|Past country (1510-1961)||Portugal|
|• Total||17.81 km2 (6.88 sq mi)|
|Elevation||32 m (105 ft)|
|Population (2011)census of India|
|• Density||340/km2 (890/sq mi)|
|• Also spoken||Portuguese, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Loutolim / Loutulim (Konkani: Lottli, pronounced [lɔːʈlĩː]) is a small village located in Salcette (South Goa) in the state of Goa, India. It is primarily a residential area with limited commercial or industrial activity. In addition to its distinct importance in Portuguese times, the village is also popular due to its location 10 km from the commercial and historic city of Margão. Architecturally it holds some impressive Portuguese-era mansions, many of which still stand the test of time. The main activities revolve around the elegantly proportioned church square (Praça da igreja) which is graced by the majestic 16th century Savior of the world church (Igreja do Salvador do mundo).
The village held significant importance to Portugal and has hosted several Portuguese viceroys who would reside at influential local residences. Most of the area still consists of lush green forests, dense and diverse vegetation and open paddies (fields or Campos) surrounded with lines of strategically placed coconut trees, characteristics which help the laid-back village retain its old world charm. This village perfectly signifies the popular Goan expression 'Susegad' or 'Sussegado', a term that relates somewhat to how Goans live a relaxed way of life taking in one day at a time.
International and domestic tourists often visit the village for its majestic church, imposing mansions, aromatic spice plantations and exotic heritage, one of the most frequented areas being the 'Ancestral Goa museum'. Loutulim does not have much by way of accommodations or activities and is hence best summed up as an experience of a non-touristy Goa, one that the local Loutlicars prefer.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics and Culture
- 4 Education, Religious and Welfare institutions
- 5 Churches and chapels
- 6 Temples
- 7 Prominent people
- 8 Attractions
- 9 References
- 10 External links
- 11 See also
Legend has it that Brahmins founded the settlement of Loutolim when they came to Goa from northern India. The word Loutolim arising from Lovótollem, is coined from a combination of the words Tollem (pond in Konkani) and a grass, Lovó, found growing in plenty around the pond.
Goa was one of the major trade centers in Asia and has thus been attracting influential dynasties, seafarers, merchants, traders, monks and missionaries since its earliest known history. Since the Portuguese territory of Goa existed for over 450 years, the social and cultural make-up of Goa is an interesting amalgamation of eastern and western cultures (specifically Portuguese), with the latter being a more visible characteristic. Loutolim along with the rest of Goa (under Portuguese administration) was part of the province of Portuguese-Goa from 1510 until its annexation in 1961 (It was still under dispute and represented in the Parliament of Portugal until 1974/75). Throughout its history Goa has undergone continual transformation in turn leaving an indelible impression on various aspects of its cultural and socio-economic development.
A small sundial located beside the church in front of the Parochial residence still stands as a testament to time, notably pointing to the status the area held. It is of historic value and has been placed there during the Portuguese-era. The entire structure is made of stone, often said to be of a monolithic piece. It is still a widely spoken about artifact and serves as a basis to start conversations based on science or culture. As with most Goan villages a semi-covered gathering area (Portaria) is also present at this point. The church square also has a statue of 'Salvador' or 'Savior' (Jesus) and a grotto of Mary, mother of Jesus.
In Loutolim, the pioneering work in education was conducted by two Catholic priests. Two well-known colleges with boarding arrangements were opened by Fr. Fillipe Miguel de Quadros and Fr. Evaristo de Figueiredo. Both colleges attracted students from different parts of Goa and even from far off Macão. Priesthood had always had tremendous influence on the Goan way of life and even to date a priest's opinion and counsel is taken by families for both, religious and non-religious activities. This renders the Roman Catholic church in Goa as a powerful body in its social and cultural causes in turn making it it a positive contributor to the fabric of its society.
Loutulim has an average elevation of 32 meters (105 feet). It is somewhat a triangular shaped village and lies between the villages of Verna, Quelossim, Camurlim and Borim. The River Zuari passes besides the village.
