Page protected with pending changes

Low-carbohydrate diet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

An example of a low-carbohydrate dish, cooked kale and poached eggs

Low-carbohydrate diets restrict carbohydrate consumption relative to the average diet. Foods high in carbohydrates (e.g., sugar, bread, pasta) are limited, and replaced with foods containing a higher percentage of fat and protein (e.g., meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, cheese, nuts, and seeds), as well as low carbohydrate foods (e.g. spinach, kale, chard, collards, and other fibrous vegetables).

There is a lack of standardization of how much carbohydrate low-carbohydrate diets must have, and this has complicated research.[1] One definition, from the American Academy of Family Physicians, specifies low-carbohydrate diets as having less than 20% of calories from carbohydrates.[2]

There is no good evidence that low-carbohydrate dieting confers any particular health benefits apart from weight loss, where low-carbohydrate diets achieve outcomes similar to other diets, as weight loss is mainly determined by calorie restriction and adherence.[3]

An extreme form of low-carbohydrate diet called the ketogenic diet was first established as a medical diet for treating epilepsy.[4] It became a popular fad diet for weight loss through celebrity endorsement, but there is no evidence of any distinctive benefit for this purpose and the diet carries a risk of adverse effects,[4][5] with the British Dietetic Association naming it one of the "top five worst celeb diets to avoid" in 2018.[4]

Definition and classification[edit]

Macronutrient ratios[edit]

The macronutrient ratios of low-carbohydrate diets are not standardized.[6][7] As of 2018, the conflicting definitions of "low-carbohydrate" diets have complicated research into the subject.[1][8]

The National Lipid Association and Lifestyle Task force define low-carbohydrate diets and those containing less than 25% of calories from carbohydrates, and very low carbohydrate diets being those containing less than 10% carbohydrates.[9] A 2016 review of low-carbohydrate diets classified diets with 50 g of carbohydrate per day (less than 10% of total calories) as "very low" and diets with 40% of calories from carbohydrates as "mild" low-carbohydrate diets.[10] The UK National Health Service recommend that "carbohydrates should be the body's main source of energy in a healthy, balanced diet."[11]

Foodstuffs[edit]

A bundle of curly kale leaves.
Like other leafy vegetables, curly kale is a food that is low in carbohydrates.

There is evidence that the quality, rather than the quantity, of carbohydrate in a diet is important for health, and that high-fiber slow-digesting carbohydrate-rich foods are healthful while highly refined and sugary foods are less so.[12] People choosing diet for health conditions should have their diet tailored to their individual requirements.[13] For people with metabolic conditions, a diet with approximately 40–50% carbohydrate is recommended.[13]

Most vegetables are low- or moderate-carbohydrate foods (in some low-carbohydrate diets, fiber is excluded because it is not a nutritive carbohydrate). Some vegetables, such as potatoes, carrots, maize (corn) and rice are high in starch. Most low-carbohydrate diet plans accommodate vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, kale, lettuce, cucumbers, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, peppers and most green-leafy vegetables.

Adoption and advocacy[edit]

The National Academy of Medicine recommends a daily average of 130 g of carbohydrates per day.[14] The FAO and WHO similarly recommend that the majority of dietary energy come from carbohydrates.[15][16] Low-carbohydrate diets are not an option recommended in the 2015–2020 edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which instead recommends a low-fat diet.

Carbohydrate has been wrongly accused of being a uniquely "fattening" macronutrient, misleading many dieters into compromising the nutritiousness of their diet by eliminating carbohydrate-rich food.[17] Low-carbohydrate diet proponents emphasize research saying that low-carbohydrate diets can initially cause slightly greater weight loss than a balanced diet, but any such advantage does not persist.[17][18] In the long-term successful weight maintenance is determined by calorie intake, and not by macronutrient ratios.[19][18]

The public has become confused by the way in which some diets, such as the Zone diet and the South Beach diet are promoted as "low-carbohydrate" when in fact they would more properly be termed "medium-carbohydrate" diets.[20]

Carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis[edit]

