Louis de Gorrevod
Louis de Gorrevod
|Church||San Cesareo in Palatio|
|Created Cardinal||9 March 1530
by Pope Clement VII
|Parents||Jean de Gorrevod
Jeanne de Loriol-Challes
Louis de Gorrevod was born in the province of Bresse, the property of the House of Savoy, perhaps in the city of Bourg, ca. 1472, the son of Jean de Gorrevod and Jeanne de Loriol-Challes. Jean de Gorrevod was the son of Hugonin Seigneur de Gorrevod; he had three brothers and a sister; Jean's brother Guillaume died without issue, but in his Testament, dated 19 September 1482, he left his property to his nephews Laurent and Louis. Louis' elder brother, Laurent, became a Councilor of Marguerite of Austria and Governor of Bresse, and was Baron of Montanay and Count of Pont-de-Vaux; he was one of the executors of Regent Marguerite's Last Will and Testament. Laurent and Louis also had a sister Jeanne.
Early in his career, he was a protonotary apostolic. He was also the Almoner of the Duke of Savoy. On 27 January 1499, he became a canon of the cathedral chapter of St. Pierre Cathedral in Geneva.
On 29 July 1499, five days after the death of Bishop Étienne de Morel, the ten canons who formed the Chapter of the Cathedral of Saint-Jean met to elect his successor. Names were proposed and discussed. When the vote was taken, they chose the twenty-six year old Louis de Gorrevod as their bishop. On 9 August 1499, his election as Bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne was approved, though he continued to live in Geneva. For Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne he was assigned an auxiliary bishop, Jean de Joly, titular Bishop of Hebron in the Holy Land.
Like his predecessor, Louis de Gorrevod was also Abbot Commendatory of the Monastery of S. Maria de Ambronay (Ambrogniaci), and Abbot Commendatory of the Monstery of St. Pierre de Berne. He was also ex officio patron of the Priory of Brou (founded by Marguerite of Austria in 1521) and a member of the college of the priests of the Church of Nôtre-Dame. In 1501, he had officiated at the marriage of Philibert II, Duke of Savoy and Margaret of Austria in Romain-Moûtiers. From 1507 to 1509, he occasionally carried out functions for François Brunaud, auxiliary bishop of Geneva and Vicar-General of the Diocese. From 1495 to 1509 there was no Bishop of Geneva. The diocese was being administered by the Bishop of Lausanne.
At the beginning of the sixteenth century the Bishops of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne still enjoyed considerable powers of both an ecclesiastical and political sort, as vassals of the Dukes of Savoy. On 2 March 1506 Bishop Louis de Gorrevod, in an act of reform, issued a set of Constitutions regulating the relationship between the bishop, his officers, the communes and vassals of the Bishopric. This applied particularly to the episcopal collectors of taxes, including the taille and the décime (dîme), and to the various officials who demanded endless paperwork, for each piece of which a fee was imposed.
On 17 May 1515 Pope Leo X elevated the diocese of Turin to the status of Metropolitan, with an Archbishop. Savoy was being highly favored. On 21 May he created the Archbishopric of Chambéry. The diocese of Bourg-en-Bresse was created on 21 May 1515 by the Bull Pro excellenti praeminentia of Pope Leo X, perhaps at the request of the Emperor Maximilian, perhaps at the request of the Emperor's daughter, Marguerite d'Autriche, whose dowry included Bresse, and certainly at the request of Duke Charles III. Bishop Louis de Gorrevod was one of four ambassadors sent to Rome to congratulate the new Pope, Leo X, on his election to the Papacy, and to thank him for the ecclesiastical promotions. The creation of the diocese of Bourg caused no pleasure to the Primate of the Gauls, the Archbishop of Lyon, François de Rohan, whose ecclesiastical territory had included Bresse. Nor did the increased prestige of Savoy and encroachment on Gaul please King Francis I of France. In 1515, Louis de Gorrevod became the first Bishop of Bourg-en-Bresse.
After the Battle of Marignano and the Concordat of 18 August 1516 between France and Leo X, the new diocese was suppressed. From 1516, therefore, Louis de Gorrevod was again only bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, and the Canons of his Cathedral of Bourg were only canons of a collegiate church. But the diocese was reestablished by Leo X on 13 November 1521, eighteen days before his death, and so therefore were the Bishop and Canons.
