Lourinhã Formation

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Lourinhã Formation
Stratigraphic range: Late Jurassic Kimmeridgian–Tithonian
Lourinhã Formation.jpg
Type Geological formation
Unit of Lusitanian Basin
Sub-units
  • Consolação Sub-Basin - Praia da Amoreira Member, Porto Novo Member, Santa Rita Member
  • Turcifal Sub-Basin - Praia Azul Member, Assenta Member,
Underlies Porto da Calada Formation
Overlies Consolação Formation, Alcobaça Formation
Thickness up to 400 metres (1,300 ft)
Lithology
Primary Sandstone, Mudstone
Other Conglomerate
Location
Country  Portugal
Extent Lisbon District

The Lourinhã Formation is a fossil rich geological formation in western Portugal, named for the municipality of Lourinhã. The formation is Late Jurassic in age (Kimmeridgian/Tithonian) and is notable for containing a fauna similar to that of the Morrison Formation in the United States and the Tendaguru beds in Tanzania. The stratigraphy of the formation and the basin in general is disputed, with the constituent member beds belonging to the formation varying between different authors[1]

Besides the fossil bones, Lourinhã Formation is well known for the fossil tracks[2] and fossilized dinosaur eggs.[3]

The Lourinhã Formation includes several lithostratigraphic units, such as Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Members and the Sobral Unit.[4]

Dinosaurs of the Lourinhã Formation[edit]

In a 2003 study, an analysis of all Portuguese dinosaurs was published. The study created a cladogram showing the possible relations of all Portuguese dinosaurs, including those at the time known from the Lourinhã Formation.[5]

Dinosauria
Ornithischia
Thyreophora

Lusitanosaurus

Eurypoda

Dacentrurus

Dracopelta

Ornithopoda
"Fabrosaurids"

Alocodon

Trimucrodon

Taveirosaurus

Euornithopoda
Hypsilophodontidae

Hypsilophodon

Phyllodon

Ankylopollexia

Dryosaurus

Draconyx

Iguanodon

Saurischia
Sauropoda

Supersaurus

Macronaria

Lourinhasaurus

Pleurocoelus

Lusotitan

Theropoda

Ceratosaurus

Tetanurae

Torvosaurus

Lourinhanosaurus

Allosaurus

Coelurosauria

Compsognathus

Stokesosaurus

Maniraptora

Richardoestesia

Euronychodon

Paronychodon

Aves

Saurichia[edit]

Theropods[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Genus Species Member Material Notes Images

Abelisauridae indet.[6]

Intermediate[6]

Teeth; ML 966, Ml 327.[6]

Potentially diagnostic abelisaur teeth.[6]

Allosaurus[7][8]

A. europaeus[7]

Porto Novo Member[7]

Two specimens, covering much of the body.[9]

Potentially a synonym of the type species, A. fragilis.

A. fragilis[8]

Porto Novo Member[7][8]

Two specimens, covering much of the body.[9]

Now thought to represent a distinct species of Allosaurus, A. europaeus.[7]

Ceratosaurus[7][10][11]

C. dentisulcatus[7][10]

  • Praia da Amoreira Member[7][10]
  • Amoreira-Porto Novo Member[12]

Four specimens; teeth, a femur.[7][10]

Potentially a synonym of the type species, C. nasicornis. Sometimes referred to as C. sp., giving indication of possible distinctiveness or of being intermediate.[12]

Dendroolithidae[3] Indeterminant Fragments of multiple eggs in a clutch, with associated embryonic remains.[3] Probably eggs of Torvosaurus.[3]

Lourinhanosaurus[5][13]

L. antunesi[5][13]

  • Sobral Member[13]
  • Amoreira-Porto Novo Member[12]

Three individuals, one largely complete; over 100 eggs with significant amount of skeletal material.[13]

Has come out in various places in the tree, erroneously said to be a megalosaur,[7] mostly accepted to be a carnosaur, probably allosauroid, or basal coelurosaur. Currently unstable on the tree.[13]

Reconstructed skeleton in the Museum of Lourinhã
Embryo

Megalosaurus[6]

M. insignis[6]

Teeth.[6]

Invalid. Teeth belong to various other theropod taxa.[6]

M. pombali[6]

Teeth.[6]

Invalid. Teeth belong to various other theropod taxa[6]

M. sp.[6]

Tooth fragment.[6]

Invalid; Dubious.[6]

Richardoestesia[6]

R. aff. gilmorei[6]

Tooth; ML 939[6]

Only definite record of this taxon is from the Late Cretaceous of North America, despite erroneous and referrals from other sites in Portugal. Probably a close relative of Richardoestesia and not an actual representation of the taxon.[6]

Torvosaurus[7][14]

T. gurneyi[14]

Maxilla, Teeth, Femur; Egg clutch and embryos.[3][7][14][15]

Largest known European theropod. Previous known as Portugal populations of the type species, or as T. sp., before description in early 2014.[14]

Skeletal restoration showing the size of T. gurneyi, known remains highlighted.

