Love of God
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Love by God for human beings (philanthropia) is lauded in Lamentations 3:22: "The steadfast love of God endures all the day"; Psalm 52:8: "I trust in the steadfast love of God forever and ever"; Romans 8:39: "Nor height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God"; 2 Corinthians 13:14: "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all"; 1 John 4:9: "In this the love of God was made manifest among us, that God sent his only Son into the world, so that we might live through him"; etc.
The Greek term theophilia means the love or favour of God, and theophilos means friend of God, originally in the sense of being loved by God or loved by the gods; but is today sometimes understood in the sense of showing love for God.
The Greek term agape is applied both to the love that human beings have for God and to the love that God has for man.
The teachings of the Bahá'í Faith hold that the love of God (philanthropia) is the primary reason for human creation, and one of the primary purposes of life. The love of God purifies human hearts and through it humans become transformed and self-sacrificing, as they reflect more the attributes and qualities of God. `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion wrote: "There is nothing greater or more blessed than the Love of God! It gives healing to the sick, balm to the wounded, joy and consolation to the whole world, and through it alone can man attain Life Everlasting. The essence of all religions is the Love of God, and it is the foundation of all the sacred teachings."
The Old Testament uses a rich vocabulary to express the love of God, as a concept that appears in many instances. The Lord expresses his love through the Old Testament prophet Jeremiah and says, "I have loved you with an everlasting love; I have drawn you with loving kindness" (Jeremiah 31:3). However, the exegesis of the love of God in the Old Testament has presented problems for modern scholars. The love of God appears in a number of texts (e.g. Hosea 1-3, and then in Ezek 16 and Isa 62) but resolving the references to produce a consistent interpretation has been challenging and subject to debate.
Both the terms love of God and love of Christ appear in the New Testament. In cases such as in Romans 8:35 and Romans 8:39 their use is related in the experience of the believer, without asserting their equality. In John 14:31 Jesus expresses his love for God the Father. This verse includes the only direct statement by Jesus in the New Testament about Jesus' love for God the Father.
The Greek "philotheos" and "theophilos"
In Greek philotheos means "loving God, pious", as philosophos means a lover of wisdom (sophia). 2 Timothy 3:4, using the word philotheos in the plural form, speaks of certain people as φιλήδονοι μᾶλλον ἢ φιλόθεοι (lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God). The word Theophilos was and is used as a proper name, but does not appear as an adjective or common noun in Greek, which uses instead the form theophilês, which means "dear to God" but also "loving God".
However, Eric Voegelin used theophilos to mean "lover of God": "In the Phaedrus, Plato has Socrates describe the characteristics of the true thinker. When Phaedrus asks what one should call such a man, Socrates, following Heraclitus, replies that the term sophos, one who knows, would be excessive: this attribute may be applied to God alone: but one might well call him philosophos, a lover of wisdom. Thus in the classic sense and reference of 'philosophy', actual knowledge is reserved to God; finite man can only be the lover of knowledge, not himself the one who possesses knowledge. In the meaning of the passage, the lover of the knowledge that belongs only to the knowing God, the philosophos, becomes the theophilos, the lover of God."
In Hinduism, in contrast to kāma, which is selfish, or pleasurable love, prema – or prem – refers to elevated love. Karuna is compassion and mercy, which impels one to help reduce the suffering of others. Bhakti is a Sanskrit term, meaning "loving devotion to the supreme God". A person who practices bhakti is called a bhakta. Hindu writers, theologians, and philosophers have distinguished nine forms of bhakti, which can be found in the Bhagavata Purana and works by Tulsidas. The philosophical work Narada Bhakti Sutras, written by an unknown author (presumed to be Narada), distinguishes eleven forms of love.
Devotees of Krishna worship him in different emotional, transcendental raptures, known as rasas. Two major systems of Krishna worship developed, each with its own philosophical system. These two systems are aishwaryamaya bhakti and madhuryamaya bhakti. Aishwaryamaya bhakti is revealed in the abode of queens and kingdom of Krishna in Dwaraka. Madhuryamaya Bhakti is revealed in the abode of Braja. Thus Krishna is variously worshipped according to the development of devotee's taste in worshipping the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krishna, as father, friend, master, beloved and many different varieties which are all extraordinary. Krishna is famous as Makhanchor, or butter thief. He loved to eat butter and is the beloved of his little village in Gokul. These are all transcendental descriptions. Thus they are revealed to the sincere devotees in proportion to the development in their love of Godhead. Vaishnavism is a form of monotheism, sometimes described as 'polymorphic monotheism', with implication that there are many forms of one original deity, defined as belief in a single unitary deity who takes many forms. In Krishnaism this deity is Krishna, sometimes referred as intimate deity – as compared with the numerous four-armed forms of Narayana or Vishnu. It may refer to either of the interrelated concepts of the love of God towards creation, the love of creatures towards God or relationship between the two as in bhakti.
