Louise Blanchard Bethune
|Louise Blanchard Bethune|
July 21, 1856|
Waterloo, New York
|Died||December 18, 1915
Buffalo, New York
|Practice||Buffalo, New York|
Louise Blanchard Bethune (July 21, 1856 – December 18, 1915) was the first American woman known to have worked as a professional architect. She was born in Waterloo, New York. Blanchard worked primarily in Buffalo, New York and partnered with her husband at Bethune, Bethune & Fuchs.
Bethune was born Jennie Louise Blanchard in Waterloo, New York in 1856. The Blanchard family moved to Buffalo, New York when she was a child. She graduated from the Buffalo Central High School in 1874. In 1881, she wed Canadian Robert A. Bethune (1855-1915), also an architect. Together they had one son, Charles William Bethune.
Bethune reportedly purchased the first woman's bicycle to go on sale in Buffalo. She was an active member of the Women's Wheel and Athletic Club.
Bethune planned on going to architecture school at Cornell. Instead, in 1876, she took a job working as a draftsman in the office of Richard A. Waite and F.W. Caulkins, well known architects in Buffalo, New York. At the time, it was more common to learn architecture while working for a firm rather than in a classroom.
In 1881, after five years in Waite's office, she opened an independent office partnering with Robert Bethune in Buffalo, earning herself the title of the nation's first professional woman architect.
Bethune was elected a member of the Western Association of Architects (WAA) in 1885. She later served a term as a vice president of the W.A.A. She was named the first female associate of the American Institute of Architects (A.I.A.) in 1888 and in 1889, she became its first female fellow.
In 1891, she refused to compete in a design competition for the Women's Building at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago because men were paid $10,000 to design buildings for the fair while the women got only $1,000.
Bethune designed mostly industrial and public buildings. She disliked working on residential projects because they paid poorly. She is especially known for designing public schools. Sadly, much of her work has since been demolished.
Her best-known design and masterpiece is the neoclassical Hotel Lafayette, which was commissioned for $1 million and completed in 1904. It has since undergone a $35 million restoration. The Bethune firm also designed the Denton, Cottier & Daniels music store, one of the first buildings in the United States to utilize a steel frame and poured concrete slabs. Three other Bethune buildings are still standing today: the Iroquois Door Plant Company warehouse; the large Chandler Street Complex for the Buffalo Weaving Company; and the Witkop and Holmes Headquarters (1901), which was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014.
Bethune retired in 1908 and died in 1915 at the age of 59. In 1910, between the time she retired and the time she died, there were 50 women working professionally as architects.
The former Buffalo Meter Company Building was renamed Bethune Hall in her honor, when it housed the Department of Art along with the School of Architecture and Planning of the University at Buffalo. It is now being redeveloped into the Bethune Lofts.
In 2013, Bethune's grave was given a new marker, which states,
JULY 21, 1856
DECEMBER 18, 1913" 
- Helen., Searing, (1998). Equal partners : men and women principals in contemporary architectural practice. Smith College. Museum of Art., Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art., Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive. Northampton, Mass.: Smith College Museum of Art. ISBN 0873910508. OCLC 39903039.
- Byrnes, Mark (June 21, 2013). "Remembering America's First Female Architect". CityLab (web magazine). The Atlantic. Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Ladies of the Wheel, Buffalo Morning Express, August 14, 1892. Reproduced online by fultonhistory.com. Retrieved 2012-03-10.
- "Louise Blanchard Bethune (1856-1913) America's First Female Professional Architect". Women in Architecture. University of Illinois. Archived from the original on July 6, 2004. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
- Maureen Meister (4 November 2014). Arts and Crafts Architecture: History and Heritage in New England. University Press of New England. pp. 235–. ISBN 978-1-61168-664-7.
- "National Register of Historic Places Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 7/07/14 through 7/11/14. National Park Service. 2014-07-18.
- Jennifer Walkowski (April 2010). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Buffalo Meter Company Building". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2013-02-21. See also: "Accompanying 16 photos".
- National Register of Historic Places Registration: Hotel Lafayette, June 2010
- Buffalo Feminist and America's First Woman Architect, Buffalo Architecture and History. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
- Buffalo History Museum: Louise Bethune Bibliography. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- Buffalo's Bethune: Illustrations of the exhibit held at The Buffalo History Museum in 2011