Low-carbohydrate diet advocates including Gary Taubes and David Ludwig have proposed a "carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis" in which carbohydrates are said to be uniquely fattening because they raise insulin levels and cause fat to accumulate unduly.[21][22] The hypothesis appears to run counter to known human biology whereby there is no good evidence of any such association between the actions of insulin, fat accumulation, and obesity.[18] The hypothesis predicted that low-carbohydrate dieting would offer a "metabolic advantage" of increased energy expenditure equivalent to 400–600 kcal(kilocalorie)/day, in accord with the promise of the Atkin's diet: a "high calorie way to stay thin forever".[21]

With funding from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, in 2012, Taubes co-founded the Nutrition Science Initiative (NuSI), with the aim of raising over $200 million to undertake a "Manhattan Project For Nutrition" and validate the hypothesis.[23][24] Intermediate results, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition did not provide convincing evidence of any advantage to a low-carbohydrate diet as compared to diets of other composition. This study revealed a marginal (∼100 kcal/d) but statistically significant effect of the ketogenic diet to increase 24-hour energy expenditure measured in a respiratory chamber, but the effect waned over time. Ultimately a very low-calorie, ketogenic diet (of 5% carbohydrate) "was not associated with significant loss of fat mass" compared to a non-specialized diet with the same calories; there was no useful "metabolic advantage".[18][21] In 2017, Kevin Hall, a National Institutes of Health researcher hired to assist with the project, wrote that the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis had been falsified by experiment.[22][21] Hall wrote "the rise in obesity prevalence may be primarily due to increased consumption of refined carbohydrates, but the mechanisms are likely to be quite different from those proposed by the carbohydrate–insulin model."[21]

Health aspects[edit]

Adherence[edit]

It has been repeatedly found that in the long-term, all diets with the same calorific value perform the same for weight loss, except for the one differentiating factor of how well people can faithfully follow the dietary programme.[20] A study comparing groups taking low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets found at six months the low-carbohydrate diet still had most people adhering to it, but thereafter the situation reversed: at two years the low-carbohydrate group had the highest incidence of lapses and dropouts.[20] This may be due to the comparatively limited food choice of low-carbohydrate diets.[20]

Body weight[edit]

In the short and medium term, people taking a low-carbohydrate diet can experience more weight loss than people taking a low-fat diet.[25] Such people have very slightly more weight loss initially, equivalent to approximately 100kcal/day, but that the advantage diminishes over time and is ultimately insignificant.[18]

A Cochrane review from 2022 looked into longer periods of two years and found no benefit for adhering to a low-carbohydrate diet in comparison to balanced diets.[26]

The Endocrine Society stated that "when calorie intake is held constant ... body-fat accumulation does not appear to be affected by even very pronounced changes in the amount of fat vs. carbohydrate in the diet."[18]

Much of the research comparing low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate dieting has been of poor quality and studies which reported large effects have garnered disproportionate attention in comparison to those which are methodologically sound.[27] A 2018 review said "higher-quality meta-analyses reported little or no difference in weight loss between the two diets."[27] Low-quality meta-analyses have tended to report favourably on the effect of low-carbohydrate diets: a systematic review reported that 8 out of 10 meta-analyses assessed whether weight loss outcomes could have been affected by publication bias, and 7 of them concluded positively.[27] A 2017 review concluded that a variety of diets, including low-carbohydrate diets, achieve similar weight loss outcomes, which are mainly determined by calorie restriction and adherence rather than the type of diet.[3]

Cardiovascular health[edit]

Eating a low-carbohydrate diet for less than two years was found to not worsen markers for cardiovascular health.[26][28][29] However, following a low-carb diet for many years is associated with dying from heart disease.[30]

The American College of Cardiology recommends a clinician-patient discussion for people who want to go on a very low-carbohydrate diet. People on the diet should be informed that it may worsen LDL-C levels and cardiovascular health in the long-term. Those with atherosclerosis should be counseled to avoid low-carbohydrate diets.[31]

Diabetes[edit]

There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets for people with type 1 diabetes.[1] For certain individuals, it may be feasible to follow a low-carbohydrate regime combined with carefully managed insulin dosing. This can be hard to maintain and there are concerns about potential adverse health effects caused by the diet.[1] In general, people with type 1 diabetes are advised to follow an individualized eating plan.[1]

