klauwell, Theodor Gouvy. Sein Leben und seine Werke. Berlin: Harmonie, 1902.
- Rosenkranz, A. (1902). Novello's catalogue of orchestral music: a manual of the orchestral literature of all countries at Google Books, New York: Novello, Ewer & Co., page 51. OCLC 13278734.
- Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians: Ed. by J. A. Fuller Maitland, 1906 edition at Google Books, page 211
- published by Richault of Paris in the 1850s
- Recorded on cpo.
- Released on Sterling in early 2010
- Released on cpo in mid-2009
- Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, 3 Feb. 1854, p.61.
- Fétis' entry for Gouvy, volumes 3-4, pp. 73-4.
- The Neue Berliner Musikzeitung for 3 December 1856 notes a Leipzig performance from manuscript conducted by the composer in a concert of 25 November of that year. So premiered no later than 1856 at any rate.
- "Permanent Link for Catalog Entry at University of Michigan of Gouvy Symphony op. 58". Paris: S. Richault. 1880s. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
- published by Kistner in 1886 (Hofmeisters Monatsberichte, scanned images at ÖNB searchable at http://www.hofmeister.rhul.ac.uk/, the source for this)
- published by Breitkopf & Härtel in 1893
- "Theodore Gouvy Piano Quintet in A major, Op.24". Retrieved December 20, 2010.
- Free scores by Louis Théodore Gouvy at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- "Institut Théodore Gouvy". Archived from the original on February 15, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2012.
- French Symphonies From the Nineteenth Century To The Present. A Discography of CDs And LPs. Prepared by Michael Herman
- Fantaisie symphonique. III Alla breve. Deutsche Radio Philharmonie Saarbrücken Kaiserslautern, dir. Jacques Mercier.