T. tanneri[14]

Maxilla, Teeth, Femur; Probable embryo.[13][14]

Now described as a distinct species of Torvosaurus, T. gurneyi. Sometimes referred to as T. sp. in the past.[14]

Sauropods[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Genus Species Member Material Notes Images

Dinheirosaurus[16][17]

D. lourinhanensis[16][17]

Amoreira-Porta Novo Member[12][16][17]

One specimen. Vertebrae; potentially other parts of the body.[16][17]

Junior synonym of Supersaurus.

Diplodocidae indet.[17]

Intermediate[17]

One Dorsal Vertebra[17]

Regarded by Mannion et al. (2012) as being unique from Dinheirosaurus and possibly indicating another diplodocid in the formation, but being non-diagnostic it doesn't warrant description.[17]

Lourinhasaurus[18]

L. alenquerensis[18]

  • Sobral Unit (or Sobral Formation) [18]

Lusotitan[19][20]

L. atalaiensis[19][20]

Fragmentary material.[19]

A large brachiosaur, a close relative of Brachiosaurus proper.[19]

Supersaurus[21]

S. lourinhanensis[21]

Amoreira-Porta Novo Member[21]

One specimen. Vertebrae; potentially other parts of the body.[21]

Previously Dinheirosaurus. Tschopp et al. (2015) sunk the genus into Supersaurus.[21]

Zby[12]

Z. atlanticus[12]

Amoreira-Porto Novo Member[12]

Holotype: Tooth, cervical neutral arch, forelimb, various other fragments.[12]

No described close relatives from the Morrison Formation or Tendaguru beds; instead allied to other European taxa. Note however teeth from the Tendaguru beds might belong to Turiasauria, as Zby.[12]

ZBY atlanticus one turiasaurian of Portugal.jpg

Ornithischia[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Genus Species Member Material Notes Images

Trimucrodon[5]

T. cuneatus[5]

Amoreira-Porto Novo Member[12]

Alocodon[5]

A. kuehnei[5]

Thyreophorans[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Genus Species Member Material Notes Images

Dacentrurus[22]

D. armatus[22]

Deltapodus[23]

D. brodricki[23]

Eleven tracks; Nine pes and two manus prints.[23]

The tracks can be separated into three different morphologies, though all fall within range of the taxon. Association of the pes and manus tracks to the same taxon cannot be directly supported. Preserve various well preserved skin impressions. Largest prints are larger than those from the type horizon. The tracks are individually represented and do not form any sort of trackway, thought one print is associated with giant ornithopod track,[24] potentially representing that the creatures were traveling together or were otherwise going to a similar location. Another is similarly associated with theropod and sauropod prints.[23]

Dracopelta[5]

D. zbyszewskii[5]

Miragaia[22]

M. longicollum[22]

  • Sobral Unit[22]
  • Amoreira-Porto Novo Member[12]

Holotype, neck, partial skull, forelimbs, ribs. Tentative juvenile specimen assigned to this taxon.[22]

Stegosaur with unusually long neck of 17 cervicals, with more neck vertebrae than most sauropods.[22]

Miragaia longicollum (fossil).jpg

Stegosaurus[25]

S. cf. ungulatus

Ornithopods[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Genus Species Member Material Notes Images

Camptosaurus[26]

Intermediate[26]

Limb material.[26]

Now referred to its own genus, Draconyx, along with some other material.[26]

Draconyx[26]

D. loureiroi[26]

Bombarral Member[26]

Two specimens; holotype, relatively incomplete, and a femur.[26]

Dryosaurus[5]

D. sp.[5]

Sobral Unit

Eousdryosaurus[27] E. nanohallucis[27] Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Formation[27]

Ornithopoda indet.[24]

Intermediate[24]

Single track.[24]

Gigantic track indicating an ornithopod with a hip height of 2.5 meters. No known Jurassic Ornithopod reaches this size; only known evidence for such sizes in this group at the time. Found alongside Deltapodus print.[24]

Phyllodon[5]

P. henkelli.[5]

Synapsids of the Lourinhã Formation[edit]

Docodonta[edit]

Genus Species Member Material Notes

Haldanodon

Haldanodon expectatus

Partial skeleton and isolated bones

Semi-aquatic forager.