The proportion of carbohydrate in a diet is not linked to the risk of type 2 diabetes, although there is some evidence that diets containing certain high-carbohydrate items – such as sugar-sweetened drinks or white rice – are associated with an increased risk.[32] Some evidence indicates that consuming fewer carbohydrate foods may reduce biomarkers of type 2 diabetes.[33][34]

A 2019 consensus report on nutrition therapy for adults with diabetes and prediabetes the American Diabetes Association (ADA) states "Reducing overall carbohydrate intake for individuals with diabetes has demonstrated the most evidence for improving glycemia (blood sugar) and may be applied in a variety of eating patterns that meet individual needs and preferences." However, another source states that there is no good evidence that low-carbohydrate diets are better than a conventional healthy diet in which carbohydrates typically account for more than 40% of calories consumed.[35] Low-carbohydrate dieting has no effect on the kidney function of people who have type 2 diabetes.[36]

Limiting carbohydrate consumption generally results in improved glucose control, although without long-term weight loss.[33] Low-carbohydrate diets can be useful to help people with type 2 diabetes lose weight, but "no single approach has been proven to be consistently superior."[37] According to the ADA, people with diabetes should be "developing healthy eating patterns rather than focusing on individual macronutrients, micronutrients, or single foods." They recommended that the carbohydrates in a diet should come from "vegetables, legumes, fruits, dairy (milk and yogurt), and whole grains", while highly refined foods and sugary drinks should be avoided.[37] The ADA also wrote that "reducing overall carbohydrate intake for individuals with diabetes has demonstrated the most evidence for improving glycemia and may be applied in a variety of eating patterns that meet individual needs and preferences." For individuals with type 2 diabetes who can't meet the glycemic targets or where reducing anti-glycemic medications is a priority, the ADA says that low or very-low carbohydrate diets are a viable approach.[38]

Exercise and fatigue[edit]

A low-carbohydrate diet has been found to reduce endurance capacity for intense exercise efforts,[39][40] and depleted muscle glycogen following such efforts is only slowly replenished if a low-carbohydrate diet is taken. Inadequate carbohydrate intake during athletic training causes metabolic acidosis, which may be responsible for the impaired performance which has been observed.[41]

Safety[edit]

A low-carbohydrate diet causes extensive metabolism of fatty acids, which are used by the liver to make ketone bodies, which provide energy to important organs, including the brain, heart, and kidneys, in a condition called ketosis. Ketosis can have other causes such as alcoholism and diabetes. Excessive accumulation of ketone bodies occurs when its production is greater than consumption, leading to ketoacidosis, a potentially life-threatening condition. Rarely, a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet can also give rise to ketoacidosis, especially in patients with comorbid conditions.[42] There are infrequent case reports of ketoacidosis occurring in people who follow low-carbohydrate diets such as the Atkins and South Beach diets.[1] This has led to the suggestion that ketoacidosis should be considered a potential hazard of low-carbohydrate dieting.[27]

High and low-carbohydrate diets that are rich in animal-derived proteins and fats may be associated with increased mortality. Conversely, with plant-derived proteins and fats, there may be a decrease of mortality.[43] A 2021 study from Japan looked at the long-term aspects of low-carb eating. The study included 90,171 participants with a median 17 years of follow-up. The study found that a high adherence to low-carb eating was associated with increased overall cancer risk. Looking at the diet composition the authors found that eating more animals foods was associated with an increased cancer risk while plant fat consumption was not.[44]

As of 2018, research has paid insufficient attention to the potential adverse effects of carbohydrate restricted dieting, particularly for micronutrient sufficiency, bone health and cancer risk.[27] One low-quality meta-analysis reported that adverse effects could include "constipation, headache, halitosis, muscle cramps and general weakness".[27]

In a comprehensive systematic review of 2018, Churuangsuk and colleagues reported that other case reports give rise to concerns of other potential risks of low-carbohydrate dieting including hyperosmolar coma, Wernicke's encephalopathy, optic neuropathy from thiamine deficiency, acute coronary syndrome and anxiety disorder.[27]