The main village market is located behind the church whereas public institutions such as the bank and post office are located within the church square (in front of the church). The church cemetery is located across the square, its main gate placed in line with the main entrance of the church. Other relevant buildings in the church square include the church community hall, church-run school, communidade building and village panchayat (local level governing body established by India) building. Most of the buildings located at the square hold some historic value. General stores, pharmacies, a hardware store and a cafeteria are located behind the church along the main road that leads to Raia and Rachol.
Demographics and Culture
The 'Saxtti' dialect of Konkani, belonging to the Indo-European family of languages is the local language and is widely spoken. It is primarily written in the Latin script in Loutulim, as with the entire scripture of the Catholic church in Goa. Portuguese is spoken by the elite and older generations including those with Portuguese ancestry. English is spoken by all and is compulsorily taught in schools.
Most Salcette towns in Goa (part of the Velhas conquistas) have Catholicism as their predominantly followed religion. The culture of Goans is specifically connected with their religious upbringing. Most festivals and feasts revolve around the church and its activities. A notable Hindu community also exists. As in other parts of Goa, both Hindus and Catholics live together in peace and harmony, mingling with each other during their religious festivals and everyday life. The religious activities of the Catholics are centered around the Savior of the World church (Igreja do Salvador do Mundo) while those of the Hindus are centered around the Sri Ramnath temple.
Culture and food
Weddings are an elaborate affair and a typical Goan-Catholic wedding is a white wedding. After a church wedding, the celebrations shift to a reception at which the newly married couple, as the guests of honor, and the hosts and perhaps members of the wedding party lead the attendees in a bridal march. Typically a wedding cake is cut after this and the first dance is held by the bride and groom followed by the guest. Goan wedding celebrations always include dinner and wedding dances. Wedding cakes are often multi-tiered layer cakes that are elaborately decorated with white icing. Cutting the wedding cake is often turned into a grand ritual all complete with the popping of champagne and drop of conffetti from a suspended sculptured centerpiece. After the cake is cut, a number of short speeches and a toast may be given in honor of the couple.
Lotlicars (or Lotlikars), or people from Loutulim, love fish and seafood. The cuisine is influenced by Hindu Gaud Saraswat Brahmin origins and four hundred years of Portuguese culture as well as a recent blend of modern techniques. The locals enjoy rice with fish curry (xitt kodi in Konkani), which is the staple diet in Goa. Coconut is widely used in cooking along with chili peppers, spices and vinegar, giving the food a unique flavor. Various seafood delicacies include kingfish (visvonn, the most common delicacy), pomfret, shark, tuna and mackerel. Among the shellfish are crabs, prawns, tiger prawns, lobster, squid and mussels. Pork dishes such as vindalho, chouriço and sorpotel are widely eaten. Beef dishes and chicken xacuti are cooked for major occasions among the Catholics. A rich egg-based, multi-layered sweet dish known as bebinca is a favourite at Christmas. Rissóis de camarão, beef croquettes, fried mussels and semolina prawns are favourite starters. Most dishes are either of Portuguese-origin or a fusion resulting from the varied cultures that once shaped Portugal (maritime empire) and Goa (prominent trading post).
The most popular alcoholic beverage of Goa, feni is widely served at occasions here. It could be made from the fermentation of the fruit of the cashew tree or from the sap of toddy palms. People also consume other liquor and wine is extremely popular (especially on feast days).
Education, Religious and Welfare institutions
The educational needs of the village youth are provided for by the three schools in the village, namely :-
- Savior of the World High School, Loutulim (church-run)
- Government Middle School, Loutulim
- Government Primary School , Rassaim, Loutulim
Religious and Welfare institutions
Shanti Avedna Ashram
The Shanti Avedna Ashram is run by the Holy Cross sisters who take a lot of pains to attend to the terminally ill cancer patients from all over Goa.
