Louisiana (New Spain)

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Spanish colonial Louisiana
Luisiana española
Louisiane espagnole
District of New Spain

1762–1802
Flag Coat of arms
Cross of Burgundy Coat of arms
Location of New Spain
Louisiana (New Spain) (1762)
Capital Nueva Orleans
History
 •  Acquisition from France 1762
 •  Return to France 15 October 1802
Political subdivisions Upper Louisiana;
Lower Louisiana
Today part of  Canada
 United States
DeSoto claiming the Mississippi, as depicted in the United States Capitol rotunda

Louisiana (Spanish: Luisiana [lwiˈsjana], sometimes called Luciana[1]) was the name of an administrative Spanish Governorate belonging to the Captaincy General of Cuba, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans. Spain acquired the territory from France, which had named it La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV in 1682. It is sometimes known as Spanish Louisiana. The district was retroceded to France, under the terms of the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso (1800) and the Treaty of Aranjuez (1801). In 1802, King Charles IV of Spain published a royal bill on 15 October, effecting the transfer and outlining the conditions.

However, Spain agreed to continue administering the colony until French officials arrived and formalized the transfer (1803). The ceremony was conducted at the Cabildo in New Orleans on 30 November 1803, just three weeks before the formalities of cession from France to the United States pursuant to the Louisiana Purchase.

History[edit]

History of Louisiana
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana portal

Spain was largely a benign absentee landlord administering it from Havana, Cuba, and contracting out governing to people from many nationalities as long as they swore allegiance to Spain. During the American War of Independence, the Spanish funneled their supplies to the American revolutionists through New Orleans and the vast Louisiana territory beyond.

In keeping with being absentee landlords, Spanish efforts to turn Louisiana into a Spanish colony were usually fruitless. For instance, while Spanish officially was the only language of government, the majority of the populace firmly continued to speak French. Even official business conducted at the Cabildo often lapsed into French, requiring a translator on hand.[citation needed]

Slavery[edit]

When Alejandro O'Reilly re-established Spanish rule in 1769, he issued a decree on December 7, 1769, which banned the trade of Native American slaves.[2] Although there was no movement toward abolition of the African slave trade, Spanish rule introduced a new law called coartación, which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others.[3]

A group of maroons led by Jean Saint Malo resisted re-enslavement from their base in the swamps east of New Orleans between 1780 and 1784.[4]

Pointe Coupée conspiracy[edit]

On May 4, 1795, 57 slaves and three local white men were put on trial in Point Coupee. At the end of the trial 23 slaves were hanged, 31 slaves received a sentence of flogging and hard labor, and the three white men were deported, with two being sentenced to six years forced labor in Havana.[5]

Upper & Lower, or the Louisianas[edit]

In an orange tone: areas of the Spanish Louisiana around 1803, you can see the current North American states that it covered when occurred the Louisiana Purchase, to the west of the Spanish Louisiana were the Provincias Internas of the New Spain, to the northwest the disputed (between England, Spain, Russia and then the United States) Oregon territory and in the southeastern end of Spanish Florida.
Viceroyalty of the New Spain in 1800

Spanish colonial officials divided Luisiana into Upper Louisiana (Alta Luisiana) and Lower Louisiana (Baja Luisiana) at 36° 35' North, at about the latitude of New Madrid.[6] This was a higher latitude than during the French administration, for whom Lower Louisiana was the area south of about 31° North (the current northern boundary of the state of Louisiana) or the area south of where the Arkansas River joined the Mississippi River at about 33° 46' North latitude.

In 1764, French fur trading interests founded St. Louis in what was then known as the Illinois Country. The Spanish referred to St. Louis as "the city of Illinois" and governed the region from St. Louis as the "District of Illinois".[7]

In 1781 the French-Occitan marriage of Martin Lebleu and his wife, Dela Marion coming from the area of Bordeaux, accepting the Spanish nationality initiated the establishment (to about 10 km to the NE of its current site) of the town then called (in honor to the then Spanish king) Lago Carlos (today Lake Charles).