Significantly restricting the proportion of carbohydrate in diet risks causing malnutrition, and can make it difficult to get enough dietary fiber to stay healthy.[11]

As of 2014, it appeared that with respect to the risk of death for people with cardiovascular disease, the kind of carbohydrates consumed are important; diets relatively higher in fiber and whole grains lead to reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to diets high in refined grains.[45]

History[edit]

Brown and wholegrain loaves of bread.
A low-carbohydrate diet restricts the amount of carbohydrate-rich foods – such as bread – in the diet.

First descriptions[edit]

In 1797, John Rollo reported on the results of treating two diabetic Army officers with a low-carbohydrate diet and medications. A very low-carbohydrate diet was the standard treatment for diabetes throughout the nineteenth century.[46][47]

In 1863, William Banting, a formerly obese English undertaker and coffin maker, published "Letter on Corpulence Addressed to the Public", in which he described a diet for weight control giving up bread, butter, milk, sugar, beer, and potatoes.[48] His booklet was widely read, so much so that some people used the term "Banting" for the activity now called "dieting".[49]

Physicians who advocated a low-carbohydrate diet consisting of large amounts of animal fat and protein to treat diabetes in the late 1800s include James Lomax Bardsley, Apollinaire Bouchardat and Frederick William Pavy.[50][51]

In the early 1900s Frederick Madison Allen developed a highly restrictive short term regime which was described by Walter R. Steiner at the 1916 annual convention of the Connecticut State Medical Society as The Starvation Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus.[52]: 176–177 [53][54] This diet was often administered in a hospital in order to better ensure compliance and safety.[52]: 179 

Modern low-carbohydrate diets[edit]

Other low-carbohydrate diets in the 1960s included the Air Force diet,[55] "Martinis & Whipped Cream" in 1966,[56] and the Drinking Man's Diet.[57] In 1972, Robert Atkins published Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution, which advocated the low-carbohydrate diet he had successfully used in treating people in the 1960s.[58] The book was a publishing success, but was widely criticized by the mainstream medical community as being dangerous and misleading, thereby limiting its appeal at the time.[59]

The concept of the glycemic index was developed in 1981 by David Jenkins to account for variances in speed of digestion of different types of carbohydrates. This concept classifies foods according to the rapidity of their effect on blood sugar levels – with fast-digesting simple carbohydrates causing a sharper increase and slower-digesting complex carbohydrates, such as whole grains, a slower one.[60] Jenkins's research laid the scientific groundwork for subsequent low-carbohydrate diets.[61]

In 1992, Atkins published an update from his 1972 book, Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution, and other doctors began to publish books based on the same principles.[62] During the late 1990s and early 2000s, low-carbohydrate diets became some of the most popular diets in the US. By some accounts, up to 18% of the population was using one type of low-carbohydrate diet or another at the peak of their popularity.[63] Food manufacturers and restaurant chains noted the trend, as it affected their businesses.[64] Parts of the mainstream medical community have denounced low-carbohydrate diets as being dangerous to health, such as the AHA in 2001[65] and the American Kidney Fund in 2002.[66][failed verification]

Ketogenic diet[edit]

The original ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet developed in the 1920s and used to treat drug-resistant childhood epilepsy.[67][68] Most epilepsy specialists order these children to eat 80% of the diet from fat by weight (90% of calories), plus carbohydrate-free vitamins and minerals to prevent vitamin deficiency.[69] Although this extreme diet plan can be life-saving compared to the alternative, it is not a harmless diet.[70]  Children on this diet are at risk of broken bones, stunted growth, kidney stones, high cholesterol, and micronutrient deficiency.[70][71] It is not known how long a child can maintain this diet without incurring permanent damage to growth and development.[71]