The Albergue or the Home for the Aged
The Provedoria (Institute of Public Assistance) manages the Albergue. A lot of people from all parts of Goa are cared for in this old age home. Porvedoria was establsihed in 1510 as a welfare institution by Afonso de Albuquerque on the lines of a similar one in Portugal.
Pilar sisters convent
The Pilar sisters have their headquarters based in Loutulim. They also organize some vocational courses like cooking , tailoring ,etc for the village girls.
Ursuline sisters convent
The Ursuline sisters run the St Francis Xavier Convent in Loutolim. Some of the nuns also teach in the Saviour of the World High school besides providing a helping hand in the day to day church activities.
Churches and chapels
The Jesuits undertook the task of Christianization of Salsette in 1567 A.D. Most of those who chose to remain behind had to become Christians (specifically Roman Catholics, as with mainland Portugal).
The Savior of the World (Salvador do Mundo) church was built by the Jesuits in 1586 to look after the spiritual needs of the community. This church along with its square forms the center for the village. Most daily life revolves around this edifice as all essential commodities are in its vicinity.
The church also has six affiliated chapels (copels/capelas). These are spread across the 5 wards (vaddos) of Loutulim. They are listed as follows;
- Mae De Deus chapel, Devotte
- The chapel of Our lady of Miracles, Vanxem
- The chapel of St. Sebastian, Monte
- The chapel of St. Joseph, Rassaim
- The chapel of Our lady of Rosary, Carvota
- The chapel of St. Sebastian and St. Benedict, Orgao
Adjoining the main church ,there is a Portaria which traditionally was the meeting place of the villagers after Sunday mass. Here they would talk, discuss, and part. One can take it as a habit rooted in the ancient past, a legacy of the over 450 year Portuguese-era. Very close to the Portaria is the sundial standing on a circular pedestal which provides for sitting. Here the village elders would spend the evening exchanging views and opinions on various topics of interest. It was for them a well spent evening.
Over time the use of these types of spaces is constantly changing not just in Loutulim, but in most parts of Goa. In more urban areas these are now unused spaces except for the occasional curious passerby or the Sunday mass (missa) who stop by to converse. Although they still stand in their original forms, their use as social spaces has evolved. Many locals still feel rooted to their cultural identities and this notion helps fuel the need to maintain and relive these historic spaces.
The captain of Fort Rachol, Dom Diogo Rodrigues ordered the burning and destruction of all the temples in the village. Many gaunkars who wanted to preserve their culture and religion (Hinduism) fled to safer grounds across the Zuari river during the 15th century (along with their idols). Unlike villages and towns in Salcette and Bardez (part of the Velhas conquistas), where churches were built over the demolished temples, the plot of land where the old Ramnathi temple stood remained vacant due to some opposition among the locals. The idol was removed from the original temple at Loutulim and smuggled away to its present day abode of Bandora (Bandivade) in order to avoid persecution at the time by the Portuguese regime. The area was then under the control of Bijapur, although it became part of Portuguese-Goa at a later stage in the 18th century (Novas conquistas).
- Filipe Neri Xavier, a multifaceted personality: historian, scholar-administrator and writer of noted work on Code of Comunidades -- O Bosquejo Historico das Comunidades.
- Torcato Figueiredo, a legend in mando (Portuguese-Goan music-dance form).
- Mario Miranda, cartoonist of national and international repute in. Exhibitions in over 22 countries including the United States, Japan, Brazil, Australia, Singapore, France, Yugoslavia, and Portugal. Padma shri winner. National and International honors.
- Oscar de Sequeira Nazareth of famed liqueur 'Armada'.
- Emiliano Da Cruz, musician.
- Dr. Isidoro Emilio Batista; doctorate in Medicine, Paris. Professor, mathematician and author.
- Dr. Antonio Salvador De Miranda; physician,journalist.
- Dr. Antonio F. De Noronha; first Goan Chief Justice of Goa.
- Dr. Adeodata Barreto; Professor, writer and poet; started a paper 'India Nova'. Died young in 1937.