The love of God, and the fear of God, are two of the foundations of Islam. The highest spiritual attainment in Islam is related to the love of God. "Yet there are men who take (for worship) others besides God, as equal (with God): They love them as they should love God. But those of Faith are overflowing in their love for God." (Quran 2:165)
Islam, as Christianity, has numerous mystics and traditions about the love of God, as in:
- "O lovers! The religion of the love of God is not found in Islam alone.
- In the realm of love, there is neither belief, nor unbelief." (Rumi)
The concept of Divine Love, known as Ishq-e-Haqeeqi (Arabic), is elaborated by many great Muslim saints to date. Some Sufi writers and poets may have taken human love as a metaphor to define Divine Love but the prominent mystics explain the concept in its entirety and reveal its hardcore reality. Rabia Basri, the famous 7th century mystic, is known as the first female to have set the doctrine of Divine Love. In Islamic Sufism, Ishq means to love God selflessly and unconditionally. For Rumi, 'Sufism' itself is Ishq and not the path of asceticism (zuhd). According to Sultan Bahoo, Ishq means to serve God by devoting one's entire life to Him and asking no reward in return.
- Christian mysticism
- Divine filiation
- Fear of God (religion)
- Ignatian spirituality
- Love (religious views)
- Mystical theology
- The Seven Valleys
- Unio Mystica
- Liddell and Scott: φιλοθεΐα
- Liddell and Scott: θεοφιλία
- Liddell and Scott: θεόφιλος (refers the reader to θεοφίλητος
- Liddell and Scott: θεοφίλητος
- The Baby Name Bible: The Ultimate Guide
- ἀγάπη, Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
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- Theology of the Old Testament, Volume One by Walther Eichrodt 1961 ISBN 0-664-22308-7 pages 250-251
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- Theologies in the Old Testament by Erhard Gerstenberger 2007 ISBN 0-567-08812-X page 87
- The Epistle to the Romans by Douglas J. Moo 1996 ISBN 0-8028-2317-3 page 547
- Preaching the Gospel of John: proclaiming the living Word by Lamar Williamson 2004 ISBN 0-664-22533-0 page 192
- The word does not appear in the great Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon
- Eric Voegelin, Science, Politics, and Gnosticism (ISI Books ISBN 1-932236-48-1), p. 41
- Scheweig, (2004) pp. 13-17
- Rumi's Quatrain no. 768, translated by Gamard & Farhadi. Versions of this quatrain have been made by Shahram Shiva, "Hush: Don't Tell God", p. 17 and by Azima Kolin (based on Mafi), "Rumi: Whispers of the Beloved", p. 71. [`âshiq to yaqîn dân, ke musulmân na-bûd dar maZhab-é `ishq, kufr-o îmân na-bûd]
- Seyed Ghahreman Safavi, Simon Weightman. Rumi's Mystical Design: Reading the Mathnawi Book One. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-438-42796-6.
- Sult̤ān Mohammad Najib-ur-Rehman. Sultan Bahoo: The Life and Teachings. Sultan-ul-Faqr Publications. ISBN 978-9-699-79518-3.
- Nathan,Maungo (1898). Krishna and Krishnaism. S.K. Lahiri & Co.
- Thomas Jay Oord Defining Love: A Philosophical, Scientific, and Theological Engagement Brazos Press, 2010. 1-58743-257-9.
- Thomas Jay Oord The Nature of Love: A Theology Chalice Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8272-0828-5.
- SCHWEIG, G.M. (2005). Dance of divine love: The Rasa Lila of Krishna from the Bhagavata Purana, India's classic sacred love story. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ; Oxford. ISBN 0-691-11446-3.
- HAWLEY, John Stratton: Three Bhakti Voices. Mirabai, Surdas, and Kabir in Their Time and Ours. 2nd impression. Oxford 2006.
- Bahá'u'lláh (1991) [1856-63]. The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-227-9.