The trendy diet that adopted the same name as the anti-epilepsy diet for children is also a high-fat, low-carb weight-loss diet. The premise of the weight-loss ketogenic diet is that if the body is deprived of glucose obtained from carbohydrate foods, it will produce energy from stored fat.[72] A typical version of this keto diet for adults has about 50% of food by weight coming from fat (70% of calories).[73]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Seckold R, Fisher E, de Bock M, et al. (March 2019). "The ups and downs of low-carbohydrate diets in the management of Type 1 diabetes: a review of clinical outcomes". Diabetic Medicine (Review). 36 (3): 326–334. doi:10.1111/dme.13845. PMID 30362180. S2CID 53102654. Low‐carbohydrate diets are of interest for improving glycaemic outcomes in the management of Type 1 diabetes. There is limited evidence to support their routine use in the management of Type 1 diabetes.
  2. ^ Last AR, Wilson SA (June 2006). "Low-carbohydrate diets". American Family Physician. 73 (11): 1942–1948. PMID 16770923. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
  3. ^ a b Thom G, Lean M (May 2017). "Is There an Optimal Diet for Weight Management and Metabolic Health?" (PDF). Gastroenterology (Review). 152 (7): 1739–1751. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.01.056. PMID 28214525. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  4. ^ a b c "Top 5 worst celeb diets to avoid in 2018". British Dietetic Association. 7 December 2017. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020. The British Dietetic Association (BDA) today revealed its much-anticipated annual list of celebrity diets to avoid in 2018. The line-up this year includes Raw Vegan, Alkaline, Pioppi and Ketogenic diets as well as Katie Price's Nutritional Supplements.
  5. ^ Kossoff EH, Wang HS. Dietary therapies for epilepsy. Biomed J. 2013 Jan-Feb;36(1):2-8. doi:10.4103/2319-4170.107152 PMID 23515147
  6. ^ Westman EC, Feinman RD, Mavropoulos JC, et al. (August 2007). "Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Review). 86 (2): 276–284. doi:10.1093/ajcn/86.2.276. PMID 17684196.
  7. ^ Feinman RD, Pogozelski WK, Astrup A, et al. (January 2015). "Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base". Nutrition (review). 31 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011. PMID 25287761.
  8. ^ Forouhi NG, Misra A, Mohan V, et al. (June 2018). "Dietary and nutritional approaches for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes". BMJ. 361: k2234. doi:10.1136/bmj.k2234. PMC 5998736. PMID 29898883.
  9. ^ Kirkpatrick CF, Bolick JP, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. (2019). "Review of current evidence and clinical recommendations on the effects of low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate (including ketogenic) diets for the management of body weight and other cardiometabolic risk factors: A scientific statement from the National Lipid Association Nutrition and Lifestyle Task Force". Journal of Clinical Lipidology. 13 (5): 689–711.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2019.08.003. PMID 31611148.
  10. ^ Hashimoto Y, Fukuda T, Oyabu C, et al. (June 2016). "Impact of low-carbohydrate diet on body composition: meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies". Obesity Reviews (Review). 17 (6): 499–509. doi:10.1111/obr.12405. PMID 27059106. S2CID 46716650.
  11. ^ a b "Healthy Weight—The truth about carbs". National Health Service. 19 December 2018. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  12. ^ Reynolds A, Mann J, Cummings J, et al. (February 2019). "Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses" (PDF). Lancet (Review). 393 (10170): 434–445. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31809-9. PMID 30638909. S2CID 58632705. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  13. ^ a b Giugliano D, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, Esposito K (September 2018). "More sugar? No, thank you! The elusive nature of low carbohydrate diets". Endocrine (Review). 61 (3): 383–387. doi:10.1007/s12020-018-1580-x. PMID 29556949. S2CID 4032074.
  14. ^ "Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)" (PDF). National Academy of Medicine. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  15. ^ Food and Nutrition Board (2002/2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Page 769 Archived 12 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 0-309-08537-3
