Lovelock is located in Pershing County and is the seventh major institution of the Nevada Department of Corrections. It was constructed and opened in two phases. The first phase opened in August 1995 with two 168 cell housing units. Each 80-square-foot (7.4 m2) cell has the capacity to house two inmates. Construction on the second phase saw two 168 cell units and two 84 cell units being made available for the institution to a current capacity of a total 1,680 offenders. Its industrial plant, housed in two 20,000-square-foot (1,900 m2) buildings, makes garments and mattresses.
The facility received wide media coverage in 2008 when former football star O. J. Simpson was sent there after being sentenced to 33 years imprisonment, with a minimum of 9 years before becoming eligible for parole.