Multituberculata[edit]

Dryolestoidea[edit]

Genus Species Member Material Notes

Nanolestes

Nanolestes drescherae

Right lower molar.

Amphitheriidae; small omnivore or insectiore.

Dryolestes

Dryolestes leiriensis

Left mandible.

Dryolestidae; insectivore or omnivore.

Guimarotodus

Guimarotodus inflatus

Right mandible.

Dryolestidae; insectivore or omnivore.

Krebsotherium

Krebsotherium lusitanicum

Left mandible.

Dryolestidae; insectivore or omnivore.

Drescheratherium

Drescheratherium acutum

Upper jaw.

Paurodontidae; herbivore.

Henkelotherium

Henkelotherium guimarotae

Semi-complete skeleton

Paurodontidae; arboreal insectivore or omnivore.

Flora of the Lourinhã Formation[edit]

Genus Species Member Material Notes Images

Pterophyllum

P. mondeguensis

P. sp.

Sphenolepis

S. coffati

See also[edit]

References cited[edit]

  1. ^ Mateus, O.; Dinis, J.; Cunha, P. P. (2017-09-28). "The Lourinhã Formation: the Upper Jurassic to lower most Cretaceous of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal – landscapes where dinosaurs walked". Ciências da Terra / Earth Sciences Journal. 19 (1): 75–97. doi:10.21695/cterra/esj.v19i1.355. ISSN 2183-4431.
  2. ^ Milàn, J; Christiansen, P; Mateus, O. "A three-dimensionally preserved sauropod manus impression from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal: implications for sauropod manus shape and locomotor mechanics". Kaupia. 14: 47–52.
  3. ^ a b c d e Araújo, R., Castanhinha R., Martins R. M. S., Mateus O., Hendrickx C., Beckmann F., Schell N., & Alves L. C. (2013). "Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal" (PDF). Scientific Reports. 3: 1924. Bibcode:2013NatSR...3E1924A. doi:10.1038/srep01924. PMC 3667465. PMID 23722524.
  4. ^ Weishampel, David B. et al. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic, Europe)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd ed., Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 545–549. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Antunes, M.T.; Mateus, O. (2003). "Dinosaurs of Portugal" (PDF). Comptes Rendus Palevol. 2 (1): 77–95. doi:10.1016/S1631-0683(03)00003-4.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Hendrickx, C., & Mateus O. (2014). "Abelisauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal and dentition-based phylogeny as a contribution for the identification of isolated theropod teeth". Zootaxa. 3759: 1–74. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3759.1.1. PMID 24869965.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Mateus, O., Walen A. and Antunes M. T. (2006). "The large theropod fauna of the Lourinhã Formation (Portugal) and its similarity to the Morrison Formation, with a description of a new species of Allosaurus". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 36: 123–129.
  8. ^ a b c Malafaia, E.; Ortega, F.; Escaso, F.; Dantas, P.; Pimentel, N.; Gasulla, J. M.; Ribeiro, B.; Barriga, F.; Sanz, J. L. (2010-12-10). "Vertebrate fauna at the Allosaurus fossil-site of Andrés (Upper Jurassic), Pombal, Portugal". Journal of Iberian Geology. 36 (2): 193–204. doi:10.5209/JIGE.33856 (inactive 2018-09-11).
  9. ^ a b Allosauruseuropaeus. archosaur.us
  10. ^ a b c d Mateus, O. and Antunes M. T. (2000). Ceratosaurus sp. (Dinosauria: Theropoda) in the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Abstract volume of the 31st International Geological Congress. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  11. ^ Malafaia, Elisabete; Ortega, Francisco; Escaso, Fernando; Silva, Bruno (2015-10-03). "New evidence of Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal". Historical Biology. 27 (7): 938–946. doi:10.1080/08912963.2014.915820.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Mateus, O., Mannion P. D., & Upchurch P. (2014). "Zby atlanticus, a new turiasaurian sauropod (Dinosauria, Eusauropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34 (3): 618–634. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.822875.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Lourinhanosaurusantunesi. archosaur.us
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Hendrickx, Christophe; Mateus, Octávio (2014). "Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp., the Largest Terrestrial Predator from Europe, and a Proposed Terminology of the Maxilla Anatomy in Nonavian Theropods". PLoS ONE. 9 (3): e88905. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...988905H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088905. PMC 3943790. PMID 24598585.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Torvosaurusgurneyi. archosaur.us