  16. ^ Joint WHO/FAO expert consultation (2003). Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (PDF). who.int. Geneva: World Health Organization. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-92-4-120916-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 April 2003.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Schwartz MW, Seeley RJ, Zeltser LM, et al. (August 2017). "Obesity Pathogenesis: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement". Endocrine Reviews (Scientific statement). 38 (4): 267–296. doi:10.1210/er.2017-00111. PMC 5546881. PMID 28898979.
  18. ^ Butryn ML, Clark VL, Coletta MC (2012). "Behavioral approaches to the treatment of obesity". In Akabas SR, Lederman SA, Moore BJ (eds.). Textbook of Obesity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-470-65588-7. Taken together, these findings indicate that calorie intake, not macronutrient composition, determines long-term weight loss maintenance.
  19. ^ a b c d Nonas CA, Dolins KR (2012). Akabas SR, et al. (eds.). Dietary intervention approaches to the treatment of obesity. Textbook of Obesity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 295–309. ISBN 978-0-470-65588-7.
  20. ^ a b c d e Hall KD (March 2017). "A review of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Review). 71 (3): 323–326. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.260. PMID 28074888. S2CID 54484172.
  21. ^ a b Belluz J (20 February 2018). "We've long blamed carbs for making us fat. What if that's wrong?". Vox. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  22. ^ Barclay E (20 September 2012). "Billionaires Fund A 'Manhattan Project' For Nutrition And Obesity". WBUR News. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  23. ^ Waite E (8 August 2018). "The Struggles of a $40 Million Nutrition Science Crusade". Wired. Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  24. ^ Ludwig DS, Willett WC, Volek JS, Neuhouser ML (November 2018). "Dietary fat: From foe to friend?". Science (Review). 362 (6416): 764–770. Bibcode:2018Sci...362..764L. doi:10.1126/science.aau2096. PMID 30442800.
  25. ^ a b Naude CE, Brand A, Schoonees A, et al. (January 2022). "Low-carbohydrate versus balanced-carbohydrate diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Systematic Review). 1 (1): CD013334. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013334.pub2. eISSN 1465-1858. PMC 8795871. PMID 35088407.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g Churuangsuk C, Kherouf M, Combet E, Lean M (December 2018). "Low-carbohydrate diets for overweight and obesity: a systematic review of the systematic reviews" (PDF). Obesity Reviews (Systematic review). 19 (12): 1700–1718. doi:10.1111/obr.12744. PMID 30194696. S2CID 52174104. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  27. ^ Chawla S, Tessarolo Silva F, Amaral Medeiros S, et al. (December 2020). "The Effect of Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate Diets on Weight Loss and Lipid Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Nutrients. 12 (12): E3774. doi:10.3390/nu12123774. PMC 7763365. PMID 33317019.
  28. ^ Dong T, Guo M, Zhang P, et al. (14 January 2020). "The effects of low-carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors: A meta-analysis". PLOS ONE. 15 (1): e0225348. Bibcode:2020PLoSO..1525348D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0225348. PMC 6959586. PMID 31935216.
  29. ^ Mazidi M, Katsiki N, Mikhailidis DP, Sattar N, Banach M (September 2019). "Lower carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study and pooling of prospective studies". European Heart Journal. 40 (34): 2870–2879. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehz174. PMID 31004146.
  30. ^ "Very Low Carbohydrate and Ketogenic Diets and Cardiometabolic Risk". American College of Cardiology. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  31. ^ Public Health England (2015). Carbohydrates and Health (Report). Scientific Advisory Council on Nutrition. pp. 57, 85. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018 – via The Stationery Office. No significant association was found between total carbohydrate intake as g/day and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  32. ^ a b Meng Y, Bai H, Wang S, et al. (September 2017). "Efficacy of low carbohydrate diet for type 2 diabetes mellitus management: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 131: 124–131. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2017.07.006. PMID 28750216.