On the other hand, the Spanish authorities promoted important explorations that opened new commercial routes; the most famous are that of Pedro Vial, which inaugurated (following in part the tours of Vázquez de Coronado two centuries before) among others Santa Fe Trail (communicating Santa Fe del Yunque (Santa Fe, New Mexico) with San Luis (St. Louis), thereby linking New Mexico with Upper Louisiana. Another important Spanish explorer was Manuel Lisa, who departing from San Luis went northwest toward Montana inaugurating the Oregon Trail. Another of the Spanish official expeditions in those years was that of the then Lieutenant Facundo Melgares who, starting from the headwaters of the río Rojo (Red River) eastward, explored the course of the Red River (also called then Colorado although it should not be confused with the Colorado of the West) and soon after advancing to the north great part of the course of the river then called Napede, Napeste or Nexpentle River[8] (today Arkansas River) then return to the west arriving at Santa Fe del Yunque in New Mexico after entering great part of Louisiana.

Spanish communities in Louisiana[edit]

The Louisiana with the Spanish government had a real demographic revolution by facilitating the Spanish authorities a very important European immigration or of European origin (Cajuns, Isleños, Alsaceans, Americans etc.) with which the population of the Spanish Louisiana increased by 500% between 1763 and 1800, becoming inhabited by 50 000 inhabitants of European lineages, but the Spanish monopoly in the trade it meant a brake on the economy of such immigrants.

To establish Spanish colonies in Louisiana, the Spanish military leader Bernardo de Gálvez, governor of Louisiana at the time, recruited groups of Spanish-speaking Canary Islanders to emigrate to North America.[9] In 1778, several ships embarked for Louisiana with hundreds of settlers. The ships made stops in Havana and Venezuela, where half the settlers disembarked (300 Canarians remained in Venezuela). In the end, between 2,100[10] and 2,736[11] Canarians arrived in Louisiana and settled near New Orleans. They settled in Barataria and in what is today St. Bernard Parish. However, many settlers were relocated for various reasons. Barataria suffered hurricanes in 1779 and in 1780; it was abandoned and its population distributed in other areas of colonial Louisiana (although some of its settlers moved to West Florida).[12] In 1782, a splinter group of the Canarian settlers in Saint Bernard emigrated to Valenzuela.[11]

In 1779, another ship with 500 people from Málaga (in Andalusia, Spain), arrived in Spanish Louisiana. These colonists, led by Lt. Col. Francisco Bouligny, settled in New Iberia, where they intermarried with Cajun settlers.[13]

In 1782, during the American Revolutionary War and the Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83), Bernardo de Gálvez recruited men from the Canarian settlements of Louisiana and Galveston (in Spanish Texas, where Canarians had settled since 1779) to join his forces. They participated in three major military campaigns: the Baton Rouge, the Mobile, and the Pensacola, which expelled the British from the Gulf Coast. In 1790 settlers of mixed Canarian and Mexican origin from Galveston settled in Galveztown, Louisiana, to escape the annual flash floods and prolonged droughts of this area.[11]

In 1788 with about 2,000 Anglo-Saxon emigrants, Nueva Madrid was founded along the middle course of the Mississippi, at the same time the immigration of Cajuns (or Cadiens) was consolidated. Refugees from Acadia and the arrival of Canarians settlers called "Isleños" mainly to the Mississippi delta area. The "Isleños" were one of the population nuclei of Nueva Iberia, Barataria, Valenzuela, Villa Gálvez, Villa Española (Spanish Town) and La Parroquia de San Bernardo (St. Bernard Parish), among other localities.

Immigration from Saint-Domingue[edit]

Beginning in the 1790s, following the slave rebellion in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) that began in 1791, waves of refugees came to Louisiana. Over the next decade, thousands of migrants from the island landed there, including ethnic Europeans, free people of color, and African slaves, some of the latter brought in by the white elites. They greatly increased the French-speaking population in New Orleans and Louisiana, as well as the number of Africans, and the slaves reinforced African culture in the city.[14]

Timeline[edit]

French Control[edit]

The French established settlements in French Louisiana beginning in the 17th century. The French began exploring the region from French Canada.

