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Scientific classification
(unranked): Excavata
Phylum: Loukozoa
Cavalier-Smith, 1999[1]

Loukozoa (From Greek loukos: groove[1]) is a paraphyletic taxon used in some classifications of excavate protists.[2][3]

The largest group within Loukozoa is the "Jakobids". Loukozoa, however, also includes Malawimonas. Although Jakobids and Malawimonas look rather similar, they are not specifically related to one another within Excavata, and Loukozoa is a paraphyletic group. Furthermore, molecular phylogenetic evidence suggests strongly that Jakobids are instead most closely related to Heterolobosea and Euglenozoa.[4]


  1. ^ a b Cavalier-Smith, T. (1999). "Principles of protein and lipid targeting in secondary symbiogenesis: Euglenoid, dinoflagellate, and sporozoan plastid origins and the eukaryote family tree". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 46 (4): 347–366. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1999.tb04614.x. PMID 18092388. 
  2. ^ Thomas Cavalier-Smith (November 2003). "The excavate protozoan phyla Metamonada Grassé emend. (Anaeromonadea, Parabasalia, Carpediemonas, Eopharyngia) and Loukozoa emend. (Jakobea, Malawimonas): their evolutionary affinities and new higher taxa". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53 (6): 1741–1758. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02548-0. PMID 14657102. 
  3. ^ Thomas Cavalier-Smith (2009). "Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 56 (1): 26–33. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x. PMID 19340985. 
  4. ^ Vladimir Hampl, Laura Hug, Jessica W. Leigh, Joel B. Dacks, B. Franz Lang, Alastair G. B. Simpson & Andrew J. Roger (February 2009). "Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic "supergroups"". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (10): 3859–3864. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.3859H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0807880106. PMC 2656170free to read. PMID 19237557.