  33. ^ van Zuuren EJ, Fedorowicz Z, Kuijpers T, Pijl H (August 2018). "Effects of low-carbohydrate- compared with low-fat-diet interventions on metabolic control in people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review including GRADE assessments". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 108 (2): 300–331. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqy096. PMID 30007275.
  34. ^ Brouns F (June 2018). "Overweight and diabetes prevention: is a low-carbohydrate-high-fat diet recommendable?". European Journal of Nutrition (Review). 57 (4): 1301–1312. doi:10.1007/s00394-018-1636-y. PMC 5959976. PMID 29541907.
  35. ^ Suyoto PS (October 2018). "Effect of low-carbohydrate diet on markers of renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis". Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews (Meta-analysis). 34 (7): e3032. doi:10.1002/dmrr.3032. PMID 29904998. S2CID 49215700.
  36. ^ a b Neumiller JJ, Cannon CP, Crandall J, et al. (American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee) (January 2019). "5. Lifestyle Management: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2019". Diabetes Care. 42 (Suppl 1): S46–S60. doi:10.2337/dc19-S005. PMID 30559231. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  37. ^ Evert AB, Dennison M, Gardner CD, et al. (May 2019). "Nutrition Therapy for Adults With Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report". Diabetes Care (Professional society guidelines). 42 (5): 731–754. doi:10.2337/dci19-0014. PMC 7011201. PMID 31000505.
  38. ^ Burke LM, Sharma AP, Heikura IA, Forbes SF, Holloway M, McKay AK, et al. (4 June 2020). "Crisis of confidence averted: Impairment of exercise economy and performance in elite race walkers by ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet is reproducible". PLOS ONE. 15 (6): e0234027. Bibcode:2020PLoSO..1534027B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0234027. PMC 7272074. PMID 32497061.
  39. ^ Burke LM (February 2021). "Ketogenic low-CHO, high-fat diet: the future of elite endurance sport?". The Journal of Physiology. 599 (3): 819–843. doi:10.1113/JP278928. PMC 7891323. PMID 32358802.
  40. ^ Maughan RJ, Greenhaff PL, Leiper JB, Ball D, Lambert CP, Gleeson M (June 1997). "Diet composition and the performance of high-intensity exercise". Journal of Sports Sciences (Review). 15 (3): 265–275. doi:10.1080/026404197367272. PMID 9232552.
  41. ^ Ullah W, Hamid M, Mohammad Ammar Abdullah H, et al. (January 2018). "Another "D" in MUDPILES? A Review of Diet-Associated Nondiabetic Ketoacidosis". Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports. 6: 2324709618796261. doi:10.1177/2324709618796261. PMC 6108016. PMID 30151400.
  42. ^ Seidelmann SB, Claggett B, Cheng S, et al. (September 2018). "Dietary carbohydrate intake and mortality: a prospective cohort study and meta-analysis". The Lancet. Public Health (Meta-analysis). 3 (9): e419–e428. doi:10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30135-X. PMC 6339822. PMID 30122560.
  43. ^ Cai H, Sobue T, Kitamura T, et al. (February 2022). "Low-carbohydrate diet and risk of cancer incidence: The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study". Cancer Science. 113 (2): 744–755. doi:10.1111/cas.15215. PMC 8819285. PMID 34821435.
  44. ^ Hu T, Bazzano LA (April 2014). "The low-carbohydrate diet and cardiovascular risk factors: evidence from epidemiologic studies". Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 24 (4): 337–343. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2013.12.008. PMC 4351995. PMID 24613757.
  45. ^ Morgan W (1877). Diabetes mellitus: its history, chemistry, anatomy, pathology, physiology, and treatment. Homoeopathic Publishing Company.
  46. ^ Einhorn M (1905). Lectures on dietetics. Saunders. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  47. ^ Banting W (1869). Letter On Corpulence, Addressed to the Public (4th ed.). London, England: Harrison. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
  48. ^ Groves B (2002). "William Banting Father of the Low-Carbohydrate Diet". The Weston A. Price Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
  49. ^ Furdell, Elizabeth Lane. (2009). Fatal Thirst: Diabetes in Britain Until Insulin. Brill. p. 125, pp. 138-139. ISBN 978-90-04-17250-0
  50. ^ Jörgens V, Porta M. (2020). Unveiling Diabetes: Historical Milestones in Diabetology. Karger. p. 11. ISBN 978-3-318-06733-0
  51. ^ a b Steiner WR (1916). "The Starvation Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus". Proceedings of the Connecticut State Medical Society: 176–184. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2016. 124th Annual Convention