On 19 October 1528, Bishop de Gorrevod acted as proxy for Marguerite d'Autriche at the baptism of Prince Emanuel-Philibert, the future Duke of Savoy, in the Saint-Chapelle of the Castle of Chambéry.
Bishop Louis de Gorrevod was created a cardinal priest in the consistory of 9 March 1530 by Pope Clement VII. He received the red hat and the titular church of San Cesareo in Palatio on 16 May 1530. On 5 December 1530, the pope made him Papal Legate to all the domains of the Duke of Savoy, thereby making him the supreme ecclesiastical authority in the realms of the Duke of Savoy next after the Pope himself. It is said that Cardinal de Gorrevod resigned his see of Bourg-en-Bresse in favor of his nephew Jean-Philibert de Challes on 10 April 1532.
On 8 April 1534, Cardinal de Gorrevod presided over the ceremony of the transfer of the "Holy Shroud" (pannus Sindon nuncupatus), which had suffered serious damage from fire, from the Sainte Chapelle in the castle of Chambéry, where it was being kept by its owner the Duke of Savoy, to the Convent of the Poor Clares in Chambéry, where repair work was to be done on the cloth. The procès verbal of Cardinal de Gorrevod, giving full details of the event, survives.
Cardinal de Gorrevod died in Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne on 22 April 1535. He was buried in the cathedral of Saint-Jean-Baptiste in Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, before the high altar, where his memorial inscription gives the date of 1535:
Tit. Sancti Caesarei in Palatio Presbyter Cardinalis Maurianensis nuncupatus Sabaudiae Legatus,
qui hoc sacellum fundavit et dotavit, Anno Domini M.D.XXXV
- Chagny (1905), p. 150 note 4.
- Biography from the Biographical Dictionary of the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
- A Jean de Loriol was Bishop of Nice from 1501-1506. Eubel II, p. 202. Was he a relative? He had been Prior of Brou: Chagny (1905), p. 157.
- Samuel Guichenon (1650). Histoire de Bresse et de Bugey (in French). Lyon: chez Jean Antoine Huguetan. p. 193. This presumes that the data are accurate.
- Chagny (1905), p. 150 n. 2: Magister Laurencius de Gorrevodo, baro Montanesii, dominus de Challes et Corgenonis, locumtenens generalis, gubernator et baillivus Bressye.
- A. Chagny, Correspondance politique et administrative de Laurent de Gorrevod , conseiller de Marguerite d'Autriche et gouverneur de Bresse, lre partie, 1507-1520, (Macon, 1913). Samuel Guichenon (1778). Histoire généalogique de la royale maison de Savoie (in French). Tome second (nouvelle ed.). Turin: chez Jean-Michel Briolo. pp. 189 and 441. Laurent and his two wives are buried at Bresse.
- Marchand, F. (1902). Les Caveaux de Brou. Bourg: Courrier de l'Ain. p. 45.
- Eubel Hierarchia catholica II, p. 188 n. 5.
- Chagny (1905), pp. 194-195.
- The certificate of election is printed in: Alexis Billiet et; #91; J.; #93; Albrieux, eds. (1861). Chartes du diocèse de Maurienne: Documents recueillis (in French and Latin). Chambery: Puthod, fils. pp. 314–318, no. 140. The Acta Cameralia, quoted by Eubel (II, p. 188 n. 5) makes him 27a. agens.
- Eubel II, p. 188. His successor, Jean-Philibert de Challes, was appointed on 10 April 1532. The Duke of Savoy was also Count of Geneva.
- Louis-Anselme Boyer de Sainte-Marthe (1710). Histoire de l'église-cathédrale de Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux (in French). Avignon: Offray. p. 218. Joly was also from Bresse.
- Burnier, p. 255. Chagny, p. 152.
- Eubel Hierarchia catholica II, p. 188 n. 5. Chagny, p. 152.
- Collet, pp. 17 and 82.
- Chagny (1905), p. 155.
- Charles Buet (1878). Les ducs de Savoie aux XVe et XVIe siècles (in French). Tours: Impr. et lib. Mame et fils. pp. 281 and 318.
- Mooney, Canice (1962). "A French Bishop of Annaghdown". Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society. 30: 2. JSTOR 25535398. (Registration required (. ))
- Eubel, Hierarchia catholica II, p. 158.
- Burnier, p. 237.