  16. ^ a b c d Bonaparte, J.; Mateus, O. (1999). "A New Diplodocid, Dinheirosaurus lourinhanensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Jurassic Beds of Portugal" (PDF). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 5 (2): 13–29. ISSN 0524-9511. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-28.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Mannion, P.D.; Upchurch, Paul; Mateus, O.; Barnes, R.N.; Jones, M.E.H. (2012). "New information on the anatomy and systematic position of Dinheirosaurus lourinhanensis (Sauropoda: Diplodocoidea) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal, with a review of European diplodocoids" (PDF). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10 (3): 521–551. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.595432.
  18. ^ a b c Mocho, Pedro; Royo-Torres, Rafael; Ortega, Francisco (2014-04-01). "Phylogenetic reassessment of Lourinhasaurus alenquerensis, a basal Macronaria (Sauropoda) from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 170 (4): 875–916. doi:10.1111/zoj.12113.
  19. ^ a b c d Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul; Barnes, Rosie N.; Mateus, Octávio (2013). "Osteology of the Late Jurassic Portuguese sauropod dinosaur Lusotitan atalaiensis (Macronaria) and the evolutionary history of basal titanosauriforms" (PDF). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 168: 98–206. doi:10.1111/zoj.12029.
  20. ^ a b Mocho, P.; Royo-Torres, R.; Ortega, F. (2016-11-03). "New data of the Portuguese brachiosaurid Lusotitan atalaiensis (Sobral Formation, Upper Jurassic)". Historical Biology. 0 (6): 1–29. doi:10.1080/08912963.2016.1247447. ISSN 0891-2963.
  21. ^ a b c d e Tschopp, E.; Mateus, O. V.; Benson, R. B. J. (2015). "A specimen-level phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of Diplodocidae (Dinosauria, Sauropoda)". PeerJ. 3: e857. doi:10.7717/peerj.857. PMC 4393826. PMID 25870766.open access publication – free to read
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Mateus, O., Maidment S., & Christiansen N. (2009). "A new long-necked 'sauropod-mimic' stegosaur and the evolution of the plated dinosaurs". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1663): 1815–21. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1909. PMC 2674496. PMID 19324778.
  23. ^ a b c d Mateus, O., Milàn J., Romano M., & Whyte M. A. (2011). "New finds of stegosaur tracks from the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 56 (3): 651–658. doi:10.4202/app.2009.0055.
  24. ^ a b c d e Mateus, O., & Milan J. (2008). "Ichnological evidence for giant ornithopod dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal". Oryctos. 8: 47–52.
  25. ^ Escaso, Fernando; Ortega, Francisco; Dantas, Pedro; Malafaia, Elisabete; Pimentel, Nuno L.; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Sanz, José Luis; Kullberg, José Carlos; Kullberg, María Carla (2006-12-23). "New evidence of shared dinosaur across Upper Jurassic Proto-North Atlantic: Stegosaurus from Portugal". Naturwissenschaften. 94 (5): 367–374. Bibcode:2007NW.....94..367E. doi:10.1007/s00114-006-0209-8. PMID 17187254.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h Mateus, O., & Antunes T. M. (2001). "Draconyx loureiroi, a new camptosauridae (Dinosauria, Ornithopoda) from the Late Jurassic of Lourinhã, Portugal". Annales de Paleontologie. 87: 61–73. doi:10.1016/s0753-3969(01)88003-4.
  27. ^ a b c Escaso, Fernando; Ortega, Francisco; Dantas, Pedro; Malafaia, Elisabete; Silva, Bruno; Gasulla, José M.; Mocho, Pedro; Narváez, Iván; Sanz, JosÉ L. (2014-07-29). "A new dryosaurid ornithopod (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34 (5): 1102–1112. doi:10.1080/02724634.2014.849715.

Other references[edit]

  • Antunes, M.T. and Mateus, O. (2003). Dinosaurs of Portugal. C. R. Palevol, 2:77–95
  • Mateus, O. (2006). "Late Jurassic dinosaurs from the Morrison Formation, the Lourinhã and Alcobaça Formations (Portugal), and the Tendaguru Beds (Tanzania): a comparison," in Foster, J.R. and Lucas, S. G. R.M., eds., 2006, "Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation." New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 36
  • Mateus, O (2007). "Notes and review of the ornithischian dinosaurs of Portugal". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27: 1–182. doi:10.1080/02724634.2007.10010458.

External links[edit]