- Jose Antonio Ismael Gracias; high govt. official and writer; acted as secretary to two Portuguese Governors and was Professor of Economics at the Lyceum.
- Dr. Isidoro Emilio Batista; doctorate in Medicine, Paris. Professor, mathematician and author.
- Dr. Constancio Floriano Faria; Professor of Theology at Coimbra University. Superior of the college of Foreign missions.
- Maestro Antonio Figueiredo; graduated from the National Conservatory of music, Portugal; Diploma from Italian Academy and of the Conservatory of Paris; Professor at Lyceum.
- Dr. Joao Manuel Pacheco De Figueiredo; physician, Director of Medical School.
- Dr. Bernardino Gracias; well-versed in oriental languages, translated Kalidasa's works into Portuguese. Member of the Academy of Sciences, Portugal.
- Dr. Paulo Miranda; pharmaceutical researcher, North Carolina, U.S.A.
- Bonifacio Miranda; Professor of English, diplomat, represented Portugal at the United Nations.
- Dr. Jose Antonio Ismael Gracias; Judge, last Chief Justice of Goa.
- Dr. Jose Maria De Quadros E Costa; graduated from the Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Rector, Open University, Lisbon.
- Dr. Renato Sebastiao Gracias; distinguished physician, Poona, Papal Knight, great promoter of Goan culture.
- Dr Hipolito Antonio Mascarenhas; researcher in soya beans; an authority on the subject in North and South America and Japan.
- Ancestral Goa: A museum dedicated to cataloging the lifestyle of people as it existed in the days of yore. It is essentially a history book of life-sized proportions displaying the various facets of life as it existed back then. Ancestral Goa preserves these dying quirks of Goan life as it was for the reference of the visitor. Also called BIG FOOT, post the discovery of a foot print on a rock, where visitors pray for blessings, Ancestral Goa is furthermore an ecological center, with its wide parkland atmosphere, it is home to many species of indigenous birds and reptiles. It also has a cross museum that depicts over 200 crosses collected from houses across Goa and from international locations, specifically few countries of Europe.
- Casa Araujo Alvares: A large traditional Portuguese colonial house which had been the home of a wealthy Portuguese family for several generations. This 250 year-old mansion is a mélange of majesty, simplicity and history. From its curving stairway, the wide and elevated entrance, to its imposing doorway topped by the family emblem, this house stands testimony to an ocean of change, over the years. Built around an inner courtyard, typical of many of the colonial homes. Huge windows, paned with crystalline glass front the house leading to the imposing rooms that include the grand hall, the official area and the master-bedroom and adjoining nursery.
- Mario Miranda house: An over 300 year old restored mansion. It has an impressive collection of furniture, porcelain, Chinese silk embroidered garments, various costumes and dresses, and 20th century dinner sets from Portugal, 17th century China.
- Figueiredo Mansion: Its collection includes wooden furniture, porcelain articles (Japan, China, Persia and England) and dinner sets from Portugal depicting the Portuguese coat of arms. ‘French style armchairs’ and ‘English style sofas’ all carved out of wood with nylon matted surfaces can also be seen here. This family home has been made open to the public as a museum in collaboration with the Xavier Centre of Historical Research, Goa. The house was built in two phases – the older part was built 407 years ago and the left wing over two centuries later making it one of the larger mansions in Goa and the largest in Loutulim. This along with its private in-house chapel makes it an interesting visit.
Laterite Sculpture of Mirabai-Bigfoot located at the Ancestral Goa museum (Casa Araujo Alvares)
- "A messy affair — Loutolim". TimesOfIndia.com. The Times of India. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
- "Provedoria opens doors to homeless - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
- Lourenço, José (2005). The Parish churches of Goa. Amazing Goa publications.
- "LOUTOLIM - Compiled by Armstrong Monteiro". www.oocities.org. Retrieved 2016-11-05.
- "Goa Art Galllery - Mario Miranda". goaartgallery.com. Retrieved 2016-11-05.
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