- Pope Leo's brother Giuliano, Duc de Nemours, had married Philiberta of Savoy, sister of Charles III, Duke of Savoy, on 22 February 1515.
- Chagny (1907), p. 62. Francis I objected, and the creation was cancelled.
- Chagny (1907), pp. 63-64.
- Guichenon II, p. 197.
- Philibert Collet (1698). Explication des statuts, coutumes et usages observés dans la province de Bresse, Bugey, Valromay et Gex (in French). Lyon: chez Claude Carteron. p. 88.
- A. Chagny (1905). "L' éveché de Bourg-en-Bresse". Bulletin de la Société Gorini. 2: 39–49; 131–158. Chagny believed that de Gorrevod was born in Bresse.
- Chagny, p. 40.
- Buet, p. 336. Guichenon II, p. 232.
- Gulik and Eubel, p. 21, no. 21.
- Gulik and Eubel, p. 20 n. 21.
- Gulik and Eubel, p. 21 n. 4. in Ducatu et toto dominio Domini nostril Domini Saubadiae Ducis, tam citra quam ultra montes, etiam in Comitatu Gebennensis ac civitatibus et Dioecesi Gebennensi et Lausanensi Legatus de latere.
- Jean-Philibert was named the heir of Jeanne de Loriol, the Cardinal's mother, for the seigneurie of Corgenon: Guigue, M.-C. (1871). "Les fiefs de la Bresse". Revue d'histoire nobiliaire et d'archéologie héraldique. 6: 267.
- J. P. Adams, Sede Vacante 1534. Retrieved: 2016-05-22.
- Ian Wilson (2010). The Shroud: Fresh light on the 2000 year-old mystery. London: Bantam-Transworld. pp. 324–329. ISBN 978-1-4090-9470-8. The shroud was later taken to Turin.
- Samuel Guichenon (1780). Histoire généalogique de la royale maison de Savoie, justifiée par titres, fondations de monastères... et autres preuves authentiques (in Latin and French). Tome quatrieme (nouvelle ed.). Turin: J.-M. Briolo. pp. 497–499.
- David M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Diocese of Bourg-en-Bresse. Retrieved: 2016-05-19. The date given by Chagny, p. 41, 4 January 1534, cannot be completely accurate, since Paul III had not yet been elected. January 1534 (old style) was actually January 1535 (new style).
- Collet, p. 88, attributes the decision to the fact that Francis I of France had conquered the territory of Savoy, and that he demanded the return of Bresse to the diocese of Lyon.
- Claude Fleury (1781). Histoire ecclésiastique: pour servir de continuation à celle de ... l'Abbé Fleury. Depuis l'an 1535 jusqu'à l'an 1548 (in French). Tome dix-neuviéme. Caen: chez G. Le Roy. p. 67. Guichenon, Histoire de Bresse et du Bugey, p. 193. Aubery, pp. 403-404.
- Aubery, Antoine (1645). Histoire generalle des cardinaux dédiée à Monseigneur l'Eminentissime Cardinal Duc de Richelieu (in French). Troisieme partie. Paris: chez J. Jost. pp. 402–405.
- Chagny, André (1905). "L' éveché de Bourg-en-Bresse". Bulletin de la Société Gorini. 2: 131–158.
- Chagny, André (1906). "L' éveché de Bourg-en-Bresse (suite)". Bulletin de la Société Gorini. 3: 48–66; 144–176.
- Chagny, André (1907). "L' éveché de Bourg-en-Bresse (suite)". Bulletin de la Société Gorini. 4: 62–84.
- Burnier, Eugène (1863). "Les constitutions du Cardinal Louis II de Gorrevod, évêque de Maurienne et prince (1506). Étude historique". Mémoires et documents de la Societé Savoisienne d'Histoire de d'Archéologie. VII: 225–271.
- Guichenon, Samuel (1778). Histoire Genealogique de la Royale Maison de Savoie (in French). Tome II (nouvelle ed.). Turin: J.-M. Briolo.
- Konrad Eubel (1901). Hierarchia catholica medii aevi: 1434-1503 (in Latin). Volume II. Munster: Monasterii, sumptibus et typis librariae Regensbergianae.
- Gulik, Guilelmus van; Konrad Eubel (1923). L. Schmitz-Kallenberg, ed. Hierarchia catholica medii aevi (in Latin). Volume III (editio altera ed.). Münster: sumptibus et typis librariae Regensbergianae.