  52. ^ Allen FM, Fitz R, Stillman E (1919). Total dietary regulation in the treatment of diabetes. New York: The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  53. ^ Another publication of similar regimen was Hill LW, Eckman RS (1915). The Starvation Treatment of Diabetes with a series of graduated diets as used at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Boston: W.M. Leonard.
  54. ^ Air Force Diet. Toronto, Canada: Air Force Diet Publishers. 1960.
  55. ^ Petrie S, Stone RB (1966). Martinis & Whipped Cream. Parker Publishing.
  56. ^ Jameson G, Williams E (2004). The Drinking Man's Diet. San Francisco: Cameron. ISBN 978-0-918684-65-3.
  57. ^ Gordon ES, Goldberg M, Chosy GJ (October 1963). "A New Concept in the Treatment of Obesity". JAMA. 186 (1): 50–60. doi:10.1001/jama.1963.63710010013014. PMID 14046659.
  58. ^ "A critique of low-carbohydrate ketogenic weight reduction regimens. A review of Dr. Atkins' diet revolution". JAMA. 224 (10): 1415–1419. June 1973. doi:10.1001/jama.1973.03220240055018. PMID 4739993.
  59. ^ Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, et al. (March 1981). "Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 34 (3): 362–366. doi:10.1093/ajcn/34.3.362. PMID 6259925.
  60. ^ Beck L (17 July 2018). "Why the man who brought us the glycemic index wants us to go vegan". The Globe And Mail. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  61. ^ "PBS News Hour: Low Carb Craze". Pbs.org. Archived from the original on 9 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  62. ^ Reinberg S. "Americans Look for Health on the Menu: Survey finds nutrition plays increasing role in dining-out choices". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2007.
  63. ^ Schooler L (22 June 2004). "Low-Carb Diets Trim Krispy Kreme's Profit Line". Morning Edition. National Public Radio. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  64. ^ St Jeor ST, Howard BV, Prewitt TE, et al. (October 2001). "Dietary protein and weight reduction: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association". Circulation. 104 (15): 1869–1874. doi:10.1161/hc4001.096152. PMID 11591629. These diets are generally associated with higher intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol because the protein is provided mainly by animal sources. ... Beneficial effects on blood lipids and insulin resistance are due to the weight loss, not to the change in caloric composition. ... High-protein diets may also be associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease due to intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol, and other associated dietary factors.
  65. ^ The American Kidney Fund: American Kidney Fund Warns About Impact of High-Protein Diets on Kidney Health: 25 April 2002
  66. ^ Freeman JM, Kossoff EH, Hartman AL (March 2007). "The ketogenic diet: one decade later". Pediatrics. 119 (3): 535–43. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-2447. PMID 17332207. S2CID 26629499.
  67. ^ Martin-McGill KJ, Bresnahan R, Levy RG, Cooper PN (June 2020). "Ketogenic diets for drug-resistant epilepsy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020 (6): CD001903. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001903.pub5. PMC 7387249. PMID 32588435.
  68. ^ MD, Eric H. Kossoff; LDN, Zahava Turner, RD, CSP; MD, Mackenzie C. Cervenka; LDN, Bobbie J. Barron, RD (28 December 2020). Ketogenic Diet Therapies for Epilepsy and Other Conditions, Seventh Edition. Springer Publishing Company. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8261-4959-6.
  69. ^ a b Jaminet, Paul; Jaminet, Shou-Ching (11 December 2012). Perfect Health Diet: Regain Health and Lose Weight by Eating the Way You Were Meant to Eat. Simon and Schuster. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-4516-9916-6.
  70. ^ a b Swaiman, Kenneth F.; Ashwal, Stephen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Schor, Nina F.; Finkel, Richard S.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Pearl, Phillip L.; Shevell, Michael (21 September 2017). Swaiman's Pediatric Neurology E-Book: Principles and Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-323-37481-1.
  71. ^ "Diet review: Ketogenic diet for weight loss". TH Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University. 2019. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  72. ^ Abrams, Rami; Abrams, Vicky (23 July 2019). Keto Diet For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-119-57892-5.

Further reading[edit]

  • Lowery R, Wilson J (2017). The Ketogenic Bible: The Authoritative Guide to Ketosis (1st ed.). Victory Belt Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62860-104-6.