Spanish control[edit]

The Cabildo, next to the Saint-Louis Cathedral (See photo below.)
Calle de San Luis in the French Quarter of New Orleans
St. Louis (San Luis) Cathedral (the sharp Neo-Gothic spiers have replaced the Spanish domes), on the former Plaza de Armas

French control[edit]

  • 1800 – In the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Napoleon secretly acquired the territory, but Spain continued to administer it.
  • 1801 – The United States was permitted again to use the port of New Orleans.
  • 1803 – The purchase of Louisiana by the United States was announced.
  • 1803 – Spain refused Lewis and Clark permission to travel up the Missouri River, since the transfer from France to the United States had not been made official; they spent the winter in Illinois at Camp Dubois.
  • 1803 – On November 30, 1803, Spanish officials formally conveyed the colonial lands and their administration to France.
  • 1803 – France turned over New Orleans, the historic colonial capital, to the United States on December 20, 1803.
  • 1804 – On March 9 and 10, 1804, another ceremony, commemorated as Three Flags Day, was conducted in St. Louis to transfer ownership of Upper Louisiana from Spain to the French First Republic, and then from France to the United States.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ In some Spanish texts of the time the name of Luciana appears instead of Louisiana, as is the case in the Plan of the Internal Provinces of New Spain made in 1817 by the Spanish militar José Caballero.
  2. ^ Midlo Hall, Gwendolyn (1992). Africans in Colonial Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press. p. 336. 
  3. ^ [1] Berquist, Emily. Early Anti-Slavery Sentiment in the Spanish Atlantic World, 1765–1817
  4. ^ Kaplan-Levenson, Lanie (2015-12-10). "More Than A Runaway: Maroons In Louisiana". WWNO-FM. New Orleans, Louisiana. Retrieved 2016-10-03. 
  5. ^ Midlo Hall, Gwendolyn (1992). Africans in Colonial Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press. p. 344. 
  6. ^ Reasonover, John R.; Michelle M. Haas (2005). Reasonover's Land Measures. Copano Bay Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-9767799-0-2. 
  7. ^ Ekberg, Carl (2000). French Roots in the Illinois Country: The Mississippi Frontier in Colonial Times. Urbana and Chicago, Ill.: University of Illinois Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 9780252069246. 
  8. ^ EOHC-ArkansasRiver
  9. ^ Santana Pérez, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Suárez, José Antonio. Emigración por Reclutamientos canarios en Luisiana (Emigration by Canarian recruitments in Louisiana). Servicio de Publicaciones, 1992. Page 133
  10. ^ G. Armistead, Samuel. La Tradición Hispano - Canaria en Luisiana (Hispanic Tradition - Canary in Louisiana). Pages 51 - 61. Anrart Ediciones. Ed: First Edition, March 2007.
  11. ^ a b c St. Bernard Isleños. LOUISIANA'S SPANISH TREASURE: Los Islenos. Retrieved December 22, 2011
  12. ^ Hernández González, Manuel. La emigración canaria a América (Canarian Emigration to the Americas). Pages 15 and 43 - 44 (about the expeditions and Canarian emigration of Florida and Texas), page 51 (about of the Canarian emigration to Louisiana). First Edition January, 2007
  13. ^ Din, Gilbert C. (Spring 1976). "Lieutenant Colonel Francisco Bouligny and the Malagueño Settlement at New Iberia, 1779". Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association. 17 (2): 187–202. JSTOR 4231587. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  14. ^ "The Slave Rebellion of 1791". Library of Congress Country Studies.
  15. ^ Bradshaw, Jim (27 January 1998). "Broussard named for early settler Valsin Broussard". Lafayette Daily Advertiser. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009.